M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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" his PredeceiTors were wont to fill their Coffers, and
" confequently flood not fo much in need of Parliamen-
<c tary Aids, but lived in a greater Independence." Henry
improving this Advice, called all his Sheriffs, and fuch as
had the management of the Treafury, to account, and
made Peter de Rivaulx, the Bifhop of Winchefttr's Ne-
phew (;), Treafurer of his Chamber. This was only a Hubert tin-
Trial of the Biihop's Credit, to pave the way to the exe- f""' a " i
cution of his main defign. Thefe Changes were followed inbisrJZ.
by fome others, tending to remove from Court the Crea- M- l'*-^-
tures of the Juiticiary, whofe Interelt vilibly decreafed,
as his Rival's gained ground. In fhort, the Bilhop
knew fo well how to manage the King, that he caufed
Segrave his principal Confident, to be promoted (0) to
the Office of Juiticiary in the room of Hubert, who w:ts
turned out, though he had a Patent for that Dignity during

It feldom happens that a Favourite falls z-Jv. The ha-
tred of the Prince is proportionable to his part Affection ;
the former of thefe two Paffions hardly ever failing to be
as violent as the latter. Princes generally act on thefe oc-
cafions from a principle of Pride, very often to themfelves
unperceiveable. As their Affection cools, they endeavour
to juftify their Inconftancy, and frequently upbraid the
Favourite for the very thing which before was the Cm:.'.:
of their Love. Of this we have a remarkable Inltance
in the ruin of Hubert de Burgh. Never had Favourite a
greater afcendant over his Mailer. His Counfels, which
flattered all the King's Paffions, were regarded, whiift in
favour, as fo many Oracles. But when the King had
entertained a Prejudice againft him, he conudered his for-
mer Advices as fo many Treacheries. Indeed, it would
be difficult to vindicate all the Actions of this Favourite.
But, very probably, among the things laid to his Charge,
there were many falfe Imputations. Be this as it will, a Tbt Kiagtr-
few days after his removal, the King fent for him, and *" Hubert

to P'T'i i/r

required him to give an account of ail the Money that b,, .&««.-».
had pa(fed through his hands (7); which being very hard Hubert ...-
to do, Hubert endeavoured to be excufed. He produced £, J „T'7 '"
King 'John's Charter, declaring he was fo well fatisfied ofib':j.
his faithful nets, that he difcharged him from all accounts. M - *' c ft»
The Bifhop of Winchefier replied, the Charter might be
valid as to what paffed in the late Reign, but was of no
force to exempt him from giving an account of his Ad-
miniitration, during the prefen't. He added, this was not
the only thing he was charged with : That he was ac-
cufed moreover of feveral Crimes, and particularly of hav-
ing given the King pernicious Counfels, to the great pre-
judice of his and the Kingdom's Affairs. Hubert per-
ceiving by thefe Accufations that his ruin was refolved,
defired time to give in his Anfwer ; which could not be
refufed him. For the Bilhop of Winchefter, who flood in
need of the Barons to condemn him, durlt not difublige
them, by denying Hubert a Privilege common to him with
all the Peers of the Realm. It may be, they would have
made it their own Caufe, if the Court had perfifted in de-
nying his rcqueft.

Whether Hubert was confeious of his guilt, or defpair- dte of
ed of vindicating his Innocence before Judges, feveral o{' b ' K '"£*-
whom were his profeffed Enemies, inftead of appearing onf
the day appointed, he took Sanctuary in the Priory of ibid.
Mcrton, from whence he hoped none would dare to force Aa.v.'avtii.
him. Some time after, the Parliament b:-ing met at Lam-
beth (8), an Aid of the fortieth part of the Moveables of
the whole Nation was granted to the King (9). Which
done, the Lords petitioning that Hubert de Burgh's Tiial
might proceed, he was fummoned to appear, but refufed
to obey. Upon which the King, who was of a violent
Temper, commanded the Mayor of London to force him
from his Sanctuary, and bring him either dead or alite.
The Citizens very joyfully embraced this opportunity of
being revenged upon Hubert, ior whom they had enter-
tained a mortal hatred, ever fince his Severity in the affair
of Conjlantine. They immediately flocked together, to
the number of twenty thoufand, with a refolution to exe-
cute the King's Orders without Merc)'. Mean time,
fome of the chief Citizens dreading the Confequences o[

Z*.rJ} HU-

1 bert.

T. Viiloa.

(1) His Name, according to M. Paris, was Rcbert de Uinge, a Knight in the North of Errand. He declared, the reafon of hi; flirring was, cz-
Ciijfe the Pope attempted illegally to deprive him of the Patronage of a Church, which was the only one he had. p. 375.

(2) M. P.irt! lajs, Hubert de Burgb had granted them the King 1 ! Letters Patents, as well as his own. p. 375.
{>) Jbn, Subprior <t St. Augufi:*- % r.'omftery in Canterbury, a;. Pans.

{4) Beoaufe he was too old, mo limple, Li. p. -76. 1\ J . 11 efi.

(5) Or Son, as M. Paris owns, p. 376. (6) Julv 29. Ibid.

|- Ot which we have theft particulars in M. Pari, .- 1. The Monies paid into the Exchequer. 2. His Drfflefm in Ergljnd, Wales, Ireland, ari
roia j. 3. Liberties in Forefts, Warrens, Earldoms, Wardfhips, 6?r. 4.. The Fifteenths, Sixteenths, and other Aids, p.i:d into the Exchtquer. 5. Pre-
en 1 delifling from his right in Lands, or Moveables. 6. Things loft by his Negligence. 7- Walks, ccc.Jkr.cd by W^r, nr etl.eiv.rf.. X. The
Revenues of vjcant Biihopticks, 0c. 9. Scutages, canucages. Gilts, Aids, Iffuts of V.aidihins, tSV. 10. Rni s foi Ml/iages of .Keirs, fifr, p. v ,
See above, p. 211, 243, 257, £?<-. "

pteir.ber 14.. M. Paris, p. 377.

iS) ro. the pa;mea: of the Debt fee owed the Duke of Brttagae. U, Paris.



8. H E N R Y III


t 23 z.


Co rafh an Order, went and advifed with the Bifhop of anfwercd, he would never confent to the death of a Per-
IVinchellcr, who told them, let what would follow, the fon, from whom hiinfelf and the King his Father had re-
King muft be obeyed. But theRemonftrancesof the Earl ceived fuch fign^l Services (7). He ceafed therefore his
of Chejhr to the King himfelf, had a better effect. He Profeeution, and leaving him in pofleffion of his Eftatc of
reprefented to him, that fuch a tumultuous AfTcmbly might Inheritance, and of fuch Lands as he purchafed with his
be very dangerous, and raife in the City a Sedition, which own Money, was contented with depriving him of the reft,
might not be eafily appeafed. Moreover he intimated, As foon as it was known how the King flood affected, y
that fo violent an action would be blamed by all the feme of the Lords (3), who till then had not dared
World, and efpecially by Foreigners, who, not being pre- ("peak for Hubert, follicited the King in his behalf, and fo
judiced, like the Englijh, againft the Party accufed, would far prevailed, that he was fent to the Caftleof the Dtvi/eSy
think it very ftrange, he fhould be thus treated, fince other till it fhould pleafe the King to difpnfc of him Other wife.
means were not wanting to punifh him if he were guilty. Thus ended this affair which had made fo much noife, to
In fine, he put him in mind of the Pope's refentment, the great grief of the Biihop of Wtnthefter, who expected

Hubert is
drugged by
force out of
a Church.
M. Paris,
p. 378.
M. Weft.

who would never fuffer the facrednefs of the Sanctuary
to be violated with Impunity (1). Henry being prevailed
with by thefe reafons, lent a countermand to the Mayor
of London, who found it very difficult to difperfe the

Of all Hubert's Friends during his profperity, there was
but one left that ventured to fpeak in his behalf. Fhis

Hubert would not have come oft' without the lofs of Iris

John Blund (9), ProfefTor of Divinity at Oxford, being A f" no ,
elected Archbifhop of Canterbury, immediately fet out for „„' ,
Rome, with the King's Licenfe, to obtain the Pope's Con- Af-
firmation. A!. Pan-.
It fecmed, that Hubert's difgrace fhould have obliged —
was the Archbifhop of Dublin, who, by his follicitations, the new Minifter to keep within the bounds of mode;.:
obtained of the King, that he would grant Hubert a longer tion, and behave gentlitr to the Englijh. Put, contrary to '■'■
time (2) to prepare his Anfwer. In the interim, Hubert everyone's expectation, it had quite another effect. In- ')' '
coming out of his Sanctuary, to vifit his Wife at St, Ed- ftead of taking a different courfe from that of his Pi d , ,'..,. K
mundsbury, the King, who had notice of it, caufed him ceftbr, the Biihop of Winchefttr thought only of governor
to be purfucd by fome Soldiers, who found him in a fmall with an abfolute power, and withal to fcretn himfeli Irom
Chaptl (3), where he had taken refuge, with the Crofs the Plots of thofe that mould oppofe his deftgns. He inti-

M. Pars.
P- 379-

He is fent

Ihe Archbi-
Jbopoj Dub-
lin in vain
incencdei for
M. Paris.

He is con-
fined in the

11 one hand, and the Hoft in the other ; both which be-
ing violently wrung from him, they chained his feet (4)

under his Horfe's belly, and in that ignominious manner
conducted him to the Tower of London. All Churches,
as well as what belonged to them, being in thofe days (o
many Sanctuaries, not to be violated without punifhment,
the King's attempt alarmed the whole Body of the Clergy.
The Biihop of London was no fooner informed of the
matter, but he went to the King, and declared , he would
excommunicate all thofe that, directly or indirectly, were
concerned in the breach of the Church's privileges. The
King being terrified at thefe threats, ordered Hubert to
be fent back to the Chapel (j) from whence he was forced,
but commanded withal the Sheriffs of Hertfordjhire and
EJJex, upon pain of being hanged, to guard the Church
fo flrictly, that the Piifoner might neither efcape, nor
receive victuals from any perfon. The Archbifhop of
Dublin perceiving his Friend could not remain in this
fttuation, interceded for him once more, and intreated
the King, with tears in his eyes, to tell him what he de-
figned to do with the Prifoner. Henry replied, he inten-
ded to have him condemned for a Traytor, unlefs he

mated to the King, " That among the Barons, there were
" few really devoted to his Service, and that their fole
" aim was to make themfelves independent " : A
" It was abfolutely necclTary to think of means to repre.'s
" their Infolence : But it would be almo.'t irnpoffibie to
" fucceed, whilft they were, in a manner, maltersofthe
" Kingdom, by having in their hands all the place ol
" Trull and Profit ; in a word, whilft they poflciTed
" what might moft increafe their audacioufnefs : That
" their power therefore was to be undermined by degi < ,
" by turning them out of their Ports, Offices, and Go-
" vernments, which might be conferred upon Foreigners
" who iTiould be invited into England, to the end the
" King might rely on their affiftance in cafe of necef-
" fity : That the ftrong Places and Pods which gave moft:
" credit and authority with the People, being in the
" hands of fuch, as were by Gratitude and Intereft devoted
" to the King, it would be in vain for the Englijh Barons

" to attempt the re-eflablifhment of their pretended rights".
This advice, fo conformable to the King's Inclinations, Httringt
could not but be very agreeable, and therefore was imrae- "" '
diately put in practice. Quickly after were feen to arrive*™ a
would own himfelf guilty, and abjure the Kingdom for above two thoufand Knights, Gafeom and PoiSIevins, whom Poiaewnt.
ever. the Bifhop of IVineheJler their Countryman, and Pctii'f\.

Hubert thinking this condition too hard, voluntarily de Rivaulx his Son, who palled for his Nephew, had
yielded himfelf to the Sheriffs, who carried him to the . fent for. Thefe Strangers not only were promoted to the
Tower fettered and . chained, amidft the fhouts of the moft confiderable Polls and Governments ( to), but more-
People, who took a pleafure in infulting over his dif- over had the Wardfhips of the young Nobility committed

The King re-

M- Weft.
No. 1 C2.


But whilft he was anxiouffy expecting the rigorous Sen-
tence he was threatned with, his affairs began to have a
new face, by the fickle temper of the King, who could
not long continue in the fame mind. Two things farther
contributed to his change. Firft, the death of the Earl
of Chejler (6) , profefled enemy of Hubert, though he
difapproved of the illegal ways the King would have ta-
ken to deftroy him. Secondly, a large Sum of Money
lodged by the Prifoner in the hands of the Knights

to them by the King. By that means they procured one
another very advantagious Matches, to the great detri-
ment of all the noble Families. This Proceeding vciv
much exafperated the Barons, who plainly faw the con-
fequences. Bcfides, they could not bear to fee themfelves
removed from Places and Pofts, to which they had a
right to pretend, whilft the King lavifhed his favours on
Foreigners. But the Bifhop of IVinchtfter prevented their
murmurs from reaching the ears of the King : Or, if he

could not avoid it, had the addrefs to hinder their making
Templars, and readily delivered by him to the King upon any impreffion on his Mind,
demand. Thus Hubert faw the King's anger cool by Richard Earl of Pembroke firft ventured openlv to Th, Farl ,f

degrees, when he expected to feel the moft terrible effects complain of thefe Proceedings (11). He boldly reprefented Pembroke

The Bifhop
of Winchef-
U'r tries t-j
Jitr him up
Mi Paris.
p- 3S1.

of his difpleafure. This fudden change alarmed the Bi-
fhop of ' IVinchejlcr, who, dreading the revival of the King's
affection for his old Minifter, made a frefh attempt to
compleat the deftruction of his formidable Rival. He
took occafion from the Money lodged with the Tem-
plars, to accufe him of Fraud and Rapine ; alledging, it
was impoffible to heap up fuch immenie riches by lawful
means. This Charge was fupported by all Hubert's ad-
verfaries, who, feeing the King began to relent, came in
a body and petitioned his death. But the King refolutely

tnet i3>

to the King, that in placing his whole confidence in
Strangers, he fo alienated the aiTection of his Subject-. ■ /. - .
that in the end, their difcontent muft be attended with M - '' ' •
fatal confequences. He plainly toll him, in cafe he con- p ' J *"
tinued thus to prefer the Foreigners before the Engl ,
,the Barons would be forced to feck means to clear the
Kingdom of thefe blood-fuckers. The Prime Minifter,
who was prefent, did not gi\e the King time to reply.
He told the Earl, his Infolence deferved correction, in thus t ■ •
pretending to abridge the King of the Liberty of emi .

(1) Two eminent Citizens of London, Andrew Btt&ertl, and John Travers, went alio to the Bifhop of WinchtRtr at his Houfe in Sdutbxoarh t and re- M.

anunftratcd to him the ill consequences of luch proceedings. M. Paris, p. 37S.

(2) Till the middle of January. Ibid.

(3) At Brentwood, in Hjjex. (4) Or rather tied them with Thongs, See M. Paris, p. 379.
(t.) September 27. Ibid.

(6) He died Otlober 28, at Wallmfford Caftle, without Ili'ue, and was fucceeded in the Earldcm of defter, by his Nephew John, Son to Ear) D r-.J,
Brother of the Kjng of Scotland ; in the Earldom of Lincoln by John de Lacy, another Nephew of his ; and to William de A.'imcy, Earl of Arundel,
there (ell, by his Death, an Eftate of five hundred Pounds a year. Id. p. 380.

(7) Adding, he had rather be reckoned a weak and eily-natured Prince, than a cruel and blncdy Tyrant. Id. p. 381.

(8) Ricbird Eitl . f Carnival, the King's Brother, IViiliam Earl of Warren, Richard Eail-Marfnal, and William Earl of Ferrari, became Sureties for
his good Behavicur. Ibid.

(9) Rapin by mifbke calls him Richard. — AskkA this time was collected the fortieth part of all Gocds lately granted by Parliamc-it. The form of
the Commiffiun to the Sherills, and the manner how it was to be levied and collcclcd, is to be feen in JIJ. Paris, p. 3S0. under the Year 1232. la which,
the curious Reader is referred. The Anna.s nf, Waveitcy fay, that every body paid, who had Goods above the value of eleven Pence, p. 194.

(10) Walter Biihop of Carlijle, was turned out of the Treasurer's place ; and William dt RcJu.ie from the Office of Deputy Earl-.Vanha), to make
room for fome of them. M. Paris, p. 384.

1*1) Taking fome great Men along with him. Hid,



Vol. I.

in" whom he pleafed for the defence of lis Crown : Ad-
din*, if the Foreigners, now in the Kingdom, were not
fufficient'to reduce his rebellious Subjects to their duty, a
greater number fhould be fent for. This haughty and im-
prudent anfwer caufed a general dilcontent among the
Barons. From thenceforward they began to withdraw from
Court, and form a Confederacy, to put a flop to the def-
potick power the King was affuming, by the violent coun-
fels of his Minifter.

Some time after, the King fummoning a Parliament ( i ),

the Barons purfuant to a refolution taken among them-

Parliamnt ; f c ] veS) refulcd to meet. They were fummoned a fecond

M ' P s 3 6 ris ' time (2), but to no purpofe. At lait, being informed that

a frefh Troop of Foreigners were landed in England, to

ftrengthen the Court- Paity, they met in a body, to con-

and tbreatm f u lt together what was to be done. The refult of their

3 ""»■ Confultation was to fend Deputies to the King, to let him

know, that if he removed not from his Perfon and Coun

Ihey refuft
to meet in

tier King.

refufed to ftand to his engagement. Such were the In- '233.
ftrudtions taught him by the Bifhopof TVinchefler : I mean,
not to value the breach of his Faith, and to behave fo, as
to oblige his Subjects to require pledges for the performance
of his word.

The Parliament meeting on the 9th of Oclober, as The Pailia-
was agreed, the King was earneftly intreated by all the "■•"' ■''''
Lords, to replace his confidence in his Subjects. It was „'".' .'
remonftrated to him , that the adminiiiration of the M. lwis.
publick affairs belonged more naturaliy to the Peers of
the Realm than to Foreigners, and that he could not
prefer Strangers without wronging his Barons. Above
all things, he was defired not to introduce the pernicious
cuftom of treating as Rebels and Traytors, thole that
were not legally condemned. The Bifhop of I'/in- lie impru-
chejler, who, on fuch occafions, never failed to anfwer <tl I u , fa
for his Mafter, replied fo, as plainly iliewed what max- j/ jr p „/
ims he inftilled into the young King. He told them, Winchefler.

fels, the Bifhop of IVinchefltr and the Poiilevins, they were The Peers of England were very arrogant to put them- "' f " ' 9 '

refolved to place on the Throne a Prince, who fhould bet
ter obferve the Laws of the Realm. So formal a Declara-
tion furnifhing the Prime Minifter with a plaufible pre-
tence to exafperate the King againft the Barons, he omit-
ted nothing to induce him to ufe the molt violent meafures
to reduce them to obedience. Henry blindly giving him-
felf up to the guidance of the Bifhop, began to pradtife
this advice, with compelling fome of the Lords to deliver {hops unanimoufly threatned the Prelate with Excom- cate bits.

felves upon a level with the Peers of France , when

there was a wide difference between the one and the

other : Adding , it was a notorious incroachment upon

the royal Prerogative, to pretend to deprive the King

of the right of making ufe of what Judges he pleafed,

to punifh the difobedient. Upon thefe words, which ^ B 'A't"

contained maxims fo deftructive of Liberty, the Bi ■ excomKur .i.

Henry un-
dertakes to
reduce then

g. Paris.

their Children as pledges of their allegiance (3). After
that, he prepared, very unadvifedly, to profecute by arms
foch as refufed to fubmit. When he thought himfelf in a
condition to make himfelf feared, he called a Parliament (4),
with defign to caufe -he moft obftinate to be condemned.
The Barons obeyed the Summons indeed, but came fo we"

municaticn. But he defpifed their menaces , alledging, lb:d -
he was not fubjedt to their Jurisdiction, as having been
confecrated by the Pope. However , left this reafon H ' \° tf ™!* t
fhould be deemed too light, he appealed beforehand to his
Holinefs, from the fentence of the Bifhops. Appeals to
the Court of Rome were then fo facred, that the Bifhops

attended, that they were in no danger of violence. The not daring to excommunicate him by name, were con

tented to dart their thunders in general, upon all thofe
who alienated the King's affection from his natural Sub-

Earl of Pembroke was on the road, in order to be prefent
with the reft, imagining it was not in the King's power
Tb'e Earl of to have any thing palled to his prejudice. But upon no-
tice (5) that the Court defigned to take a fpeedier and furer
courfe, he turned back and retired into Wales, The pre-
cautions of the Barons breaking the King's meafures, he
prorogued the Parliament, left what he had projected fhould
fall on himfelf. His delign of caufing the Parliament to

retires "its
Wj! e5 .


Mean time, the Earl

proceed againft the Barons not fucceeding, he refolved to the mortification to be denied

of Pembroke finding all his in- The Earl of
fiances for the reftitution of his Caftle were fruitlefs , Pcmbioke.
befieged and took it in a few days. Upon News thereof, cafik.
the King fell into a great fury with the Earl, and com- M. Paris,
nianded the Bifhops to excommunicate him. But he had _ijr

Ike King
treats the

M. Paris.

act with open force. To that end, he fummoned all the
Vaflals of the Crown to meet him with their Troops at
Glocejler (6) , but the Ear! of Pembroke , and fome
others (7), did not think fit to obey. Their refufal fur-
nifhing him with a plaufible reafon to attack them, he
ordered their Eftates to be plundered, their Parks to be
deftroyed, their Houfes to be pillaged, and their Spoils to
be diftributed among his Poiilevins. If the Barons had
held together, the King would never have ventured to pro-
ceed to fuch violence. But diffention arifing among them,
fome broke the Confederacy (8), and left the reft expofed

The Earl of to the King's refentment. The Earl of Pembroke per-

PemDroke ceiving himfelf too weak to refill, after being deferted by

leagues with t ^ e g rea teft part of his Affociates, applied to Lewellyn,

Wak"*" Prince of Hales, who granted him his protedion and af-

Mean time, Henry having received a frefh fupply of of Grcfmont, whilft the Army was quartered without in P- 3 8 9

If/!- «"?»« P"ielevin Troops, marched as far as Hereford, with de- Tents , attacked the Camp by night , and put the .

efbi'cajlles fi^n to feize the Earl of Pembroke's Caftles in that Coun- whole Army, who thought nothing of the matter, to \
ty. But his ardour quickly abated, by the refiftance rout. This accident fo confounded the King, who loft
he met with from the firft Caftle he befieged. As he
was lofing his time before the Caftle, he bethought him-
felf of a device which fucceeded. He feigned to be wil-
ling, to refer the decifion of his quarrel with the Barons
to the Parliament, which was to meet in Oclober. Nay,

refute to ex-

l hty told him, they cammumcM
did not fee lawful caufe to excommunicate the Earl , him.
who had only recovered his own Right, and what the
King promifed to reftore. Henry, not being able to pre-
vail with the Bifhops, refolved to take arms again, and
revenge this affront. For that purpofe, he fummoned all ' n ' *"£
the Lords to meet him at Glocejler, with Horfe and ™"njl 'him.
Arms, the day after All-Saints. When his Army was
ready, he marched into Wales, but was no fooner there,
than he found himfelf in extreme want of Provilions and
Forrage, the Earl of Pembroke having laid wafte all the
places through which the royal Army was to pafs. This
difappointment obliging him to alter his courfe , he
entered Monmouthjhire, where he ftaid fome time to give
orders for the fubfiftence of his Army. Mean while, Ilis A,m J
the Earl of Pembroke underflanding, that the King i\nd'" rf . r ^"','.

C5» o ana routed,

moft of the general Officers were lodged in the Caftle m. raiis.

:-: vain.

He propofts
an accommo-
dation j
Id. d. 381.

and br'.akl

in the action five or fix hundred Horfes (9), with almoft

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 129 of 360)