M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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(6) We find in the Colletlion of the > ubluk ASs, a Letter, wheteby it appears, there was Treachery in the iofs of Ruiellr, eitccr in the GoTeracr,
or ( me of the Inhabitants. T. I. p 269. iJa/in.

17) Matthew Paris fays, he had thiity Vrtdicts given agoioil him in the Trials of Novel Dijjeizin, in esch of which he was fiord a huadrcd Poucds,
tiiat is, in all, thiee thnuiand Pounds. M. Paris. An. 1224,- p. 320.

i.%) Martin de Patejbuue, &o Th mat de Mutton. ]s-J.

(9) Which was then fitting at Nonhairftcn. Ibid. (10) Auguil j6. Id. p. 321.

(II) So .'.hat, of ail th t llr- ng and n- b]e Structure, no *ign, except the Mount, remains at th.a day ; but the fiec and. Lands ahoat .:, were RofloiCfi
ts William de Beauebamf, who law cUirai to the lame.

No.. XVI Vol. 1. Gggg cc^£i'^-:?i



Vol. 1.


confifcated his Eftate, and banifhed him the Realm. Henry

obtained, for the charges of this Expedition, an Aid of

two Shillings upon every Hide of Arable Land (1 ).

,,,,- But he wanted greater Sums to carry on the War with

A slbjliy France. For the obtaining whereof he called another Par-

g- anted on ]j amen t, of whom he demanded a Fifteenth upon Move-

rffew^ables. The Parliament told him, they would readily grant

iJcrc d/Jv- him the Aid he required, provided the Charters of King

"* John, which had all along been neglected, were punctually

™'y" n obferved for the future. The King's Circumftances not

M. Writ, fuft'ering him to deny their requeft, he granted it in a

An. Waverl. narK ]fome manner, and even fent into every County Com-

T. Wikes. mi/ jj oners t0 f ee tne Charters executed (2). But the Effects

of thefe orders were of no long continuance. However,

People were fo well fatisfied of the King's good Intentions,

that never was Tax levied with more exactnefs. To

fmooth the way, the Bifhops excommunicated all that

fhould be guilty of any Fraud (3]

Aft. Pub. The King made ufe of this Money to raife an Army,
T-i-p-^77- which was fent into Guienne, under the Command of
m. Weft! Prince Richard his Brother, lately made Earl of Carnival.
Richard, having the Earl of Salisbury for his Lieutenant,
made fome progrefs in Guienne, where he took St. Ma-
caire. After that, he befieged the Caftle of La ReoU, a
ftrong Place, which, by its refiftance, gave the Earl of
Marche, General of the French Army, time to come to
its relief. The Englijh Hiftorians pretend, Richard ob-
tained a confiderable Advantage over the Earl. The French, dom.

fo critical a Juncture. However, the Pope, who did not 122(1.
yet defpair of obtaining what he had demanded, enjoined ?** p P' ' •
the Archbifhop of Canterbury to caufe the Parliament to-t'." 1 ""
meet again, and require a pofitive anfwer to the Propofal
made by his Legate. The King having advifed with the
Bifhops, fent the Pope word, that, fince this affair did
not only concern England, but all Chrijlendom too, he
was ready to conform to the Refolutions which fhould
be taken in other Chriftian Countries. This was pro-
perly a civil denial ; for it was well known, a Legate
had made the fame Propofal in France, but to no manner
of purpole.

Mean time, Henry continued his Preparations to carry Lewis VIS,
War into France. But he found himfelf obliged to fuf- """' / "*
pend them ; for Lewis, engaging to command a Crufade gamfi tie

ajainft the Albwenfes, had procured the Pope's exprefs Aibigenfrs.
,? , 1, ?,,-'■/!. n • .. .. : w Aft. Pub.

Orders to all Chriitian 1 rinces, not to give him any T , p ._.

disturbance during his Expedition. Henry confulting his M. Par!;.

Parliament upon thefe Orders, was advifed to put off the M - ^ e(1-

War till the return of the King of France, who was then

befieging Avignon, where entrance was denied him. This lie das, and

Prince died foon after his taking that Place, not without '' !"?""!■'*

Sufpicion of being poifoned by the Earl of Champagne,

who was defperately in love with the Queen. Leivis IX,

his Son, fucceeded him, under the Guardianfhip of

Blanch of Cajlile his Mother, who, though a Foreigner,

had Intereit enough to obtain the Regency of the King-

on the contrary, fay, that perceiving he was not ftrong
enough to hazard a Battle, he retired beyond the Dour-
dogne, and fhortlv after into England. It is certain how-
ever, Richard quitted not Guienne till 1227, as appears

T.I.p.sgi- from the Collection of the Publick Ads.

1226. The year iz?.6, began with a Parliament (4), where-

Ibt KS«e it in the King, who was recovered from a dangerous Illnefs,

Whilft the Engli/li Arms were fufpended by the fu- Henr *
perior Orders of the Court of Rome, Henry began his Qi, arl „ i „
majority with an Act of Injustice, for which he had not be roamed
the leaft colour. As he durft not demand any Money '" "/'' "
of the Parliament (6), who had fo lately granted him a m. Paris.
very confiderable Aid, he bethought himfelf of an Ex- M. Weft.
pedient, formerly ufed by Richard his Uncle on the like

declared of was jgcjg^j f f u ][ Age, though he was not yet fo old as occafion, after his return from the Holy Land : Which

Apt. _ ..V?,. 1 1 t-\ t* r l_l' 11 ..l r .L .. 1~ J OL *u

M. Paris.
p. ,.«
M. Weft,

the Law required. But this was not the only Bufinefs
An extract- for which the Parliament was called. A Legate, lately
ditsary de- arr jved from Rome, had an extraordinary Propofal to int-
be part to them from the Pope, which concerned the whole
Kingdom, and efpecially the Clergy. The Subftance
of the Propofal was, that, fince the Holy See had long
lain under the Scandal of doing nothing without Money,
it was for the Honour and Intereft of all Chriftians to
wipe away this reproach, by removing the Caufe. That
it was notorious to all, the extreme Poverty of the
Church of Rome, laid her under an abfolute neceffity of
demanding fome acknowledgment, for the favours fhe
difpenfed to her Sons ; that fhe defired nothing more than
to be in a Capacity to proceed with moderation ; and
the beft means to that end would be, for the Faithful to
grant her Aids proportionable to her Wants. Then the

was, to oblige all thofe that had Charters to renew them,
upon payment of fuch a Sum. This Order, the only
end whereof was to fill the King's Coffers, fell the
heavieft upon the Monafteries. All unjuft methods in-
vented by Princes to extort Money from their Subjects,
are fo many inexhauftible Springs of Oppreffion ; Suc-
ceffors feldom failing to follow thefe ill Precedents.

In the beginning of the next year, the fudden death 1227.
of the Earl of Salisbury, natural Son of Henry II, at a Hubert it
Banquet, to which he was invited by the Chief Jufticiary, fufftitd cf
gave occafion for ftrong fufpicions of that Minifter (7). £-,°"/"j '
However, no Inquiry was made, none daring to attack Salisbury,
directly a Favourite, who had an abfolute Sway over the M * Pa " s#
King. As Henry advanced in years, he was obferved to Henry ill.
have qualities little confiftent with a great Prince ; an
extreme Avarice, an aftonifhing Ficklenefs, great Caprice

Legate propofed, that, to fupply the urgent occafions of and unevennefs in his Conduct, an unufual eafinefs to

be governed by thofe about him ; and* beyond all this,

Principles of Oppreflion and Tyranny, which afforded a

terrible Profpect for the future. Though he was declared

of Age the laft year, he kept the Bifhop of Winchejler

near his Perfon, for the fake of his advice ; but Hubert m, Paris.

de Burgh would not fuffer him to retain him any longer.

He reprefented to him, that though he was declared of

the Holy See, there fhould be fet apart for that purpofe,

out of every Cathedral, two Prebendaries ; and out of e-

very Monaftery, two Monks Portions ; and that this

Grant fhould be confirmed by Parliament. He fupported

his Propofal with the moft fpecious reafons he could devife ;

without promising however, that the Pope would take no-
thing for his future favours, but only infinuating, he

would ufe more Moderation in that refpect. It was not full Age, he would always be confidered as under the
the Parha- very difficult to perceive the Pope's Aim. Therefore all Guardianfhip of a Regent, as long as that Prelate was at
mint makes tne Legate's Eloquence was not able to prevail with the Court ; and it was for his Honour and Intereft to fhew
7b R Le?at'Ji Parliament, who, to his great mortification, did not even his Subjects he was capable of governing by himfelf. This 72, nifeof
demand. vouchfafe to give him an anfwer. When he would have Advice being readily embraced by the King, who per- »/ Winchef-

complained of this difobliging Treatment of the Pope, he ceived not the motive, the Bifhop of Winchejler was or- ",' i ^"/'

was told, the abfence of the King, and fome of the prin- dered to return to his Diocefe.

cipal Bifhops, prevented the taking into confideration a The Englijh would have been unconcerned, and perhaps Hubert ad-

Propofal of that nature. Not difcouraged at this repulfe, glad at the Bifhop's difgrace, if it had not been immedi- «"/« »*»

he required, that the Seffion of Parliament fhould be con- ately followed by an Event, which convinced them, it ^"f^L^e.

tinued, till the King and the abfent Prelates were come, would have been better that the King's Favour had been ibid.

always divided. As foon as Hubert faw himfelf without a
Rival in the Miniftry, he endeavoured to fet himfelf above
the Laws, by perfwading his Mafter, that his fole aim was
to render him abfolute. It was not difficult to engage in
this Project, a Prince that was fufficiently inclined of him-
felf. Befides the forementioned renewal of the Charters, The King it.
he had extorted five thoufand Marks from the Londoners, g' "'"f-

M. Paris.

p. 330.

But his Inftances were not regarded, and the Parliament
broke up, without coming to any refolution ; fo that the
Legate was forced to wait with patience till the next
Seffion. Mean time, he took a Journey into the nor-
thern Counties, where, under pretence of the Right of
Procurations (5), he oppreffed the Churches to fuch a
degree, that they were forced to complain to the Pope,

who recalled him for fear of exafperating the Englijh at under pretence of their lending the like Sum to Prince pj'pi,.

(1) And gave the great Men thit had accompanied him in this Expedition, leave to take a Scutage of two Marks from every Knight's Fee held of them.

•V. Parh, p. 322. This year the King held his Court, at CbriJImaJs, at Weftminfcr, at which were prefent the Clergy, and People, and the great

Men of the Kingdom. \i. p. 323.

(2) The King ligned and fent two Charters to every County, one concerning the common Liberties, the other of the Liberties of the Forefts. Af. Parit,
Ann. 1225. Hemingford. p. $68. An. Burton, p. 271, CSV.

(3) Another Parliament was held at Wejlmmjler, this Year, in Marcb. H- Paris, p. 324.. (4) January 14. Id. p. 328-

(5) The Legates had a right to demand their expences to be defrayed, when they vifited the Churches and Monasteries, which had been converted in-
to ready Money. Rapin.

(6) This Parliament was held at Oxford in February. M. Paris, p. 336.

(7) He was Son of Henry II, by Rojamond. His Body was buriod at Old Sarum, and from thence removed to the new City, and interred in a Monu-
ment, on the North-fide ot the Chapel of our Lady, in the Cathedral Church, in a Tomb of Wood richly painted, diapered and gilt. His ESigies lies
thereon of grey Marble, in his Coat of Mail, his Sword by his fide, and upon his antique Shield, are fix Lions rampant emboffed ; the like number of
Lions are painted alio upon bis Surcoat, but by reafon of the many foldings thereof, are not eafily perceived. He married Ela„ Daughter and Heir to
William Fitz-Patrici Earl of Salisbury, by whom he had four Sont and four Daughters. He was lucceeded by his elded Son William htr.gejfet, fecond
•f the Name, Earl 'f Salisbury, Sandfera'% Gtntabg. p. I If.

Id. p. ;;6.
M. Wei;.


Book VIII.

7. JOHN,


1227, Lewis, when he left England. The Town of Northamp-
ton was compelled to pay him twelve hundred Pounds, on
Tome other no iefs frivolous pretence. The Monafterics had
met with no better quarter. Notwithstanding their appeal
to the Holy See, he had exacted from them large Sums,
whilft the affair was depending before the Pope. Thefe
things were plain indications, how little he was clifpofed
to keep any meafurc. with his Subjects , and began to
tic annul) caufe him to forfeit their cfteem. Hut what he did further,
King jolm'j [,y the violent Counfels of the Judiciary, entirely aliena-
ted their affection. On a fudden, when it was lead ex-
pected, he annulled the two Charters of the King his Fa-
ther, though he had bound himfelf by Oath inviolably to
obferve them ; pretending he was not obliged to ftand to
Hubert made what he had promifed during his minority. Hubert for
EarhfKtM j^ p ar( ^ re g ar ,|] c f s f tne murmurs of the People, by whom
he was deemed the author of thefe pernicious Counfels,
caufed himfelf to be created P^arl of Kent, in reward of
the great fervice lately done his Mafter, in freeing him
from the yoke of thefe Charters.
S^uarrelbe- The conduit of the King and his Minifter, bred fuch
k""" and difcontent among the Barons, that it was eafy to fee their
Pnna little affection for their Sovereign. Prince Richard, who
Richard. arrived from Guicnne foon after the revoking of tlie Char-
M- Paris. tgrs ^ j m p rove( i t he p rc fcnt difpofition of the Barons, to
brave the King his Brother, in a conteft he had with him.
The occafion was this, King John having given one ll'a-
leran, a German, a certain Manor belonging to the Earl-
dom of Cornwal, Richard, as foon as he was inverted with
that Earldom, ordered U'aleran to appear and produce his
Title, and in the mean time caufed the Manor to be feiz-
ed. Whether IValeran had loft his Charter, or thought
it defective, he refufed to obey the Summons. On the
contrary, as if great injuftice had been done him, he carried
his complaints to the King, who, without examining the
affair, ordered the Prince's Officers to reftore the Manor.
They found means however to be excufed till the re-
turn of their Mafter. Upon his arrival, Richard repre-
fented to the King, that he had done IValeran no wrong
in obliging him to (hew his original title : That his intent
was not to deprive him of his Lands by force, but to have
the matter decided by the Laws, and to that end offered
to refer it to the judgment of the Peers of the Realm.
Henry, offended at this propofal, fell into a paflion with
his Brother, and commanded him to reftore the Manor in
Richard'i difpute, by fuch a time, or depart the Kingdom. Richard
bold Anj-wcr boldly replied, that he would do neither without the
'"£■ judgment of his Peers, and immediately retired without
flaying for an anfwer. The Jufticiary, who never ceafed
to infpire the King with violent maxims, advifed him to
take the Prince into cuftody. But whilft Henry confider-
ed of taking this ftep, Richard withdrew from Court,
and polled to the Earl of Pembroke, to confult him upon
this affair. Pembroke approved of what the Prince had
done, and perceiving this to be a favorable opportunity to
check the arbitrary power, the King had a mind to u-
furp, believed he ought to improve it. And therefore he
affured Richard, he was ready to affift him with his Life
and Fortune, and did not queftion but moft of the Barons
tie mates a would do the fame. Indeed, fhortly after, by the dili-
di'Tr'sBa-' S ence of the Earl-Marfhal, the Earls of Glocejler, Chejler,
nns, wbi IVarren, Warwick, Ferrars, and Hereford, with many
take up other Barons (1), joined with Richard, and took up Arms,
M^Paris. t0 corn P e ' tnc King to reftore the Charters he had lately
annulled. Hubert was alarmed at this Confederacy. As
he forefaw it might be attended with fatal confequences,
he chofe to procure a reconciliation between the two Bro-
RUhard » thers. To fatisfy Prince Richard, the chief of the Con-
fan^d,and f ef j erateSj J lc g 0t the King to fettle upon him the Queen
broken. £ " their Mother's Dower, to which he pretended a right ;
and likewife to augment his Appennage with the Lands
held by the late Earl of Boulogne. Richard, content with
this liberality, faid no more of reftoring the Charters,
and the Confederacy was diffolved. Thus the Great, un-
der the pretence of the publick good, promote their
intereft, or gratify their paffions. But when means are
found to fatisfy them, as to what concerns them in particu-

lar, they difcovcr, that the publick gdod v.'.i the leaft of :.••■-
their views (2).

Pope Honoriui II T, died this year, and was fuccccded Crrgorjr ik.
by Gregory IX. ^

Stephen Langttm, Cardinal, and Archbifhop of Canter- D ^ '
bury, outlived Honorius but a few months (\). His eyes ArM
were no fooner clofed, but the Monks of St. Augujlin, Langion.
willing to fecure the Privilege, oi electing their Archbi- £,';•",',•
fliop, immediately choic Waiter d; Hemejham t one of their ,j .-. ■>.-,
fellow Monks. The King was offended at this Elect, on «
being made without his Licence (4), and refufed to con- „"/,!,,,'-. '
firm their choice, bccaulc, as he alledgcd, the Father of m l-m..
this Monk was hanged lor theft. On the other hand, the T ' ***
Suffragan Bifhops of the Province of Canterbury, angry
that he was chofen without their confent, refufed to accept
him, becaufe he had corrupted a Nun, by whom he had
feveral Children. Upon this he fent Agents to Rcmc (;,
to have the matter decided there. Mean time the Church
of Canterbury remained vacant.

This year the Wcljh making irruptions into England, it'*- a
the King marched into their Country to chaftife them. '£ p
But after harafTmg his Troops to no purpofe, he returned
without making any progrefs (6).

This fame year, the Pope thundered out a Bull of F, °'" ic "'
xcommunication againft the Emperor Frederic II, for „, .
neglecting to carry his Arms into the Holy Land, as he had id. p. 345.
folemnly vowed. How haughty foevtr this Monarch
might be, he was forced to bend under the papal Power,
and perform his vow the next year.

Whilft thefe things palled, the Regency of Blanch, *>«*/«' •<•
Mother of St. Leiuis, occafioned in France disturbances, ^bki'ttet*
which Henry might have turned to his advantage, had he ry wtfin
known how to improve them. But this Prince was not '*• ad * an -
of an enterpriling genius. If ever he formed any projects, idf». 35*
it was always in difadvantagious circumftances, whilft he M. Weil,
neglected the moft favorable. A fairer opportunity than
this had never offered, to recover the Provinces the Eng-
lijh had loft in France, had it been well managed. The
Normans tiding with the confederate Barons againft the
Queen Regent of France, fent Henry word, that if he
would come in Perfon, he fhould be received with open
Arms, and put in poffeffion of that rich Province. On
the other hand, the PoiHevins importuned him to come
and feize fuch of their Towns as were in the hands of
the French, offering him their affiftance. At the fame time
the Gafcons fent the Archbilhopof Bourdeaux (7) to inform
him, it was now in his power, by taking advantge of the
commotions in France, to expel the French out of the
places they were pofleffed of in Guienne. Such preffing in-
vitations, at fo favorable a juncture, fhould have induced
Henry to make a vigorous pufh, for the recovery of what
the King his Father had loft by his negligence. But, by
a blindnefs imputed to the Counfels of the Jufticiary, he
anfwered, he would ftay for a more convenient opportuni-
ty, as if he had been fure of one every day. We fhall
fee hereafter, that he rafhly embarked in this undertaking,
at a time when there was not the leaft appearance of fuc-
cefs. Thus did this Prince blindly fuffer himfelf to be gui-
ded by his Minifters, who abufed his eafmefs and weak-
nefs to advance their own affairs, without any regard to
the interefts of their Mafter.

Mean time, the difpute concerning the Election of the lil p 'P e
Archbifhop of Canterbury, was carried on at Rome w\thZ7terAreV-
great warmth, though the Pope was not yet pleafed to l ■ ■
determine the matter. But at length, the King's Envoys <*»**»T*
offering the Pope a tenth of all the Moveables in Eng- M
land and Ireland, and this offer opening his Eyes, he
voided the Election made by the Monks. At the fame
time, under colour of preventing any future difpute, he
himfelf conferred the Archiepifcopal Dignity on Richard
le Grand, Chancellor of the Church of Lincoln (8),
wherein he outdid even Innocent III, who was willing at
leaft to keep up fome form, in caufing Langtcn to be
elected by the Monks that were fent to him. Though
this incroachment of Gregory was of a more dangerous
confequence than that of Innocent, yet the King and the
Suffragan Bifhops received the new Archbifhop, pleafed

?■ 35i

(1) They met at Stanford. M. Paris, p. 337.

(2) The King kept his Cbrjftmafs at York, and in his return to London, finding the meafures of Grain, Wine, and Ale, to be falfe, he ordered them to
be burnt and broken, and others 01 a larger Size to be made, and the Weight of Bread to be increaled. Idem. p. 344. M. U'eji. p. 286.

(3) He died at his Manor of Stinden July 9, and was buried at Canterbury. M. Paris, p. 350.

(4) M. Paris fays, it was done with the King's Licenfe, but that, Henry not liking the Man they had cholc, thought fit to fet him afide. p. 35c.

(5) The King's Agents were, the Bifhops of Rccbefier and Cbefter, and Jcbn Archdeacon of Bedford. Af. Paris, p. 350.

(6) This War was no more than this : There being a Wood near Montgomery Cattle, which ufed to be a Receptacle for Robbers, the Garrifon under-
took, with the afliltance of the Country- People, to make the Road, that led through that Wood, wider, and clear it of the Thickets on each fide.
Whilft they were at Work, the TVcl(b came upon them, and forced them to retire into the Caftle, which they befieged. Fut the King and Hubert (to
whom that Caftle belonged ) came and raifed the Siege : And then carried on the Work as far as a Ciftcrcian Monaftery, called Cr.die, which they burned.
Hubert finding the place to be impregnable, ordered a Caftle to be built there ; but the Weljb fo diftrefled King Henry's Army, which by the way inward-
ly favored Le-welin, that Henry was forced to make a difadvantagious Peace ; one Article whereof was, That this Oftle fljould be demoljihtd, and Wit
fhould give Henry for his Charges three thoufand Marks. M. Pans, p. 350.

(7) He came to Henry whilft he was keeping his Court at CbriJImafi at Otfard. 61. rVeJ}, p. l$j,

(8) He was confecrated JUnt 4. 1. Wikts, p. 41..


3 C 4-


Vol. L

He meets
vjttb (Jifoji
tlQtt i

\zii. with having voided the Monk's Election, without trou-
bling themfelves about the prejudice the Church of Eng-
He demands land thereby received. Shortly after, Gregory, who would
tkc promised not l ont r be deprived of the effect of the promifes lately

M*Pari matJe h ™' '" ent 0nC °' hlS Cija P'- linS int0 E»gl an & to co '-

p. " 3 6 1! 3 lecf the promifed Tenths, which were to be expended in
M. Wtit. his War with the Emperor. The King affembling the
An. Waver!. p ar ]j ament (1) upon this occafion, the Chaplain laid be-
fore them the Pope's Letters, ftrongly urging the per-
formance oi what he had been made to expert. All Eyes
were fixed upon the King, in expectation that lie would
oppofe this exaction , and difclaim his Envoys. But
when he was feen to keep filence, it was eafily perceived,
the promife had been made by his order, or at leaft that
he had not the courage to contradict the Pope's Will.
The Lords (2) therefore thought it their duty to fhew
greater refolution than the King. The affair feemed to
them of fuch confequence, that they unonimoufly refolved,
not to fuffer their Lay-fees to be thus liable to the ex-
actions of the Court of Rome. However, to fatisfy the
Pope in fome meafure, they propofed to give him a cer-
tain Sum, without inquiring into the effects of each par-
cular Perfon. In all appearance this method would have
been taken, had not Stephen de Segrave, one of the Ba-
rons, voluntarily fubmitted to the Pope's demands, and
drawn in others by his example. The number of thofe
that fuffered themfelves to be gained, increafing by de-
grees, the greateft oppofers were forced to yield, that
they might not incur the indignation of the King and
the Pope. The Clergy durft ftill lefs venture to re-

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