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fift, for fear of being expofed to the excommunication
they were threatned with. The Nuntio, having thus
attained his ends, produced a full power from his Mafter
to collect the Tax, which was to be paid out of all



but gains
bit faint,



The Nuntio
raijes the
lent 61 ivitb
rigour.
M. Paris.

l>. 362, £f



all things ready, that he called him Old Traitor. He . zz'%.
charged him with receiving a bribe from the Court of
France (5), to put a flop to this defgn, and in his rage
drew his Sword to kill him ; which he would, probably,
have done, if the Earl of Chejlcr had not interpofed, not
fo much to fave the Jufticiary, as to prevent the King
from imbruing his hands in the Blood of one of his Sub-
jects. It does not appear, whether Hubert acted out of The £*?*&-
defign or negligence ; but however that be, the embark- '""' " "*"■
ment was forced to be retarded the whole Winter. To this
the arrival of Peter de Dreux Earl of Brctaer.e did not a
little contribute ; who perceiving, fo much time had been
loft in waiting for Tianfport-Ships, and that the Englijb
Army, the feafon being too far advanced, would be obliged
to take up their Winter quarters in his Dominions, where
they were to land, advifed the King to defer the under-
taking till the Spring. During this interval, Hubert found
means to be received into favour again, and to have tire ad-
miniftration of affairs as before.

This fame year, the Emperor Frederic carried his arms Affairs sf
into Pale/line, and compelled the Sultan of Egypt to fur- ^u'^_
render Jerufalem (6). He would have pufhed his con-
quers farther, had not the Excommunication, denounced
upon him by the Pope the laft year, weighed more with
the Templars and Hofpitallers of the Holy Land, than tl>e
valour of that Prince. Their prejudice againft him role
to that height, that they plotted to deliver him into the
hands of the Sultan, to whom they had even communica-
ted their defign. But this Prince, though an Infidel, ab-
horring their Treachery, was fo generous as to difcover it
to Frederic. This Generofity turned more to his advan-
tage, than the having the Emperor in his power. By that
means he fowed among the Cr rittians of Palejline fuch dif-
cord, as was extremely prejudicial to their affairs. Fre-



moveables whatever. He executed his orders fo rigoroufly, deric finding he could expect no affi fiance from the Chri-
that he caufed the tenths of all forts of fruits, even of A'ans of the Holy Land, and that the Pope diverted to



other u(es the Crufades defigned againft the Saracens,
made a ten years Truce with the Sultan, and returned into
Europe.

Though Henry waited with impatience for the Spring, 1229.
in order to tranfport his Army into Fiance, his ftay in H / OTy ? i ^*
England during the Winter was not in vain. He procured ur juit Je-
a confiderable prefent from the Clergy, exacted alio a 'bods.
large fum from the City of London, and to leave no means 1J.' L^ 5 "
untried to raife Money, compelled the Jews, who were tint* a it-
then very numerous in the Kingdom, to pay him a third y"" '«"
part of their fubftance. As foon as the Spring was i'f^^j
come, he embarked with his Army at Portfn.outh (7), and T. Wiius."
landed at St. Makes (8), where he was received by the Aa - V"*-



fuch as were yet growing, to be paid him in Money.
Neither was this all. That this Tax might be levied
with the more fpeed, he obliged the Bifhops to advance
the Money for the inferior Clergy, impowerir.g them to
reimburfe themfelves in the manner they fhould think
proper. The Prelates and Abbots therefore were under
a neceffity of finding ready Money. But as feveral were
not able to raife it foon enough, the Nuntio had provided
againft this inconvenience, by bringing with him certain
Italian Ufurers, who lent them Money at an extrava-
gant intereft. Thus did the Pope abufe the King's weak-
nefs, who might eafily have prevented this exaction, by
a vigorous oppofition. For the Earl of Chejhr, his Sub-
ject, had the power to hinder this Tax from being levied Earl of Brctagne, who put into his hands all his flrong ' •f* 3 '*"



upon his Lands, by ftoutly maintaining, in fpite of the
Nuntio's clamours, that the Pope had nothing to do
with Lay- Fees. But, befides that Henry was terrified by
the example of the King his Father, which was ever in
his thought, he had another reafon that induced him to
IbtKingand t j-,; s condefcenfion for the Pope. In his pnjectof ren-
b"/'cnf"m- dring himfelf absolute, and railing Money upon his Sub



Towns and Caflles. Mean time the French, having had
all the Winter to prepare, were ported near Angers, with
defiVn to hinder his march into Poiclou. Henry gave them
time to fortify themfelves in their Poft, whiltf. he con-
tinued at Nants, expediting the reft of his Troops, which
were to come from Ireland. Though by the prudent **■ ? *™*
conduct of the Queen- Regent of France, the Male-con-



Ibtr,



jects by all forts of ways, he was very fenfible, he fhould tents were humbled, and had promifed to remain in quiet,

.,.-.., I r\ia P^r.o'p rt n-it-^.Q 1/-.M 111(1 nnlhinir r~r\*ilA r.rr\^n^a ■ *- tnpii nr, Innnpr Ci\ht the K I nrr nt hnrrlnnrl in Kretrnr*,6 inj



need the Pope's protection, and nothing could procure it
him fooner, than to let him fhare in thefe exactions.
Accordingly, we fhall fee in the fequel of this Reign,
that the Pope and the King mutually flood by one ano-
ther, whenever the bufinefs was to extort Money from
the Englijb.
Tie King The Nation had fcarce forgot the Pope's late oppref-
^fiZ'cfcar- f lon ' wnen tne y f aw themfelves obliged to furnifh the

rying War King with means to make War upon the King of mans preffed him to march into their Country, where they '£">.< n-
mto France. France. After the disturbances in that Kingdom were were ready to receive him, and aflift him to the utmull '""" **•
" appeafed, and confequently the opportunity of improving of their power. But though he was inclined to turn that ^uuiw^i



they no fooner faw the King of England in Brctagne, and
all Lewis's Forces employed in thofe parts, but they began
to ftir again. Upon which the King and the Queen-
Regent were obliged to quit Atjou, in order to oppofe the
defigns of the Male-contents, which feemed to them of
worfe confequence than the progrefs the Englijh might
make. This was the time for Henry to act vigoroully, 1 ^"^ a "-
and improve the prefent juncture, efpecially as the Nor- „j f- r Jf '



them was loft, Henry formed the defign of recovering by
Arms the Provinces taken from the King his Father ;
without confidering that the pofture of affairs in France
was very much altered, the Lords that oppofed the Queen-
Regent being all humbled, and no longer able to aflift
him. To put this defign in execution, he refolved to
make great preparations ; and for that purpofe fum ■
moned all the Vaffals of the Crown (3) to meet him,
after Michaelmafs, at Pert/mouth, where he aflembled one
of the fined: Armies that had ever been raifed in Eng-
Sbipt an land (4). However, this extraordinary armament proved
wanting to j n v „| n) jjy reafon when the Troops came to be em-
Tr"tpt. ' barked, there were not Ships enough to tranfport them.
The King i' This difappointment threw the King into fuch a paflion
angry, and ^^ Hubert de Burgh, who had taken upon him to set

•would haw ° r to

titled Hu-
bert.



way, it is pretended, he was difluaded by his Favorite, «•> ttug
who told him, the attempt was liable to very great diffi- V-™*?' 1 *
culties. Inftead therefore of marching into Nor/i.andy, he
went directly to Poiclou, and took the Caftle of Aairabcl.
After which, as if he intended to (hew the French Male-
contents, they were to expect nothing from him, he came
to Guienne, to receive the fealty of the Gajcons. In fhorr,
after lofing much time, he returned into Brctagne, where
he employed himfelf in fuch a manner, as di.moiiftiat.ed
his little inclination for War. This Conduct ga\e occa-
fion to fufpect his Minifters, of holding intelligence with
the enemy, who had fuilicient time to appeate the trou-
bles of the Kingdom. Accordingly, the Queen- Regent
took this opportunity, which was fo unfeafonably given
her, to be reconciled with the confederate Barons (9).



(1) The Archb'fhops, Bilhops, Abbots, Piiors, Templars, Hofpitallers, Earls, B2rons, Re&ors cf Churches, and thofe that held of him in chief, u
Mat. fam expreffej it, p. 361. This Parliament was held at Weftmirjler, ibid.

(2) The Earls, Banns, and Laicks. as Mat. Pam words it. p. 361.
(3 The Ear), lJ*r<n', a-d Knights, id p- 363.

(4) He r-ao ^oJdit-n c\n. nut of Ireland Scotland, Wales, and G^:-way. ibid. (5) Five thoufand Marks. M. Paris, p. 363.

(6) Th 1 p roi i n: K. g tftwj a I rge ccuunt of his Proceedings in a Letter under hit own Seal, the Copy of which Mai. Pans ha inlertcd
in his H liorj u oe he Ye 1,1^9 p. I ,b

(7/ Jf' 3°- M- fa :,, p. , (8) Mat 3. ibid. (9; In Sefutnttr, Id. p. 367.



The/



Book VIII.



8. HENRY III.



3°5



1229.

At '>•■ at>-
fro.id c, the
f. c 1 b'

: rct-r ■ nto

En b la.iu.



A£t- Pul).



I 230.

Rebellion ir,
Iiehnd.
M. fans.



•221.

Subjijy
granted r be
King.

Id. p. 367.
T. Wikes.



f/j.- *>!'!-

J/jtp of Can
cerbuiy
M. Paris,
p. 30J.
M. Wefl.



//* £0ri to

Rome.



Prime Ri-
chard'!
Marriage.
M. Paiis,
M. Welt.
An.Wav rl.
Death of the
Earl of
Pembroke.
■ibcKinidt
frauds bit
Brother f
the Inherit
t.i nee
M. Puis,
V- 3 6 9'



The/ read \y confenred to a Peace, when they found
Henry made no Advances to fupport them.

As (bon as the Queen- Regent had nothing to fear from
the liarons, (he ordered the Army to march towards Bre-
Lcioie, where Henry was lavifhing away the remains of his
M >ney m Entertainments and Diverfions, as it in leaving
1 '.gland lie intended only to take a Journey of Pleafure(i).
Lip hi the firfl news of the Enemy 's approach) finding his
Treafure fpent, and fearing to draw upon liimfelf all the
) irees ol France, he fhamefully returned ijito England (2).
Nay, he w.i very hardly prevailed with to leave part of
his Army in Bretagne, under the Command of the Earls
oi ■.'.' hr and Pen. broke (3), to fupport the Earl, whom
he h •! unfeafbnably engaged in the War. Thefe Lords,
It <s timorous than their King, with thefe few 'Troops, not
only hindered the French horn entering Bretagne, but
made Incuriions into Anjon and Notmandy, from whence
they carried away a great Booty. Thus ended this Expe-
dition. fnltead ol procuring any advantage to Henry, it
ferved only to render him contemptible to his Subjects,
who would never more heirkcn to an Expedition againft
France, feeing he had made fuel) ill ule ot fo favourable a
Jinut ire. Fie calf the whole blame on the Treachery of
the .Earl of A'Ltrche and the Poiclevins, who performed not
what they had promifed. But he was himfelf the Cauie
of their Change, fince, in all appearance, they would not
have deferted him, if his Proceed. ngs had given them any
hopes ol a powerful protection.

During Merry's Abfence in Bretagne, fome Commotions
happened in Ireland (4). The King of Connaught, willing
to take advantage of the weaknefs of the Englijh, whole
belt Tro ips were fent to the King, invaded their Ter-
ritories with a great Army, or rather with multitudes of
unwarlike People. B it he found in Geffrey de Maris,
Judiciary of Ireland (5), a more formidable Enemy than
he expected, who, killing twenty thoufand of the Irijh,
too.; their King himfelf Piifoner.

Though the K ng had confumed, in needlefs Expences,
the Sums granted him for the French War, he made that
dishonourable Expedition a pretence to demand a new
Aid. The Parliament (6) were very unwilling to com-
ply, but ho.vever were prevailed with at length by the
confideration of his great wants, and granted him a Scu-
tage of three Marks upon every Knight's Fee, held of the
Crown (7).

Shortly after, Richard Archbifhop of Canterbury com-
plained to the King;, that upon the death of the Earl of
Glocejler, Hubert de Burgh had feized the Caftle of Tun-
is '■ : , though it was a E let ot the Archbifhoprick. Henry
. 1 nun, the Wardfhip of the young Eari of Glocejler
bel mging t > him, it was his Prerogative to difpofe of it
to his Juiliciary, during the Heir's Minority ; adding, he
thought it very ftrange that he fhould call his Right in
q eftion. Tins anfwer not fatisfyrng the Archbifhop, he
exi ■ nmunicated, without diftindtion, all fuch as wrong-
full) detained tne Church's Lands, and immediately de-
p. ted to carry his Complaints to the Pope.

About the fame time, Prince Richard, the King's Bro-
ther, married t lie Co intefs- Dowager of Glocejler (8), Sifter
of the Earl of Pembroke, who died foon after his Sifter's
Marriage (9) He left his Eftate by Will, to Richard
his Brother, who was ftill in Bretagne, where he did the
St.rte fignal Services. A three Months Truce giving him
leif'ure to return into England, he demanded his Brother's
Inheritance, leized by the King. Henry wanting an ex-
c ife to enjoy the Profits, anfwered, That he heard his
Brother's Widow was with Child, and therefore could
not difpofe of the Inheritance till fhe was delivered. But
as he knew the tallehood of this, he fought a more
plaufible Pretence. He charged Richard with holding
criminal Correfpondence with France whilft in Bretagne ;
and without fullering him to vindicate himfelf, command-
ed him to depart the Kingdom within fifteen days. It
wa» Clocking to an Englijh Earl to fee himfelf treated in
this manner ; But it was ftill more fo to the Son of that
Earl of Pembroke, who had let the Crown on the King's



Head, and eftablifhed him in the Throne, in fpite of his 1231,
Enemies. Richard indeed quitted England, but it was* ' '

to pafs into Ireland, where he rook poileffion of the Callles ** '. '
and Lands belonging to his Family. Which done, he
levied Troops, and made himfelf amends out of the
King's Demefns, for what was unjuftly detained from
him in England. Whether Henry dreaded the Confe- TU King
quences of this Revolt, or was made fenfible that the In
juftice done the Earl was too manifeft to be maintained, '
he recalled him from Banifhment, gave him poileffion of
his Eflate, and invefted him with' the Office of Earl-
Marflial, enjoyed by hi. Brother. It was the Temper of
this Prince, to behave haughtily to fuch a, he thought un-
able to refill him, and to yield on a fudden to thofe that
oppofed him.

Lewellyn Prince of Hales having lately made fome In- H-n-y WJ <„
curfions into the Borders of England, Henry let him pro- '' "
teed for fome time. But when he thought the Heljh't,
Prince no longer expected to be attacked, he refolved to^
go in Perfon and chaftife him (10). However, upon tie
full reliftance, his warlike ardor abated, and he return*
without effecting any thing. &t.

Though Henry was now in the twenty fifth year if
his Age, he had been forced to live unmarried, becai •/■'■■

all his Projects on that account had mifcarried. His fiiit'
defrgn was to efpoufe Tolante, Daughter of the Duke of Ail !
Bretagne, to whom he was engaged by Oath. But whe- T. \.\ 71,
ther the Pope refufetl a Difpenfation, or for fome other lp' - : >'
reafon, the defign was not executed. A Match was
likewife propofed between him and the Duke of Anjlria's
Daughter, but with no better Succefs. Some time after, p. 293.
he wrote to the Archbifhop of Cologne, to impart to him
his intent of entering into a ftrict Alliance with the Em-
pire, by marrying the Daughter of the King of Bohemia.
But we don't find this affair was carried any farther.
He had alio the mortification to be difappointed this verv ■'■'■ r "'*-
year, in his defign of efpoufing the fecond Daughter of M " W: "'
the King of Scotland, Sifter of the Jufticiary's Wife.
The Jealoufy of the Englijh Barons put a (top to this
Marriage. As they could not bear to fee the King mar-
ried to the younger Sifter of the Wife of one of his Sub-
Jeffs, they were fo urgent with him to divert him from
it, that he did not think fit to conclude tin's affair, which
met with fo ftrong oppofition. I fhall add here, to a- ?■ 33°. &<'
void mentioning it elfewhere, that, four years after, he
would have married the Daughter of the Earl of Ponthieu ;
but this Project, like the reft, came to nothing. Though
he was contracted to her, and Ambaffadors were difpatch-
ed for the Pope's Difpenfation, he altered his Mind whilft
they were on the road, and fent them orders not to fpeak
of the affair.

The Archbifhop of Canterbury fo effectually pleaded his DfJ ,b „f
Caufe at Rome, that he obtained an order from the Pope, << - ■ ■' ■ ■■•
to take poiTeflion of the Caftle of Tunbridge, during the^ /> ^ ( - 1 °*
Non-age of the Earl of Glocejler. But he could not reap m. Pwu.
the benefit of this favour ; death feizing him as he was p- J70.
returning to England (11). When the Monks of St. An *£ *£**•.
gujlin heard the news, they forthwith elected the Bifhop
of Chichejler (1 2) Chancellor of the Kingdom. The King An BUBia
confirming their choice, invefted the Prelate, with the "nfirmulij,
Temporalities of the Archbifhoprick. But the Archbifhop " a ' rl
elect could never obtain the Pope's Confirmation, to whom by tbeP.fe,
it was reprefented (13) that he was too much a Courtier. M '
This (ingle reafon was fufficient to induce the Pope to void p " 37 ''
the Election, and order the Monks to chufe a Perfon more
devoted to the Holy See.

In the beginning of the year 1232, Henry called a
Parliament ( 1 4), of whom he demanded an Aid, to ena- rti" k'-'t
ble him to pay the Debts contracted by his late Expedi- demands a
tion into France. The Earl of Chejler replied, in the 6 ' ;
Name of all the Barons, that they had affifted him not m "p?rit
only with their Money, but alfo their Perfon*, and there- M. Wcit.
fore owed him no further Aid. The Clergy, who
were no better inclined to the King, defiring time to
confider of the matter, the Parliament was prorogued till
Eajler (.5).



(1 M. Paris fays, the Earls and Barons (pent ihcir whole time in fcalting and drinking; and the Soldiers fold their Horles and Arms, that they
might ha\- famething to make merry withal, p. 367.

\2 And l.inard at Portfmoulb, October 26. ibid. - - And kept his Court at Ckrijimaft at 7ori f where the King of Scott came to him. M. Wet}. z%%.

(3 As alfo William Earl of Albemarle, &c. M. Paris, p. 367. M. IVrft. p. 189. In his return from this Expedition died Gilbert de dure, Earl
cf Glocrjler. and was buried in Tewklbury Abbey in the lame County. An. Waverl. p. 192.

(4) In ■July. M Pans. p. 366. ,
(l) Wiih the alliftance of Walter de Lafei, and Ritbirdde Burgb. ibid.

(ID When met at Wejlmirfter , Jan. 26. Id. p. 367.

(7) The A. Ir flip of Canterbury, and fome of the 1 ifliops oppofed it. Id. p. 36S.

(5) lj.bella, they were married in April, ibid.

(9) And w.is buried in the New-Temple, in London, April 15. ibid.

' 1 o He alfembled a large Army at Oxford in July, where Leivtllyn was excommunicated : From thence he advanced as far as Heref-.rd, and cauftd
Maud taltle in Radnorlhire to be rebuilt. He returned into England^ in Oilober. M. Paris, p. 368, 369, 370.

til) e died at st. Gemma, three days Journey from Rome, on Auguji 3. Id. p. 370. (12) Hu°b dt iWi

1 1 31 By Simon de Lan t'n, who added, that he was unlearned and hafly ; and what was worfc, if he mould be promoted to that dignity, would caufe
the Kin^d. m 10 (hake iff the papal yoke. Id. p. 371. M. fVeJl. p, 290,

114) Which trKiMlVeJlnunJier, Manb 7. M. Paris, p. 372. (15) Till a fortnight af^er, ibid.



No. 16. Vol. I.



Hhhh



Befide



6



I i ■ ■ . -,
t . ■

fjreivn Ec-

M. Paris,

p. 37 1, ev,



72* H15r05rc/ENGLAN



D.



Vol. I.



ao. Pub.

T.Ip. 322



M. Paris.



Anntber
Ele.-t: t cf
an Arcbbi-

foop folded
by tbt P. ft.
M. Paris.
M. Weft.

£>,^™« »y

Hubert.

Ibid.

An.Waverl.



M. Paris,
f . 376.



FViiJes that the King had made an ill ufe of the Aids
I him by the Parliament, he gave the Clergy,
Nobility, and People, another and no lefs grievous caufe
..t difcontent. They fa w, the King openly favoured the
Ufurpations of the Court of Rome, and by an affected
Connivance, fuffered the Pope to trample daily upon the
Rights of the Church and the Kingdom. The Popes,
rot contented with exacting from time to time.* on di-
vers pretences, large Sums from the Clergy, were ma-
nifettly aiming at getting into their hands the Collations
of all the vacant Benefices, and confequently the Rights
of the Patrons were going to be quickly abolifhed. More-
over, the conferring of almoft all the Benefices upon Ita-
lians, or other Foreigners, could not but very much in-
cenfe the Englljh. This difguft was carried fo far, that
above fourfcore Perfons of Quality entered into a Confe-
deracy to dil'polTefs the Italian Ecclefiafticks, of whatever
they held in England. The Confederates, having chofen
one Twenge (1) for their Leader, forcibly entered feveral
Houfes of thefe Foreigners, and carrying away what
things of value they met with, diftributed them to the
poor. This was done with fo little noife, that not a
Soul ftirred, either to oppofe or punifh the Authors. But
the Pope, who was foon informed thereof, wrote fo fe-
vere a Letter to the King, that to judge by the Con-
tents, one would have thought the Church had received a
mortal Wound. Befides, without confidering that the
Laws and Cuftoms of England required a previous Pro-
cefs and Examination of matters, he commanded the
King, to punifh immediately the diiturbers of the
Church's Peace, upon pain of Excommunication and In-
terdict, if he deferred a moment the Chaftifcment of the
Guilty. Thefe Threats obliging the King to iiTue out
Orders to make itrict enquiry after the Authors of this
Violence, he found there were more Perfons concerned in
it than he imagined, and that the Bifhops themfelves
were in the Plot, or had countenanced it by their Silence.
However, for the Pope's Satisfaction, the chief Leader of
the Confederates was apprehended, and fent to Rome, pur-
fuant to his Holinefs's Orders. Some Sheriffs and other
Officers were imprifoned, for neglecting to fupprefs the
Riot. In all likelihood, the Number and Quality of the
Parties concerned, prevented any farther profecution of this,
affair (2).

During thefe Tran factions, the Monks of St. Augujlin
having elected another Archbifhop (3), according to the
Orders they had received, and their choice not being more
agreeable to the Pope than the former (4), they were in-
joined to proceed to a third Election.

How great a Calm foever there feemed to be for fome
years in the King's Court, a Storm was fecretly gather-
ing againft the Juiticiary, which proved the more fatal
to him, as he was not prepared for it. Ever fince the
King was perceived capable of entertaining Sufpicions of
his Favourite, the Enemies of Hubert had not ceafed to
do him ill Offices. Their Project was fo well managed,
that the King was perfwaded to recall the Bifhop of Win-
chejler to Court, and make him one of his Counfellors.
This Prelate had no fooner the King's Ear, but he la-
boured inceHantly the ruin of the Favourite ; being fenli-
ble, his own Salety depended on the downfal of his Rival.
As he earneftly fought all occafions to compafs his ends,
an opportunity foon offered, which he failed not to im-
prove. The Prince of Wales having made without oppo-
fition feveral Incurfions into England, the Bifhop of If'in-
chejhr reprefented to the King, how great a Reproach it
was, that lb defpicable a People as the Weljh fhould thus
plunder his Subjects, and no endeavours be ufed to pre-
vent it. The King replied, " He was fo far from having
" Money to undertake a War, that his Trcafurers had
" even told him, his Revenues would fcarce fuffice for the
" neceflary Expences of his Family." Thefe words fur-
nifhed the Bifhop with what he wanted, namely, a Pre-
tence to blame die Conduct of the Prime Minifter. He
told the King, " The want he complained of, proceeded
" from the Ill-management of the Treafury : That the
" Perfons through whofe hands the Money pafTed, were
" not called to an account : That the Wardship of Minors
" was continually given to private Perfons, without any
" Benefit to his Exchequer : That he received no Profit



" from the Revenues of the vacant Benefices, or from 1237.
" the Lands which by Death or Confifcation, fell to the
" Crown." He added, " that by thefe means the Kings



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