M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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in» made fenfible of the ill confequences, hindered, by upon any other terms (10).

his authority, the Abbot from being forced to comply. Shortly after, Henry was engaged in a troublefome af- Oeujim »f
Had the Pope fucceeded in this project, all the Benefices fair, of which he got clear, as ufually, with difhonour, *,^f'"'
in England would foon have been in the hands of the and which caufed him to forfeit entirely the little efteem his England and

Subjects had ftill left for him. Before Prince Richard's ¥ " mc - .
departure to the Holy Land, he invefted him with the **' X'^f
Earldom of Poiclou, though France was poffeffed of good
part of it, fince the Conquefts of Philip Auguflus. This
Province being thus divided between the two Crowns,
Leu'is thought likewife he had a right to invert with it
his Brother Alphonfo ; which proved the occafion of a War
between the two Monarchs.

Henry being extremely provoked at Lewis's inverting the

Pope, the Bifhops, and the Abbots. At leaft, it is to be
prefumed, Gregory would not have been fatisficd with that,
but deligned it only as an Effay of a more general pro-

The Clergy were not the only fufferers in England.
The People were no lefs expofed to the King's oppref-
fions, than the Clergy to the Pope's. The Jews in par-
ticular were every now and then feverely dealt with, for
out of their pockets it was that the King ufually raifed
Arr-.val of Money to defray his extraordinary expences. Thmias Earl


Prince his Brother with Poiflou, refolved to be revenged, ibeEarlof

Sav K . * of Savoy, the Queen's Uncle, being come this year into and the more, as the Queen his Mother was concerned. y f' ch f,""
M- litis, England, the King received him with fuch magnificence,

p- 549. 55°- that not knowing how to provide Money for this charge
l " otherwife, he forced the Jews to prefent him with twenty
thoufand Marks, on pain of being expelled the King-
dom (4).

The King was fo defirous of enriching the Queen's
Relations, that he was never weary of fhewing them
marks of his affection. The Archbifhop of Canterbury
dying the laft year, as was obferved, Henry ufed fo many
inftances, and other lefs lawful means, that he got Boni-
face, the Queen's Brother, to be elected to the Archiepif-

Henry gets
t'ne s£»tffl**

cbofen Arch
M. Paris.

The Princefs, who, after the death of King John, e-u'carryti
fpoufed the Earl of Marche her firft Lover, behaved with l ^ ar "•"
the fame haughtinefs, fhe had affumed whilft Queen of m'^v'u.
England. As the Territories of the Earl her Spoufe were p. $*q. '
in that part of Poiclou poffeffed by France, he had all along M - Weil,
done Homage to Lewis. But when Alphonjo became Earl H^n-ford
of Poiilou, fhe could not bear to fee her Husband kneel to
a Brother of the King of France. This was certainly a
miftaken pride, fince there was a vaft difference between
the Sovereign and the Vaffal. However, fhe follicited her
Husband fo earneftly, that at length fhe prevailed with him

copal See. Thus was feen at the head of the Church of to refufe Homage to Prince Alphonfo, though he had now

pofitively promifed it. This refufal was even accom-
panied with fome offenfive words, which put the King of
France in a paffion, and made him refolve to chaftife the
Earl's infolence. Mean time, the Earl, maintaining what
he had done, implored the protection of the King of Eng-
land. He hinted to him, it would be very eafy to drive
the French out of all Poiclou ; and in cafe he would bear
the expense of the War, that Province would fupply him

Henry pleafed

M. Weft.
An. Waver 1.

England, a young Foreigner, ignorant of the Laws, Cuf-

toms, and Language of the Kingdom, and confequently

incapable of difcharging the Functions of that Dignity as

he ought.

Drub of ttt Gilbert, Earl of Pembroke, dying this year (5), Walter

Earl of his Brother demanded of the King the Inveftiture of the

mbohfie- Office of Earl-Marfhal, hereditary in their Family. Henry

ceded by bis at firft in a great paffipn denied him, alledging, his two

Brotber Brothers were Traitors and Rebels, and that he himfelf with Troops fufficient for a great Army.
id. p. 565, r "


(r) He departed from Dover, fan. 7. M. Paris, p. 549-

(2) Rubeus fent alfo his Agents to Scotland, and fcraped together there, all the Money he poffibly could. M. Paris. (3) Marks. Id. p. 554.

(4.) In the Memor. 25 Hen. 111. Rot. 7. is a Precept lent to certain Jews as Exeter, to take care at their Peril, about levying and anfwering to the
Crown their Cvinringent of the Tallage of twenty thoufand Marks alTelTcd on them, at the Terms appointed for that purpofe. The like Precept was tent
to the Jews of Wincbefler, &c. For alTeffing this Tallage, an Extraft or Tallage-Roll was delivered out by the King's older to the Perlbns to whole care
that aft.vir wss committed. See ihe Coin-Nnte at the end of this Reign.

(s) He was killed by the Unrulinefs of his Horfe, whofe Reigns breaking at a Tournament at Hertford, on May 28. he was flung down, and his
Foot being hung in the Stirrup, caufed him to be almoft kicked to Death. He was buried at London. M. Paris, p. 565.

(6) But the King retained two of his Catties, iiix. thofe of Caermartbtn, and Cardigan, in his hands. Id. p. 573 This Year died J bn Bfel,

:nief Foreftvr of England, on Atigufi 22. Id. p. 550. and alfo Walter de Lafey. Id. p. 552.

(7) He went as far as Cbejler, in order to force him to a compliance. Id. p. 570.
|8) By John dc Lexinton ; This Tranfaclion happened between the Sth and 29th of September. Ibid.

(9) This Year King Henry placed the Body of Edward tbe Confejfor in a rich and curious Shrine. M. Parit. p. 572.

(10) She died a Virgin, and lies buried in the Church of the Nunnery of Atnbresbury , to which Monaftery Qit gave the Vanor of SUlkefberm, Sandf.

Cental, p. 69 This Year alio, November 9. died Stepben de Segravt in Letujler Abbrv, where he had lain hid iince his difgracc. tM, Paris, p. 576.

And William dt Fjrttbas Earl of Albemarle. Id. p- 577.




I 2 '
The Parlia-
ment refuftt
to grant an

ftl. Paris,
p. 5S0.
M. Weft.


Vol. I.

Henry roifet
Money by
other meant
M. Paris.
M. Weft.

AB- Pub.

With thefe hopes fummoned a Parliament (1), and demand-
ed an aid anfwerable to the intended expedition. But his
Subjects were fo tired with granting a Prince Money, who
made fo ill ufe of it, that he could obtain nothing (2).
On the contrary, he was fharply upbraided for lavifhing
away his fettled Revenues, and the fums daily exacted
from his Subi'ecls by unlawful means. He was told like-
wife, that the Truce with France not being yet expired, the
Parliament was unwilling to incur the guilt of the breach
of his Oath. In fine, complaints were made of the non-
performance of his promife, with regard to the two Char-
ters, which he had fo often fworn to obferve.

Thefe reproaches were the more grievous, as the King
had nothing to reply. However, he perfifted in his defign,
and not being able to prevail with the Parliament to grant
him an aid, he fqueezed what he could from private Per-
fons, by way of Gift or Loan, or other means, in which
he fpent the whole Winter. After this he fummoned all
the military Tenants of the Crown, to meet him at Portf-
meuth on a day appointed. But inftead of Horfe and

fent, fince he was prevailed upon by fo poor a pretence. 1242.
Be this as it will, he continued the Siege, and took the Lcw; ' '<=*-'*
City by ftorm. A natural Son of the Earl of Marche %?*£&
being made Prifoner with four hundred Knights, Lewis p. 58S.'
was advifed to put them all to death. But he replied, the
Son could not help obeying his Father, and the reft their
Sovereign ; and therefore it was not reafonable that the in-
nocent fhould be punifhed for the guilty. This firft Suc-
cefs was followed by feveral others, which gained Lewis
the poffeflion of divers places in that part of Pcielou be-
longing to the Englijh, without Henry's being able to flop
his progrefs, fo ill had he taken his meafures. As Henry U. p 589.
endeavoured only to avoid fighting, he went and encamp- M * We(t *
ed near Taillebourg, on the Banks of the Charente, with
the River between him and the Enemy. When Lewis
had notice of it, he ported himfelf on the other fide of
the fame River, and by means of his Engines and Crofs-
bow-men, compelled the Englijh to remove two thou-
fand Paces farther. Their retreat gave him an oppor- He gains
tunity of eafily becoming mafter of Taillebourg Bridge, Pa l'

Arms, he ordered them to bring each a fum of Money, which was the only way he could come at the Englijh

s crver

He fits out,
bailing made
the Arcbbi-
fhop of
York Re-

Id. p. 400,

The Poifte-
vins join
kirn, net as
the Earl bad

Lewis be-
Jieges Fon-
JV1. Paris.
1A. Weft.

Henry de-
clares War,
Ivl. Paris.
f. 587.

Lewis makes
cut offers,
ivhuts are
M. Paris.
M. Weft.

depending upon the Earl of Marchess words , that he
fhould find Men enough in Poiclou. As foon as the fea-
fon was fair (3), he embarked at Portfmouth, attended by
the Queen his Mother, and Prince Richard his Brother,
newly arrived from the Holy Land (4). Upon his depar-
ture, be committed the Regency of the Kingdom to the
Archbifhop of York (5). He landed in Saintonge, where

Mean time, as the day was too far fpent to pafs his
whole Army, he was fatisfied with guarding the Bridge,
refolving to attack the Enemy by break of day. Henry,
who was not ftrong enough to ftand a Battle, took the
advantage of the night to retire, whilft Prince Richard his
Brother was endeavouring to amufe the French with Pro-
pofals of a Truce, which however he could obtain only for

he was joined by fome Poielevin Noblemen. The Earl of the reft of that night (9). As foon as it was expired,
Marche met him alfo, but fo thinly attended, that it was Lewis purfued the EngliJ/i, and overtaking their Rear,

vifible, he was not in condition to perform his promife.
When an Army came to be raifed in thofe parts, the Of-
ficers and Soldiers lifted fo (lowly under the Englijh Ban-
ners, that it was eafy to forefee the enterprize would not
be fuccefsful. Mean time, the King of France, who was
advancing with a numerous Army (6), laid Siege to Fon-

made them fuffer fome lofs. This at leaft is the Idea the M. Paris.
Englijh Hiftorians give of this Action, which the French p- S9 °'
make much more confiderable. But on fuch occafions, it
is very difficult to difcover the Truth exactly, becaufe
one meets with very few impartial Hiftorians. However,
it is very likely the matter was otherwife than the En-

tenay, one of the ftrongeft places in Poitlou. During this glijh reprefent it, fince the French give a particular ao
Siege, Henry fent Ambafladors (7) to him, to demand all count of this Battle, were they fay both the Kings were

that Philip Augujius had taken from the Englijh , and
Lewis VIII had promifed to reftore ; and in cafe of re-
fufal, to declare War againft him. Lewis, who was fainted
after his death, being of a tender Confcience, could hardly
overcome his fcrtiples, on account of his Father's Oath
to reftore thefe Provinces. In this difpofition, he gave
the Englijh Ambafladors an honorable reception, and an-
fwered them with great moderation, that he much won-
dered, the King their mafter could break a Truce confirm-
ed by a folemn Oath. Adding, that to fhew his fincere
defire to preferve a good underftanding between them, he
offered to renew the Truce for three years (8). In fine, he
confented to deliver up part of Poitlou and Normandy, pro-
vided Henry would withdraw his protection from his rebel-
lious Vaflals ; who, for no reafon, refufed to pay him the
obedience due to him. Thefe Propofals were as advanta-
gious as Henry could wifh them. He might too, by ac-
cepting them, have procured for the Earl of Marche an
honorable accommodation, which Lewis, as he then flood
difpbfed, would not, doubtlefs, have refufed. But fuffering
himfelf to be guided by the violent Counfels of the Queen
his Mother, and the Earl of Marche, he proudly rejected

p. 592.

prefent ; that Lewis was in great danger ; and that four
thoufand Englijh were taken Prifoners (10). Befides, it
is certain, the King of England fled as far as Xaintes,
where he was followed by Lewis, and that the Earl of
Marche making a Sally, was the occafion of the two
Kings coming to a fecond Battle, no lefs fatal to the
Englijlj than the former. After this, Henry perceiving Id.
he was like to be blocked up in Xaintes, fled to Blaye,
where not thinking himfelf yet fafe, he retired to Bor-

The King of France's extraordinary Succeffes in this lie Earl of
War, terrified the Earl of Marche. He found that the £, ;a . rch £-
King of England, _ not being able to protect him, as it jw with
plainly appeared, his holding out any longer would but ren- Lewis,
der his condition more deplorable. Therefore refolving, ^''V*
though a little too late, to provide for his fafety, he fent M*"paris,
his eldeft Son to the King of France, to try to obtain fome P- 59'-
tolerable Terms. The favorable reception Lewis gave the M " Weft "
young Lord, induced the Father to go to his Camp, with
his Wife and Children, and throw himfelf entirely up-
on his Mercy. Lewis, who was extremely generous, very
readily pardoned him, though he had fufficient Evidence,

Henrf defies
hi. Paris.

thefe offers. Some days after, he rafhly fent two Knights that the Countefs- Queen had fuborned People to poifon

Hofpitallers to defy Lewis, though he was ill able to

fupport his haughtinefs. Notwithftanding this Bravado,

Lewis, who could hardly conquer his fcruples, fought to

make Peace. But at length means were found to remove

his uneafinefs, by reprefenting to him, that his Father's

land fhould perform on his part what he had promifed :
That the faid King had fworn not to exact any ran-
fom from the Prifoners, nor to treat ill fuch of the Eng-
lijlj as adhered to France : That he had violated both thefe
•Articles, and this breach of the Treaty of London had
rendered void the engagements of the other Party. In all
appearance, Lewis, as pious as he was, fought not to eafe
his Confcience entirely, but only to appeafe it for the pre-

lum. He was content with having three of their Caf-
tles (11) for Security of their Fidelity. In all appearance, H - P- S9*-
he would have enlarged his Conquefts upon the King of
England, who was little able to ftand before him, if the
Plague which arofe in his Army, and a Diftemper which
Oath was no farther binding, than as the King of Eng- himfelf was feized with, had not prevented him from car-
rying his Arms as far as Bourdeaux. Thefe reafons, and Alrute for
perhaps fome remains of his old fcruples caufed him to/"-" 1<<">'
confent to a five years Truce, after having fufficiently "" """
chaftifed his Enemy, by the entire Conqueft of Pole- Aa. Pub.

tOU (l 2). T. I. p.416.

Though Henry had nothing more to do in France, l2 ±^.
he would pafs the Winter at Bourdeaux, where he la- Henry 'paffes
vifhed away the remains of his Treafure in Entertain- ' if #■"■">■

or Bourde-
aux, and

(1) At Wcftmmfler , in the beginning of February, or latter-end of January. M. Paris', p. 579. M. Weft. p. 306. fends fir

(2) They entered, before the meeting of the Parliament, into a Refolution, not to grant him any Money. M. Pans, p. 580. Money front

(3) May 15. Id. p. C.S3. \ . Weft. p . 307. England. t

(4) And abcut three hundred Soldiers. Aj. Paris, p. 583. M. Paris.
(<,) And at the lame time rpftoreu to his favor Richard, Bilhnp of Chicbefter, the Chancellor; Ralph Fitx Nicolas, and others. But Richard Abbot p. 596.

of E-jefbam, refigned the great Seal. Ab-'ut that time a Marriage was concluded between Alexander, the King of Scotland's eldeft Son, and Margi M. Weft-

ret Daughter ot King iicnry ; In contidcration of which, the Cuftody of that part of England which borders upon Scotland, was committed to the King
of Sctrs. Ibid.

(b) Confifting of above four and twenty thoufand Men. M. Paris, p. 5S4. At the beginning of this War were feized the Perfo-.s and Goods of
the Englijh vlerchants in the French Dominions, and of the French in the Englijh Dominions, to the great Injury of Trade ; which feems not to have
been praclilfd before. Id. p. <;8v

(7) Ilalph FitZ- Nicolas, and Nicolas de Molls. Ibid. (8) For fix Years. Ibid,

(9) As foon as he hod obtained it, he returned to King Henry, and advifed him to make his Efcape with as much fpeed a* he ccn'd. rtherwife he
wouid be taiten Prifoner j thereupon th t - King took Horfe that Night, and never flopped till he came to Xaintes. M. Pans, p. 590. M. lie:!, p. 308,

(10) in this Lattle, or Skitm./h. iheic following Perfons lignalizid theml'elves, S. de Mcntfort Earl of Leicefier, Wtllian Lcssgef.ee E '1 of Salisbury,
Roger Bigod Earl of Norfolk, John de Burgh, IVarin de Mtntcbemfil, Hubcrc Fitsa-MattbeVJ, Ralph Film-Nicolas, John Monfel,"^. Bevy «': Haft 7 .
was uken Prifoner. M. Paris p 590.

(' ' , Thole or Arpm, Ar chord, and one upon the River Creufe. W. de Nangis,

(12) This Year oied Richard de Burgh, and Hugh de Lajty, two Barons of Note. M. Pans, p.


1,1. Hi,?-

p. 309.


Book VIII.


3 '7

1243. ments and Diverfions; as if he had been victorious in fher-in-law, who was come to celebrate the Nuptials of 1243;
the late Campaign. Mean while his Troops were in her Daughter Cinela with Prince Richard (8), furnifhcd

want of all things, the Gajions not being willing to
maintain an Englijh Army in time of Peace, and with-
out any neceflity. So that the King found himfelf ob-
liged to fend for Cloaths and Provifions for the Soldiers
to the Archhifhop of York, his Regent in England: or-
dering him withal, to coufifcate the Effates ot fome Eng-
iijh Barons, who were retired without Leave (1). The
firir of thefe Orders were executed. But the Regent

M. Weft.

Loans for
the King,

M. Paris,
p. 600.

him with an opportunity to confumc a larger Sum. The
charge he was at on account of this Marriage may be
eftimated by the Wedding- Dinner only, which conlifted,
as it is faid, of thirty thoufand Difhes.

The Holy See, winch had been vacant eighteen Months, Innocent IV
was filled this Year by Cardinal SeneBaldb d Genoa, who $"v uiu
took the Name of Innocent IV. The new Pope was no p. 604.. '
fooner confecratcd, but he confirmed the Excommunica-

prudently declined meddling with the laft, for fear of tibn denounced upon the Emperor (9).
raifing difturbances in the Kingdom during the King's Since Henry's taking into his own hands the Admi- 1244,

Abfence. This firft Supply was hardly received before niftration of the Government, not a Year patted with- T" ttrlii-

the King fent frefh Orders to the Regent to demand of out his demanding Money of the Parliament. At fir ft "■"* *""

the Cijiercians one year's profit of their Wool. But the he generally met with a denial: but at length the Par- jtid. ^

Abbots excufed themfelves in fuch a manner, as plainly Iiament was gained by the King's Affurar.ces, that he would

fhowed they would not be compelled to it without caufe his Father's Charters to be punctually obferved. lie Tie Part j-

Ibe Parlia- force, which the Archbifhop did not care to ufe. In had a mind this year to ufe the fame Artifice (10), but found •"■»*» Dfm

"torn a'n />>d ^ ne ' the Arcl,uimo P> continually prefled to fend money the Nobility and Clergy fo frrictly united, that he def- fiP't""*

M. Paris. ' to Bourdeaux, obtained of the Parliament a Scutage of paired of fucceeding. He even perceived it was dan:

twenty Shillings upon every Knight's Fee, which would to fuffer them to be affembled too long, knowing' they

have been fufiicient to free the King from his prefent were taking meafures to deprive him of the Adminiftra-

ftraits, had it been well managed. tion of Affairs, which they defigned to commit to four of

Mean time Henry continued ftill at Bourdeaux with their Body, who were to t ran fact every thin** in his

his Army, without having any other buiinefs but to Name. A Project of this Nature could not but alarm Thi Parln-

7reai b Mur- confume in idle Expences the Money fent him from him; and therefore he promifed in general to reform what m "'"t"'-

England. When his Coffers were empty, he demanded was amifs, and after fome fruitlefs Endeavours to divido """"

frelh Supplies of the Regent; who was at a lofs to an- them, prorogued the Parliament (1 1).

fwer all thefe demands. The only means left, was to Mean while, the Clergy had a violent Shock to Tie P u
borrow Money in the King's name of fuch private Per- withlfand from the new Pope, who fent into England™""™
fons as were reputed rich (2). This extraordinary Pro- one Martin as his Nuntio, to exact Money from the Ec- w"/;. r
ceeding caufed great Murmurings among the People, as cleliafticks, with Power to punifh fuch as were refrac- p. 64J. "
it has always done, whenever the Kings have made tory to his Commands. The Nuntio executed his Or- M. We t.
ufe of it to fupply their occafions. The Regent, how- ders fo rigoroufly, that for the leaft trifle he fufpended
ever, was willing to expofe himfelf to thefe Complaints, Priefts, Abbots, and Bifhops themfelves ; and thereby be-
in expectation, by that means, to draw the King from came extremely odious both to the Clcrcy and Laity.
Bourdeaux. But withal, he fent him word, there was But it was much worfe, when he produced the Pope's Tht Pc /' -i
no poflibihty of raifing any more Money, and therefore it Letter to demand of the Clergy an extraordinary Aid tof£2°"'°^
was time to think of returning home. This Declaration difcharge the Debts contracted by Gregory IX, in his Wars
obliged the King in good earned: to prepare for his De- with the Emperor. He alledged, this War being under-
parture. As foon as he was refolved, he fent orders to taken in defence of the Catholick Faith, and St. Peter's
all the Barons of England to be ready to receive him Patrimony, all Ecclefiafticks and particularly the EngliJ]>,
at Portfmouth. They obeyed ; but he made them wait were bound to contribute to the expence. Before the " n ' r K ' n l
fo long, that they were extremely difgufted, by reafon of Clergy came to any refolution, the King reaffembled the ^"'JTa,
Henry rat,. tne expencethey were at, during their Stay. Before he Parliament (1 2), and renewed his Demand of an Aid. prvtujinjii
Tfaa and ' ett Bourdeaux, Henry ratified the five Years Truce with But as he was fenfible he fhould ob'.ain nothing unlefs he k "f '"
returns to France; that difhonourable Truce, whereby, befides fatisfied the Barons with regard to their Grievances, he ^ "p'rii.
E ft' a pb ^ ew ' s ' s Conquefts, Henry was bound to pay him yearly promifed with an Oath take the two Charters punc- p. 6+3. '
t. P . 416. fi ye thoufand Pounds Sterling (3). This was the Fruit tually obferved. He even confented the Bifhops fhould
M. Paris, of this ill-concerted, and ffill worfe managed expediti- excommunicate him, in cafe he violated his Oath. Up-
M 6 \Vft " ^' however, notwithstanding the reafon he had to on thefe Aflurances, the Parliament granted him twenty
be afhamed of the unfortunate Succefs of this Enterprize, Shillings for every Knight's Fee (13). But as no prefling
he would be received at London with extraordinary Pomp, Neceflity could be alledged for this extraordinary Aid, it
as if it was poffible to deceive the People by thefe out- was faid, the Money fhould be expended in the Mar-
ward Appearances, and make them believe, the King was riage of his eldeft Daughter, though all knew it was in-
returned victorious (5). All the Money that was fent him tended for other Ufes.

•being expended, he was no fooner at London, but he When the Nuntio faw the Parliament had complied IhetfmiHt

Extorts Mo- picked a Quarrel with the Jews, who, to appeafe him, with the King, he prefled the Bifhops and Abbots to ^'/'"'"in"

my fnm the were forced to give him a very confiderable Sum (6). have the fame Condefcenfion for their Spiritual, 25 the v lin.

J*j ws " . Of which, Aaron, a Jew of York, paid no lefs than four Parliament had for their Temporal Father. But they W. p. 643,

P . 605. Marks of Gold, and four thoufand of Silver (7). flighted this frivolous Reafon, and alledged much ftroneer

Henry was not long in England, before he found oc- to juftify their Refufal. The Steddinefs of the Prelates

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 133 of 360)