M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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C'4.) June 10. Id p- 431.



Trouble?,



Book Vllt



8. HENRY III.



3'*



1236.

Makes a
lifhonourable
Peace 71/1 to
tb: King of
Scotland.
Afl. Pub.
T-l-r-334-
M. Paris,
p. 4-,2.



Troubles, from which he faw he could not free himfelf
with Honour. For this reafon he hail defertcd the Duke
of Bretagne, and fuffered himfelf to be bullied this very
Year by the King of Scotland, who demanded the
County of Northumberland, with that haughtinefs as would
have met with a mortifying Repulfc, had he been to deal
with any other Prince (1). But how unjuft fbever this
Pretention appeared, Henry made no fcruple to purchafe a
Peace with the yearly Penfion of eighty Marks, which
were fettled on the King of Scotland. He even took a
Tourney to York, on ptirpofe to negotiate this difhonourable
Treaty, pretending a fear of the Scots making a League
with the IVcljh. He feigned alfo to be appreheniive that



123;.



I . ..'.'1 a
• 11 .i.irn nt,
and bre:, ndt
to couden 1
bis paft
Conduet, in
order to ob-
tain an Aid.
M. Parfe.
P-43S-
M. Wtft.



him, that he wanted a ftronger Engine fo wreft fr^m them
the Aid he demanded, he attacked them in a more fen-
fible Part. He promifed to re-cftablifh his Father's Char- T <" ;
ters, and to fatisfy them that he really intended to fj a ";',',''. '/, ,
caufe them to be obferied, he ordered the Execration for- c< ;. - - 1
merly denounced by Cardinal Langton upon the Tranf- ',' ' ' '■■
grcflors of thefe Charters, to be published in all the ? .\^
Churches. In fhort, to gain them entirely, lie added to '
his Council three Lords (7) whom he knew to be very
acceptable to the Nobility. So many Advances from a
Sovereign, and cfpccially the Re-eftablifhmerit of the
Charters, had at length the defired effect. The Pari: . ■ •
ment fufFcring themfelves to be deceived bv thefe pretended *'

Gilbert M.irjhal, Earl of Pembroke, who had fucceeded his Demonftrations, granted him the Aid required (Hj. How- ......

Brother Richard, and married the King of Scotland's Sifter,

would improve this opportunity to raife Commotions in the

Kingdom (2). Counfels of the Foreigners, and adhere to the Advices ofT.Wikost

his Subjects. Secondly, that four Knights fhould be cho-
fen in every County to colledt and lecure the Aloney in
fome Monaflery, that it might be rcftored to every one
again, in cafe the King mould break his word. Not-
withftanding this Precaution, the Money was no fooner £l^,'

the 7,ords of the Kingdom were fummoned (3), in order raffed, but the King feized it and fquandered it away in

to tn'at about fome weighty Affairs of State. As foon as ufelefs Expences, even in Prefents to his favourite Fo-

they were met (4), a certain Prieft, famed for Elo- reigners, who remained in his Council as before.

queuce (5), told the Lords, " He was commanded to ac- Henry's Conduit occafioned fuch loud Murmurs, that ¥ V .

•* quaint them with the occafion of their Meeting." Af- Prince Richard his Brother thought himfelf obliged, to re- ^'p,,, ,.,',

ter a fhort Paufe, he added, " That the King having prefent to him very ftrongly, to what Danger it would in- nitbbiM.

fallibly expofe him. But his Remonitiances were in vain, '' 3 " s '
Henry liking better the Counfels of the Foreigners; which
were more agreeable to his Inclinations. Among thofe that ^', m " n ,' ir
had the grcateft Afcendant over the King, Hiftory par- t„/„, n '&
ticularly mentions Simon de Alontfort, Son of the famous >» favour,
Earl of Alontfort, General of the Crufade againft the Albi-
genfes. This young Man, who for fome Difguft, had left
the Court of France to make his Fortunes in England,
conformed himfelf fo to the King's Humour, that few

" occafioned by his own Indifcretion, and the unfaithful- were in greater Favour. I fhall have frequent occafion

" nefs of his Minifters, he was determined to be guided to fpeak of him, in the courfc of this Reign, under the

" no more by the Advice of Foreigners, but to commit Title of Earl of Leicejler.

.k. &.i_:_:a. it.nr. r,( <-k» P,.M;,-L- Affi,;™ m Kio „•,!•;„» Though Henry little thought of extending his Domini- T>" P"""

t/"Wale«



Mean time, as the King daily perceived the great Men
to be eftranged from him, and that therefore it would be
a'lmcult to raife Money to fill his empty Coffers, he be-
thought himfelf of an Expedient, which he believed could
not' fail of Succefs. He called a Parliament, to which all



ever they clogged it with two not very grateful Condi- '■"'
tions. Firft, that, for the future, he fhould reject the Ji weft

Counfels



... -. t

Ksng ct>-

l no'.



" fetiemfly reflected on the Abufes crept into the Go-
" vei'nment, was extremely concerned lor contributing to
" the fame, by his careleffhefs and ill conduct : That
" he acknowledged, with Grief, he had made ufe of im-
" prude.tJt and felfifh Minifters, who never regarding the
" Good of the Kingdom, to which they were Strangers,
" had dra*wn him in by their pernicious Counfels, to do
*' things e'entrary to the Laws and Cuftoms of the
" Realm : \Vhat to repair, as far as was poffible, the Evils



" the Adminiftr.ttion of the Publick Affairs to his native



Subjects: That he was perfwaded, they would labour on over the neighbouring Countries, a happy Juncture pro- /„, n omll „ e



" to the utmoft of their Power to prevent the Oppreftion
" of the People, caufe Juftice and the Laws to flourifh,
" and reftore the C!'Own to its former Luftre." After
laying thefe Foundatioi is, the Orator continued, " That
** the King defired his Parliament to confider, that the
" Mifmanagement of his Treafurer, and the Debts he had
■" contracted, were not tl.'c leaft of the Mifdemeanours,
" his Miniftry might be charged with : That he hoped
" they would begin with applying a Remedy to this, upon



Ibt Barons
Rtp/y.



cured him, before the end of this Year, an Advantage u Henry,
which the moft illuftrious of his PredecefTors had fought in Act. I,u _ b -
vain. Lewellyn, Prince of Wales, grown old and infirm, sv. «'«
and finding himfelf perfecuted by his Son Griffin, could &r.
think of no better means to fecure himfelf from his rebel- M- p "'' -
lious Practices, than by putting himfelf under the King of k j. weft.
England's Protection, to whom he did Homage for his Do-
minions. This Proceeding was the more extraordinary, as
he himfelf, as well as his Anceftors, had all along exerted
his Afl'urance, that he w ould confent to any Expe- their utmoft to prevent the acknowledging of this Sove-
" dients propofed for the red vefs of the other Abufes: reignty. If force of Arms had at any time compelled them
" That therefore he required an Aid anfwerable to his to it, they had always been ready to difown their Submif-
*' prefent occafions, and to fhe\v he was in earneft, he fion, when their Circumftances were more favorable.
" confented beforehand, that C01 nmiitioners mould be ap- Whilft the Englijh were loudly complaining of being ■Arr'vaUf
*' pointed, to take care that the Money fhould be difpofed expofed to the Avarice of the King and his foreign Minif- M.Varii.
" of for the neceffary Ufes of the Kingdom." If Henry ters, a frefh Caufe of Difcontent unexpectedly happened by p. 4.40.
had been lefs known, this harangue might have had a the Arrival of Otho the Pope's Legate, who was come to
fudden Effect on the Parliament. But as they wore too plunder them of what they had left. The Clergy juftly
fenfible to what a height he could carry his Diflimulation, dreaded thefe extraordinary Legatefhips, the fole Aim
all thefe fubmiffive Expreflions were not able to move whereof was to pillage them. The Archbifhop of Canter-
them. They anfwered, " Thev had often granted Aids bury very much blamed the King, for fuffering the Le-
" to the King, without ever receiving any reciprocal gate to come into the Kingdom, without any apparent
" Mark of his Affection ; that fince his AcceiTion to the Neceflity, and without the Knowlege of the Clergy and
" Crown, his Dominions v/ere confiderably leffened, Parliament. But thefe Expoftulations were in vain. It
" though he had frequently exalted from his Subjects very would not only have been difficult to perfwade the King
" large Sums, which were only lavifhed away upon Fo- to fend back the Legate, but it even appeared that he him-
" reigners." To this vigorous Anfwer, it was replied from felf had privately fent for him. His view was to fcreen

himfelf under his Protection, from the Attempts of his
Subjects. The Pope took care not to lofe this opportu-
nity of fending a Legate into England, in expectation,
that bv means of the King's Authority, he might with
Impunity rifle the Churches. Thus the Englijh faw them-
prevailed with by this Promife, which feemed to them of felves at once expofed to the Avarice of the King and the
little moment, fince they could not rely upon the King's Pope, who were united together for the*r Deftruction.
Word. And therefore they replied, They had already It was not upon England alone that the Legate calf i-t,-
granted the King an Aid for the Emprefs's Marriage, but his eyes : His Defign was to drain Scotland alio, which <*• *■'"£' '/
he had diverted it to other Ufes, and fince he had married hitherto had been free from the Exactions of the Court of Sc"fian<i «*"
without asking their Advice, he might defray the Expences Rome. He believed he had met with an opportunity at York.
of his Wedding as he pleafed. This Anfwer convincing an Interview (g) which the Kings of England and Scotknd **■ Pul '-

3"4-

(t) Affirming, that King 'Jebn had given it him when he marred his Daughter Jcanr.a. M. Paris, p. 432. 'TbcLegatr

(l) This Year gjeat Quarrels arole berween the Scholars and Citizens or" OxfcrJ, (0 that the Kinf, (he BilTiops. and the great M-*n of the Kingdom bat arr.ir.d
h,ad much sdo to appeale them. M. Pans, p. 432. lege into

(3) liv his Writs, which are the firlt mentioned in the Hilrnrians. See M. .Parir, p. 435. M- Wtft. p. 296. Siotland :

(4) Whkh was on January 14. M. Pant. p. 435. M. Wtft. p. 296. M. Phi*
(c) William de Rale. ibid. Kt. Wtft. p. 296. (6) A Thirtieth. M. raris. p. 4.3 ;.

{7) The Earl of Warr en, Wsiiiam Prrrars. and Jebn Ge<!<jrei, who lwore they would never be corrupted by Gitts to deviate from Truth, but would
always give the King good and wholfome Advice. A,. Paris, ibid.

(5) V\ hat 1'erlbns they were that granted this Aid, appears from the Record extant in Dr. Brady. *'.3 the Atrhbifliopj, Bifliops, Abbots, Priors, Esrls,
Barons, Knights and Freeholders, for themfelves and their Valfals. And it was to be collected' from Corn, Ploughs, Sheep, Cows, HV>is. Car: H >rfes,
Studs of Mares, &c. Brady's appendix. No. lc.9.

(9 Or rather a Parliament, held .'rrr-W.. 14. ,t which the great Men of the Kingdom were fummoned, to tre it of in ri. S^; _\[. rVv. p. ^n.

had



the King, " That his own and his Sifter's Marriage had
" entirely exhaufted his Treafure ; but if they would
" grant him a Thirteenth (6) part of their Moveables,
" he promifed, upon his Honour, never to injure or op-
" prefs any Baron of the Realm." The Lords were not



312



t*3"'



Tbe BISTORT of ENGLAND. Vol. 1.

they came to London on the Day appointed, guarded with 1238



u j ► Y -i „n account of the Scotch King's Pretenfions,

! lference, where the King of Scotland Horfe and Arms, and ready to compel the King to a com-



hut i> oppojed
b\ r l KJ ig,



a/tiply.



*ThtEarldom
o/Chefter J^



Itafned an AugSSn of hiTFenfion CO* was'ended, pHar.ce. At? took care not to reiift, at a time when he *«• *
£ T rtate who had found fome excufe to be prefent, law no power able to fupport him. He affured them-,

1 . k- \Z rUo-ned to <^o into Scotland, to regulate the he really intended to redrefs all Grievances, and to con-
told him he dengneu iu yj u j u , k„,,.,l - - - A—~ «»' k;„ Cln^.lr,, *^\A .k= m h» ,»^ ™,ili;r,rr tr,
\fftiis of the Church. Alexander anfwered, he never heard
of anv Lewie fent into Scotland, and there was (till lefs
occaiion tor any in his Reign ; neither would he in (hort,
allow fuch an Innovation, as long as he fat on the 7 hrone.
Adding if notwithftanding this Declaration, he perhited
in his defio-n, he warned him beforehand, that he was not
abfolute Matter of his own Subjeds, and perhaps it would
not be in his power to prated him, if the People, fierce
and ungovernable, mould fail in their refped due to the
Pope's "Legate. Thefe laft Words were apparently the
reafon of the Legate's altering his mind, and flaying with
the Kin°" of England, whom he found more obfeqmous.
John late Earl of Chejler dying this Year (2) without
■,-■ e j t0 tne Crown that Earldom,



vince them of his Sincerity, told them he was willing to
fubmit to the Arbitration of a certain number of Lords,
the one half to be named by himfelf. This Propofal RtgoUhn
beine approved, Commillioners were chofen on both lides, f or " " r "

ts rr ' . . . ■ vernmen* of

who drew up certain Articles, which the K.;ng was to ob- , lr Slatl
ferve for the future, in the Government of the Kingdom, fnpofedly
Thefe Regulations were figned by the King and the Ha- ' : '■'"£•
rons, and confirmed by the Legate, who, in all publick
Affairs, always endeavoured to interpofe his Matter^ Au-
thority.

This fame Legate met not at Oxford, where he went Ice Ugate
upon fome Buiinefs, with that refpect that was paid him ">"« <"
at Court. Though the Univerhty in a body received M x ^ ris .



annexed to
the Crown
M. Welt.



the King annexe

ed very great Privileges, paying, in Money,



which enioveu vciy £.1*-^ *..»'.v & ~.*, t — j — C j j. — .

t« the FiVl's Sifters what they were to receive from thence, lars loft the Refpect they owed him. Some young Stu
or allowine it out of other Lands. dents offering to enter into his Lodgings (7), were fo unci



him with the Deterence due to his Character, the Info- M. Wert,
lence of his Domefticks was the occaiion that certain Scho- Jf en ?!"|''

ota-

;r Lands. = " nci "

Abont L fame time, Henry received a Letter from the villy repulfed by the Porter, that they were very much out

Henry>» Fmneror Frederic informing him of the Birth of a Son of Humour. Whilft they were yet in the Houfe, fome

ntUEmfc- f-' 1 P hjs w ' ;f {Q whom he had g ive n the Name of them going into the Kitchin, iound there a poor Irijb

7a. Pub. of Henry. Adding, he def.gned the Kingdom of Sicily for Scholar begging f<
T.I. P . 374- the new lborn Prince.



ris the Hiftorian, concludes the Occurrences



Corruption of MatthCW 1 01 '..

tb c Court of c this Year, with a lively Defcription of the Court ot
Kam \ » Rome What he fays is the lefs cjueftionable, as it comes
P from the Pen of a cotemporary Monk. But however it is

this which has gained him io many Enemies, who have

laboured to render his Teftimony dubious

Simon de Montfort before-mentioned, finding himlelt in

Erreat Favour at Court, ventored to caft his Eyes on the

Cbuntefs Dowager of Pembroke, the King's Sifter (3).

But as he was juftly apprehenfive of meeting with great



1238.

S ( rtli*!i de
Mont fort

tn.irnes a

Sifter of tie
King"*.
M. Paris,
p. 465.

An.Waverl.

M. Paris.
*• 467-



an Alms, threw a Ladle-full of boiling Water in his facr.
This barbarous Adtion fo provoked a // eljl> Student, who
was witnefs of it, that having a Bow in his hand, he fhot
the Cook dead on the fpot with an Arrow. The Legate
hearin" of the Tumult, retired in a fright into the Tower
of the Church, where he remained till night, dreading
that the Infolence of the Scholars would even extend to his
Perfon. As foon as he thought he might retire with Safe-
ty, he haftened to the King, and complained of this out-
rage, laying it to the charge of the whole Univerhty,
which he had now put under an Interdict. TTie King ap-
:d



he took" a fhorter method, by fecuring the peared extremely in raged at this Infult upon the Legate,

Princely s' Heart beforehand. In a word, he fo managed and to give him Satisladhon, immediately Cent the Earl of

his matters that the King was obliged to caufc them to be JVarrcn to Oxford, with orders to feize the Offenders (3).

privately married in his own Chapel (4). Prince Richard This Bufineis, which at firft made a great noife, was

L.<= evtremelv incenfed at this Marriage (5). He bitterly at length hufhed by the Mediation of the Bifhops, who



was extremely incenfed at this Marriage (5)

complained of it to the King, and ftrongly remonftrated to prevailed with the Univerhty to make all the oubmiiTions

k;m that he was in the wrong to give his Sifter to a he required (9).



him, that he was in the wrong to gi
younger Brother, whofe Fortune was no way anlwerable
to a Royal Family. The King excufed himfelt in the
belt manner he could, from the neceffity of haftening
the Marriage; adding, there was now no remedy, fince it



Had this Accident happened a little later, England Coldnefibe-
would have paid dearer for it. Shortly after, Henry lend- ',S M "*f .

. t- n j r rr> 1 .1 ry Kwandtbt

ing the Emperor a eody ot i roops, under the Com- Pofc ^
mand of Henry de Turbeville ( 1 o j, the Pope, againft whom M. Paris.



p. 470



/Hi Mar-
ridge con-
firmed by lb,
Pipe.
M. Paris.
p. 468.



Tbe Bjront
complain to



was folemnize'd and the Princefs with Child. Mean while, they were employed, was fo incenfed, that tor a good w

Montfori perceiving Prince Richard was highly exafperated

aeainlt him, and fearing he would endeavour to annul his

Marriage, went to Rome, where he found means to have

it confirmed by the Pope. After that he returned to the

King, who gave him a very kind Reception.



tbe King.
M. Paris,



while, the Englijh Eccleliafticks were denied Admittance
at the Court ot Rome. Thi.s Quarrel made the Emperor
hope, he fhould gain the King his Brother-in-law to his fide.
Accordingly, being deliro'js to improve this jundture,
he difpatched Ambaffadurs to him, who did all that lay in
ThisMamage was not the only thing Richard thought their power, to perfwade; him to join with the Emperor
he had reafon to complain of. The great Credit of the againit the Pope; but it. was^not poffible for them to l\;C-



Foreigners, who were always near the King, created in
him no lefs uneafmefs than in the reft of the Barons.
They all unanimoufly complained, that the King had vi-
olated his Promifes, and that all the Money exacted from
his People on divers pretences, was employed only in m-
riching the Queen's Relations. As Prince Richard teemed
i„to a League t0 be very much concerned for the Intereft of the Pub-
*""* Rl " lick they believed that, under fuch a Leader, it would not
SIS! be i'mpoffible to obtain of the King the fatisfaftion they
drefojtbar r cq„ired, efpecially with regard to the Foreigners. In
this belief, they entered into a Confederacy (6), and ha-
ving the Prince at their head, fent the King word,
that they prayed him to remember his Promifes. This
Confederacy, the confequences whereof were dreaded by
Henry, caufed him to put on a feeming Moderation, as
he ufually did, when he found himfelf preffed. Inftead of
(hewing any Refentment, as they expeded, he appointed
a Day to give them a favorable Anfwer. But as they had
been deceived more than once, they fuffered not themfelves
to be over-reached by this outward Mildnefs. Perfwaded
as they were, that the King fought only to amufe them,



1 bey enter



ch.ird,

wane

refioj
Grievances
M. Paris.
t>- 467.



M. Tari:
p. 46S.



ceed. The King and the Pope flood too much in need
of each other, to remain long at variance. Though the
Pope looked upon himfelf as Lord Paramount of England,
he was not ignorant how averle the Barons were to his
Pretenfions, which the King's Authority in fome mea-
fure was alone capable of fupporting. Befides, it was on-
ly through the countenance and connivance ot the King,
that he could rifle the Englijh Clergy with Impunity.
On the other hand, Henry law, none but the Pope could
fupport him againft the Barons. Moreover in his Delign
of filling the principal Church-Preferments with his Crea-
tures, he was very fenlible he could not proceed without
the Pope's Authority. It was no wonder therefore, the
King and the Pope held together, lince it fo greatly con-
cerned them mutually to ailift one another.

The Death of the Bifhop of IVincheJler (ii), during tieatbeftbt
thefe Tranfaciions, gave the King opportunity to make Bifiepoj
the firft Advances towards a Reconciliation with the Pope, ^'"cheifcr.

r i_ • l c r • twenty tries

Henry, ardently deliring to piocure this rich bee for tne toga tbe
Bifhop of Valence his Uncle, ftrongly recommended him %»»'«*•■
to the Monks, the Electors-. But, notwithftanding ills 4^,^ '

\:onkt eli.fe



(')He'



to have three hundred Puunds a Yaar in Land, fays M. Paris ;



P- 472. 473-
M. Weil.



but by the Record (Rot. Pat. ii. //. 7. M. S.) it appears to have been but V/'p''.
two hundred l'ounds/>rr Annum, nut of Cumberland and Northumberland. See Brady, p. 56H.

(2) About mitjuntide. M> Paris fays, he was poiloned by his Wife the Daughter ot Prince Leivcllyn. p. 440.

K) Eleanor. (4) In St Stephen' a Chapel at rVeftmiitJIer. Th«ywere married January 7. Af. Pant, p. 465.

(5) Chiefly, becaufe it was done without his Knowledge, and without the Conl'ent of the great Men ot the Kingdom ; alter the Kang had engaged, not A ' WavCi
to do anv thing of Moment, without their Advice and Concurrence. M. Paris, p. 467.

(6)' Which confifted of Gilbert Earl-Marihal, all the Earls and Barons of England, and the generality of the People of the Kingdom. Of the Nobility,
Hubert Earl of Kent, alone, remained faithful to the King. Ibid.

(7I In the Abbey of Ofnty near Oxfrd, M. Paris, p. 469.

(8) Thirty-one were imprifontd in IValhngjord Caftie. M. Parts, p. 470. By reafon of this, the Studies ceafed there all the Summer. M- Weft, p 29S.

(9) The Legate obliged all the Scholars to meet at St. Paul'. Church, (above a mile from his Lcdgings) and go on foot to the Bilhcp of C^rlij.e'ss
Houle, and their putting off their Caps, Gowns, and Shoes, to go to the Legate's Houfe, and humbly crave I'aidon and Ablolution. M. Paris, p. ^-o.
M. IVift. p. 19s.

(to) With whem went John Manjel, and William Hardel, with Money to hire Troops. Id. p. 470.

(1 I) Piter de Rupibus. He died at Famham, June 9. and was buried in Winckcfier C»thedial. He founded the Monaltery of Hales in Clccfterfoire, add
lukford in Buckmghamfr.irc, for Premcnjlr atmfians ; Stibume in Hampjhire, for jiugujlin Monks j and a Hofpita] at Portjmoutb, M. Paris, p. 472.



follicications,



Book VIIL



8. H E N R Y III.



3i3



t*i8 follicitations, they made choice of the Bifhop of Cbi-
chejicr, High-Chancellor of England. Though the King
was difappointed, as to ttie Monks, lie defpaired not to
fucceed another way. He knew the Pope wanted no-
thing more than to fee him make Advances towards a
Reconciliation. The Intereft of the Court of Rome re-
quired it, and feldom does that Court neglect what may
turn to its advantage. In this belief, Henry fent Ambaf-
fadors thither, who, after making fome Submiflions in
their matter's name (1), prevailed to have the Eledtion
of the Bifhop of Chichcjler annulled by the Apoftolical
Authority (z). t

*. n h The deceafed Bifhop of IFinchcJler, was jultly deemed

i/Win- one of the chief Authors of the Troubles in this Reign.
cheftn j t was ne t hat advifed the King to annul his Father's two
dj»fCafi Charters, and fend for Foreigners into the Kingdom, to
■Troubles in commit to them the Adminiftration of the publick Affairs.
tbn Rtig"- Xhefe two Articles were a perpetual occafion of difcon-
tent among the Nobles, and at length were attended with
Death ^ the very fatal confequences. The death of this pernicious
sis'" '°f Counfellor was preceeded by that of Joanna, Queen of
5% Scotland, Sifter to Henry (3).

Phtegairji The manner in which the Kingdom was governed,
the King. was difpieafmg to all. So that it was not ftrange, there
M WcV + ' ftlouU be Peop'<?> who endeavoured to make away with
the King. This year, a Villain (4), pretending to be
mad, found means to get into his Chamber by night (5),
with defign to kill him ; but being difappointed by the
King's paffing that night in the Queen's Apartment, he
was taken and punifhed according to his defert. Before
he died, he declared, that William de Maris (6) was the
Author of the Confpiracy, in which feveral others were



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