M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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new their Homage to him, on a day appointed. Hi. I'ro-
teftation hindered not the Legate Irom executing the Pope's
orders. He held a Synod at Brijlol, where lie rc-excom-
municated Lewis with all the cuftomary formalities. He
thereby furnilhed fome of the Barons with a pretence to
refufe the Homage required by Lewis.

Cbriflmafs approaching, both fides agreed upon a Truce -1 Truce SI.
during the Holidays. Lewis made ufe of that opportunity ''"■'"" llf
to hold a General Aflembly at OxJ'ord, whilll the Regent Walt.*/'"
held another, though much lefs numerous, at Cambridge. Cov.
The King's party propoling that the Truce fhould he M ' '■
prolonged, Lewis at firft refufed to agree to it (4). But P ' " v
hearing foon after, that the Pope intended to confirm, in
full Confiilory, the Excommunication denounced by his
Legate, caufed him to confent to prolong the Truce till a
month after Eajler. His delign was to go to Paris, and
confult the King his Father (5).

This Truce was very advantagious to the Earl of Pern- , 2I -
broke. He wifely made ufe of it to reinforce his Army the Truce
with new Levies, and to gain by fecret practices fome of '" r ""»Hen-
the confederate Barons. On the contrary, it was ex- JL 5 ,. *"
tremely prejudicial to Lewis, whofe abfence gave the Ba- M. Pari;,
rons opportunity of taking meafures to free themfelves from p ' 2 9 2-
his Yoke, by returning to the obedience of their lawful
Sovereign (6). Several took that time to treat with the Kiag.
Among whom was IVilliam hlarjhal, eldeft Son of the Ibid.
Earl of Pembroke, who till then had been one of the moll
zealous Partifans of France (7). The Cinque-Ports declared O'nque-
likewife for Henry, and fent out a Fleet to opp ofe Lewis's v " "'"'■
return. But though their Fleet fought the French, and ■*" ' K '" 6 '
dellroyed feveral of their Ships, they could not hinder the
Prince's landing at Sandwich. He was lb exafperated at Lrv.;< bunt
this bold attack, that he burnt the Town where he landed, Sandwich,
as being one of the Cinque-Ports.

Upon the expiration of the Truce, the Regent fent the Tbl Earl ,
Earl of Chejier (8) to befiege Mont-Sorel in LeiceJlerjhire, Pcttmesraija
where was a French Garrifon. (9). The lofs of this Place t&tSiegtej
might have proved of great prejudice to Lew-is, not fo MPaS
much on account of its importance, as becaufe, at fuch a p. 293.
jundlure, it highly concerned him to hinder the King's
Pariy from appearing to be in condition to recover them-
felves. For this reafon Lewis thought it necellary, at any
rate, to raife the Siege. To do it eftecluallv, he put the
Earl of Perche (10) at the head of twenty thoufand Men,
with orders to march to the enemy. Upon the approach
of this Army, the Earl of Che/ler, who was not fo ftrong,
railed the Siege and returned to the Regent (r i). But the
French General was not fatlsfied with this advantage. As
he believed the Earl of Pembroke unable to withftand (o
great Forces, he formed the defign of befieging Lincoln
Caftle, which held out for the King, though the City had.

'i) As alio to all the l':cccomites, or Sheriffs, Wardens of Caftles, &e. M. Paris, p. 289.

iz) There is a Letter Itill extant to Hugh dt Lacy a Baton of Note, containing a Sale-Conducl to «ome and treat with the King, with a pronjife of
the Reftitnrion of his Eftate and Privileges. The Earl ot Pembroke'* Name is affixed alone to the Letter, which is dared November 18. in the firft
Year of this Re'gn. The Letter runs thus : Rex Hugoni de Lacy falutem. Mandamus vobis quod fecuie & fine dilation* veniatis ad Fideiitatem &c Ser-
n-.tium swftrum, & concedimus vubis falvum condu&um noftrum i" vemendo ad nns & n> bifium l.yuendaSc inde falvo re-vertendo. Et vos fcire volumtis qu .1
fi ad nos venire voluerirs Jura veftra & libertates veftras. per conlilium dilrcLorum ridelium noftrorum Ranulphs Comitis Ceftrie, Wtlhcln;i Conutis de Ftrr..-
riis, fes" a':orum fidchum neftr mim ifltegre vnbis relhtuemus licet vero bone rnemorle 'Johannes pater ncjler in ahjuo erga -vos deliauerit tpfius itllQi debemut
eji immusset, nee delictum fustm ai juorenus nbis debet imputari. Et in hujus, t&c. Quia Sigillum, &e. vobis inde mittimus. Telle Comite decimo uct.iv >
die Novcmbris Anno regni noftri primo. Pat. I lien. ill. M- 16.

[\\ He alio took the Caftle of Bethhamjied in the fame County, on Decemb 12. Ann. Wa-vert. p. 1S2. M. Paris, p. 290. but not without fome
4 fficulfy, the beuVgtd making a Sally, in which the Standard of William de Mavde-vdl was taktn. Ibid.

;4) And took the Caftles of Odui'v, Sle/ord, Norwich, and C'.kbefter. Walt. Co-vent.

1 5) Waiter of Cox-entry fays, the Pupe ordered his Nunrio in France to hold a Synod at Mclun, and put the Kingdom under an Interdicl, unlets T
recalled his Son out of England. Upon which the King prefently ordered him to tome over, and be himfelf in Perfon at the Syned. This Year Kin^

Henry he'd his Cbrlflmaft at Brijlol, M. Paris, p. 292.

to") The Caftles of Marlborough, Famham, li'mchejler, Cbictcjicr, Ice. declared for Henry. Wa't. Co-vent.

(■?) At the lame time rame ever to the King, William Longflt/ord Earl of Salisbury, with the Earls of Arundel and Warren.

(S) Together with Wiii.jm Earl of Aibematle, William Earl Ferrers, Robert de Vieupolt, Brian de L'ljle, W.lltam dt Car.te'uf, tUitrt de Gangs,
raia/sss, fee. M. P.ins. p. 293.

I..I Hrnry 3c Bra-br-c was the Commander in Chief in it. M. Paris. Ibid.

'i.-<j Martjcbal nf frar.ee, a y;ung Man of great Courage, whom he had juft brought tver with him. Saier Earl of W.r.tert was Loid of (h»
C-it.c. They marched frum London May r. M. Pans. p. 29J.

(it) At Nctr.r.vhtm. At. Par:-, p. 294. ^%

No .5,- Vol.1, V f f f cesVsJ



Vol. I.

- '■ ■
]■' coin

M. Paris,
p. 193.

fna 1 6 ■] to

: , R, ' I.

M Pan
■ 29+.

declared for the Barons (1). In this March, the French
Troops committed fuch terrible ravages, that the Hifto-
rians I'e.'cribe them as an army of Devils rather than Men.
But perhaps things are reprefented worfe than they really

The Caftle ot Lincoln was of fo great importance, that
the Regent could not rel'olve to lofe it, without ufing his
utmolt. endeavours to relieve it. Whilft the French were
battering the Caftle with all poffible vigor, and the Be-
lieged making as brave a defence, he afTembled all his
forces, with a refolution to run all hazards to fave that
Place. He ufed fuch expedition, that he advanced as far as
Newark, within twelve miles of Lincoln, before the Be-
fiegers were determined, whether to expert him, or march
and give him battle. They had all along hoped to take
the Caftle, before he could draw his Army together. Sur-
prized at the fudden approach of the Enemy, the French
( jeneral called a Council of War, to confult what was to
be done on this occalion. Some were for meeting the
enemy, becaufe if a victory fortunately enfued, the Caftle
would 1 m mediately furrender. Adding, that by going
out ol the City, they might ufe their Cavalry, in which
confided their chiefeft. (Irength, whereas they would be of
no !ervice, if it was relblved to expecl: the enemies within
the \\ alls. This advice was the fafeft, but others were
of a contrary opinion. They affirmed, as the Caftle was
reduced to extremities it was better to keep within the
1 ; uid continue the Siege; that it was eafy to defend
the Walls, rill the Caftle fui rendered ; after which the Earl
of Pembroke would only think of retreating, or however,
nvght always be fought. This advice prevailing, all
things were prepared lor the defence of the City, "whilft
the Siege of the Caftle was continued. Mean time, the
Englijh Army approaching without oppofition, the Regent
caufed a body of chofen Troops, commanded by Faulk de
Brent, to enter the Caftle at a Poftern Gate, which opened
into the Fields. It is ftrange, the Befiegers Ihould never
think of that inconvenience. Faulk was no (boner entered,
but, purfuant to the mcafures taken with the Regent, he
fallied out upon the Befiegers, whilft the King's Army
ftormed one of the Gates of the City.

The Earl ot Perchc perceiving himfelf thus attacked
from two different quarters, exerted his utmoft in his de-
fence. But his Troops not having room to fight, and De-
fides, being deprived of the afliftance of the Ftorfe, were
quickly put in confufion. On the other fide, the R0v.1I
Army, encouraged by the prefence of the Regent, and the
indulgences liberally beftowed by the Legate upon all that
Ihould be (lain in Battle, continued in a furious man-
ner to ftorm the Gate. This aflault was fo vigorous,
that, notwithftanding the obftinate refiftance of the French,
the King's Troops at length entered the City, whilft Faulk
de Brent preffed the Enemy on the other fide. The Earl
of Perehe perceiving all was loft, refolved not to furvive
the fhameof his defeat. He was (lain, upbraiding the Eng-
lijh of his Party, for betraying him by their Counfels. Af-
ter the death of the General, a dreadful (laughter was made
of the French Troops, who almoft all peiiihed on this oc-
cafion. The City of Lincoln, which had all along fided
with the Barons, was abandoned to a general plunder,
where the Soldiers found an ineftimable Booty, and there-
fore called it Lincoln p'air (2).

Whilft the Earl of Perchc was employed in thefe parts,
Prince Lewis made a frefh attempt upon Dover Caftle, but
meeting with no lei's refiftance than before, made no £reat
progrefs in the Siege. The news of the defeat at Lin-
coin, made him refolve to retire to London, and take new
meafures. Upon his arrival, his firft care was to fend to
the King his Father for fpeedy fupplies, and anfwerable to
his wants, without which he let him know there was no
likelihood ot retrieving his affairs. Philip, willing to keep
fair with the Pope, pretended he would not interpofe any
more in his Son's concerns. He publickly fent him word,
to take care of himfelf its he could. However, he ordered
11 In, that Planch his Daughter-in-law, in her own name,
quickly got ready a body of Troops, with Ships to tranfport
them into England. Had thefe ("uccours fafely arrived,
n««<fe- tne y ™g nt have repaired Lewis's lofs at Lincoln. But his
• ,:-t ar fortune was no better at Sea than at Land. The Com-

H< m njlord-

M, Hiiri

Tee French

. / •!' -V,':'J.'-

ed at Lin-

. .nil.

M. Paris.
T Wikes.
Hcmingfi id

M. Paiis.

Lewis raife,

the Siege of
Dover, and
reheat 1 11
He demand,
Sacc w 1 of
hi, Fatbe, ■
M. I'-ii;.

P . 29-, ss .

manders of the Fleet of the Cinque Ports, hearing the 1 z t -
French Troops were to embark at Calais, laid wait for
them in their paflage, and giving them battle, took and
funk the greateft part of the French Fleet (3).

Thefe t,wo fucceffive loffes threw Lewis into great Lcwir i,
ftraits, which were farther encreafed by the approach cfiWocked up h
the Englijh Army. He had fcarce received news of^"^";,
the defeat of the fuccours that were coming from France,
when In; (aw himfelf befieged in London, or at leaft clofely
blocked up (4). So many misfortunes one after another';
the difcontent of the Englijh, which now (hewed itfelf o-
penly ; the Pope's Thunders, which, upon the decline of
his affairs, began to inlpire him with terror, made him fen-
fible it was time to think of retreating. He determined lie fra fir
therefore to fue to the Regent for Peace. But, notwith- le " cu
Handing his ill fituation, he intimated to him, that he
would confent to none but an honorable Peace, that Ihould
fcreen his Englijl) Adherents from all profecution. By
the way, this Prince's generous care of the Englijh Ba-
rons, is hardly reconcilable with the refolution, imputed
to him by the Vifcount of Mdun. The Earl of Pern- The Earl of
broke immediately granted his demand. He confidered, p " nbroke /
the King of France was not fo drained of Men and Money, "'
but that he could ftill powerfully aiM the Prince his Son.
On the other hand, he was afraid the Barons would become
del'perate, if they were denied a Pardon ; and that too
great a feverity would involve the Kingdom in freih
troubles. In fhort, he faw the ufing his fuccefs with mo-
deration, would reftore Peace to the Kingdom, and put the
young King in quiet poflelTion of the Crown, which was
the fole aim of all his delires. Thefe coniidurations induced
him readily to agree to a Treaty of Peace (5) upon the
following Terms :

That all Perfons who had taken part with Lewis, fince coition,
the beginning of the War, Ihould be reftored to all the »/ <*< P<n»
Rights they enjoyed before the troubles. * a - l>ub -

That the City of London Ihould have her antient Pri- m. Paris?"
vileges. p . 299 .

That all the Prilbners taken fince the firft arrival of
Lewis into England, Ihould be releafed. But as to thofe
that were taken on either fide, before that time, Commif-
honers Ihould be appointed, to enquire whether thofe of his
Party were engaged with him, at the time of their being
made Prifoners.

That the Ranfoms already paid Ihould not be returned,
and that fuch as were become due Ihould be punctually
paid : But that nothing mould be demanded of the Prifo-
ners, whole Ranfdms were not fettled.

That all the Englijh, of what rank and condition fo-
ever, Prifoners or others, who took up arms againft King
John, Ihould fwear fealty to King Henry.

That the Hoftages given to Prince Lewis for the pay-
ment of the Ranfoms that were become due, Ihould be re-
leafed immediately, upon payment of the Money.

That all the Plaees, Towns and Caftles, in Lewis's pof-
felfion, Ihoulu be delivered to the King.

^ That the King of Scotland Ihould be included in the
1 reaty, upon reftoring all he had taken during the War
and that the King of England Ihould make the like re-
ftitution to him. s

The fame thing was ftipulated in favour of the Prince
of JVales.

That Lewis Ihould caufe all the Iilands to be reftored
that were taken in his name.

That he Ihould renounce the Homages received from the
Subjects of the King of England.

That whatever was due to him, and of which the
time of payment was expired, Ihould be punctually paid

That in the firft Article, where Lezvis's Adherents arc
mentioned, Ecclefiafticks were not included, but with
refpeel to the Lay- Fees they held before the War.

An Hiftorian adds two Articles more, which are not ,\r. Paris,
found in the Treaty. Firft, That Lewis Ihould ufe his r »99-
utmoft endeavours to oblige his Father to reftore whatever
was taken from King John beyond Sea. Secondly, That
in cafe he could not prevail, he himfelf Ihould make this

(i, Gil/hrr dt Gam had befieged it a 1
M. Par,,.

time in vain, and been vigornufly rcpull'ed in all his AlTauks. He was made Earl of Lincoln by Lewis,

One mar euefs at the great Riches of the Cathedral, which was pillaged, when Gtofret de Drapingts, the Prerentor, complained that he had (oil
-K.enthoufand Marks .or h, s own Share. M. Par,,, p. 207 . The Perlons of Note Taken in this Bartle (which was fought en A/,, , Q TL"

, U ' r ! "', l t'" t !'l i "- "'"I?* Bcum E "' " f Her.ford, Gilbert de Cant Earl of Lincoln, Crmmanders; and of the o.her Ba.ons Rf,„ jr.L «£/
i,:-,'> n »'?''; f' l! """ dt Mumbrey, William de Bcaucbamp, William Maudut, Oliver de Har court, Roger de Crelf,, miliar, de Col~;il,~
U ■!..,„: de R01, Robe,, de Ropejle, Ralph Cbeimluit, &c. M. Par,,, p. ;c,6. "'•uian de Cohifle^

. .96. ~'Wr

(3) 1 his Sea-Engagement was about .he twenty fourth of Auguft. As the E-gl./h had but forty, and the Frercb eighty large Ships, the Kine's F'eet
a lift opl itt ick them in the Front, but lacking about, and getting to the Windward, they bore down upon them and made great fliuchter of them w'.h
; but what contributed moll to iheir Victory, was their having great Quantities of Sluick-Ltmi in Powder, which being %»ft in
the Frem-bmer,, Eves and blinded them. The Commanders of the Engh/h Fleet

v s blown b) lh
fhc /

into the A't .

own ny me w,na into tne "«™™ ties and blinded them. The Commanders of the Engh/h Fleet were Pb,l,p de Alb,™ and Jobr M „
rem b Admiral wai one Eujlace, who Horn a Monk turned Pirate, and at (all was made Admiral of the Frenh Fleet. M. Pariibn R-/b, "i
S n of Kmu John cut orl his Head. p. 298. - * -".ctJrj

4. II. \larefcail the Regent, gathered a numer.

erous Army, and befieged him both by Land, and bv Water. 211. Pari,, p
15] Which was concluded in an lilsnd in the Ibamc, near Stane,, on Septemb. 11. M. Paris, p. 299.

2 S S.


Book VIII.




Lewi*? re-

Reftitution whenever lie came to the Crown. Though file to the Biihop, upon payment of one hundred Pounds 1:1?.

•Sterling. The refl 1l1.1t were in the fame cafe, <!■!'
raged b] tins Example, made the like Oompofitions. 'I 'l,e ,•-•- - —
executing the Treaty wa, fo neccliary tor reftoring Tran-
quillity to the Kingdom, ilr.it the Regent thought the ii
terefls of a few private Perfons, how faithfully focver they a
had ferved the Kin^, ought not to be preferred to the ge-
neral flood, which would refult from the punctual perfor-
mance of his word. Mean time, to eilablifh the youn
King firmly in the Throne, it ftill remained to fati
the Pope, who was not inclined to pardon the Eccleli
afticks, that dared to dcl'pile the Interdict. In the 1>«
ning of a Reign, when the Fidelity of the Subj( I
yet wavering, and the King a Minor, ii would
very imprudent in the Earl to exafperate the Cbu I o<

Rome, by maintaining the intcrcft. ol the CI On til

contrary, it was but too likely, that the young King
would need the Pope's Prote&ion. For thi n II m, he
readily published, at the inftance of the Legate, a Procla-
mation, commanding all the excommunicated ■■
alficks tha were abfolved, to depart the Kingdom on

thele two Conditions were not inferted in the Treaty it
felf, it is very likelv, they were ftipulated in the fecret Ar-
ticles, fince the French Hiftorians do not fcruple to own
them. Betides, we (hall fee in the fequel, that when
Lewis came to the Crown, the. Court of England called
upon him to perform his promife, and that St. Lewis his
Son had very great Scruples on that account.

The Treaty being figned, and afterwards confirmed bv
the Authority of the Legate, the King and Prince Lewis
fwore to obfcrve it, with the ufual Formalities. After
which, Lewis received Ahfolution from the Legate (l),
Everv thing being thus concluded, the Prince let fail for
Fiance. France, after borrowing five thoufand Marks (2) of the

City of London to pay his debts.
Heniym.i*n Immediately after the Prince's departure, Henry made
his Entry nls £ n t r y into Lotalon, where he was received with great
Walt c'oven. P° m p , and demonftrations of an univerfal f.itisfactioii.
It was not without reafon that the Peopic cxprcflcd fo
great Joy, fince, nothwithftanding the advantages lately
S-afari to gained by the young King, he took a folemn Oath, to

*"""""" '*' maintain the Nation in their Privileges.

People m

then Pri

•villi: el.

dent management of the Regent, the vanquifhed Barons
obtained more folid advantages, than they could have ex-
pected from a Victory, which would have fubjeited them,
and perhaps beyond all redrefs, to a foreign power.

Of all Lnvis's Party, the Eccleiiafticks were the only
Perfons that had no reafon to rejoice at the Peace, which

'?.' . left them to the Pope's Mercy, whom thry had offended
Eeclefiajltckt . n ,- n t ol it • i

f.ir ..,.' mdin the molt lenlible part. He bore, with Impatience, the
in Lewi*, contempt of his Cenfnres by Lewis and the Barons ; but
M. l'ans. t ^ e Q] er gy' s difobedience made him ftill more outragious.

Thus by the pru- pain of Imprifonment : This Severity caufed them

The Legate
proceeds e-
nfl the

make halte and fatisfy the Legate, who only wanted their

All the Troubles being thus happily appcafed , the He trier,
Englijh impatiently expected the performance of thi
King's Promiles, with regard to their Liberties, the ef- '
fectual Re-eitabliffiment whereof they had been made t
hope. However zealous the Regent might be for the
King's Service, he did not think proper to make him
violate his word. Wherefore, he fent exprefs orders (7)
to all the Sheriffs of the Kingdom, to fee the two

As foon as the Legate was at liberty to proceed againft Charters of King John duly obferved (8), and to punifh

the Eccleliafticks, purfuant to the laft Article of the Trea- without mercy all Violators thereof. How Inppy would

tv, lie ordered a ftrict Inquiry to be made throughout the the Englijh have been, if the Succellbrs of tliis great

Kingdom, after thofe who contemned the Interdict. All Man in his Poft and Credit with the King, had followed

that were found guilty were fufpended or deprived of their the fame Maxims, and imbued with them betin

Benefices, or conftraincd to repair their fault by large Sums mind of this young Monarch ! But by taking a contrary

of Money (3). A remarkable Inftance of the wide diffe-
rence between the Ecclefiaftical and the Civil Power.
The King cf The King of Scotland, who was excommunicated for
Scotland ^»'' doinsr Homage to a foreign Prince, embraced the offer of

courfe, they were the caufe of all the troubles of this

Whilft the French were in England, LeweUyn, Prince Tfc Prim
of Hales, who was in League with them, had taken fe- '/Walt!

f T.I.p.I2C.

,cs °fHcmh. 6 ford.

Hen'y' ° bein g included in the Treaty. He came to Northampton, veral places, of which it would have been difficult to d'if- "

C. Ma.lros. where he was abfolved by the Legate, after doing Homage poffefs him, without re-alfembiing the disbanded Troops, Kj"ng!

to Henry tor the Fees he held in England. Then he de- This however the Regent was willing to avoid that he Aa - P " K

livered up Carlijle, which he had taken during the Trou- might not be forced to dilbblige the Subjects, by' lev

b'es. Men and Money ; at a time when it" was neceflary

Honotmslll. Pope Innocent Ul, dying this year, Honorius III, was gain their Aftedion, by caufing them to enjoy the Fruitj

made Pope. promote j t0 t h e Papal Chair (4). of Peace. For this reafon, he granted the Prince of

,,,$_ It feemed that after the departure cf the French, Eng- Hales an honorable and advantageous Peace, and procured

Diflurhmcn land at length would enjoy fome repofe, to which fhe had him the Legate's Abfolution, hoping thereby to induce

been (o long a Stranger. But it was not poffible that a that turbulent Prince to remain in quiet (9).

in Engl-ind
M. Paris.
p. 300.

perfect Calm fhould immediately fucceed fo violent a Storm.
The Treaty with Lewis gave Birth to new Troubles,
which threw the Regent into great perplexities. Thofe
Barons (5) that had faithfully ferved King 'John, and to
whom were given the confiscated Eftates of the Rebels,
could not bear the thoughts of reftoring them to the old

This affair being ended, Galh the Legate, who was p ln d„l P h i,
recalled, fet out lor Rome (10). Pandulph, whom I have L :: '« /■*
had frequent occafion to mention in King John's Reign . E .'' t !,',? d ;
fucceeded him in his Office (n). M ' Wert -

The Orders concerning the two Charters not having
been duly executed, the Regent fent Itinerant Tufticcs Th l V?\
Proprietors, according to the 1 enor of the Treaty. On into all the Counties to caufe them to be better obferved. #in ri-l
the other hand, the Ecclefiafticks loudly complained of He was perfwaded, he could not without Injuftice, and 0r *" a_
being abandoned to the Legate's Perfections, without the great Injury to the Honour and Interefts of the youn«- £>',/.!'
leaft care being taken of their concerns. However, the King, leave unexecuted, what the Prince and the ' King An"\Va«rl.
Regent was refolved, at any rate, to execute the Treaty, his Father had promifed with an Oath. Had he lived
believing it to be the only means to root out all diftur- any longer, he would have infallibly fo ordered that af-
fair, as not to be eafily alterable. 'But this great Man, Bed ■. -/
equally qualified for War and Peace, died fhortly after, " /««*fa<
lamented by the whole Kingdom, which he had freed *!. '''/'"
from Slavery, by his Prudence" and Valour (12). Peter <&j'Wincfiefter.
Roches (13), Biihop of Jl'inchcjter, was made Regent, and M - p
Hubert de Burgh, who defended Dover, Chief Judiciary of But
England (14).

bances. Purfuant to this refolution, he marched witn a

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 125 of 360)