M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Clerk, and Gnffrey de Langley a Knight ) made nothin; of ruining divers of the bell Quality ( efpecially in the North ) for kil.ing but a Deer or a Hire,
though i t were in the very Highway ; and c'apped up ievaral Gentlemen in Prikin lor but mutteiing agaimi theit unjuft Proceedings. M. Porn.



No. XVII. V L . I.



M m m m



Bufine'j



The H I S 7 R r of ENGLAND.



322

, i co. Bufinefs in hand. Though he met at firft with great op-

pofition, by reafon of the Youth and Infufficiency of the

Perfon recommended, yet by his Promifes and Threats he

at laft obtained his deiire. The Pope, to pleafe the King,

failed not to confirm the Election, intending to ask him

another favour in his turn ( 1 )• j 'i!

Tit Kmg cf The fad news had now reached Europe, of the King

France takm of France's misfortune in falling into the hands of the

Prifmrby § aracenSj w ho detained him in Prifon (z). All France

tlT7bT openly charged the Pope with being the Caufe of their

Pop, ii Monarch's difgrace, by abfolving for Money thole that

M "pa"^" had takel1 ttlC ^ r ° fs ' fr ° m P erformin S tfieir VoW * Amidft

P . "79"."' thefe murmurs, Innocent palled his time very uneafy at

Lyons, dreading an attempt upon his Perfon. Even

Charles and Alphonfo, Brothers of St. Lewis, came on

purpofe to upbraid him in an outragious manner, and pro-

Ttt Pcft ceeded fo far as to threaten him. To free himfelf from

j;*i Henry this troublefome State, and from the Complaints which

lemnrr perpetlia |ly founded in his Ears, he defired leave of the

hJt at Eour- 1 r .'«-,, -. rt 1 TT

draux. King of England to refide at Bourdeaux. Henry was
W. p. 8*3. willing enough to gratify him, but was prevented from
doing it by the Remonftrances of the Clergy and Barons.
They were apprehenfive the Pope would pafs from Bour-
deaux into England, where his Company was by no means
IbiKirgn- defired. So that the King delayed fending an anfwer,
ramrod*- vvhich the Pope took for what it was indeed, a civil
f wr - denial. "

The Affairs As I am foon to enter upon an affair which wholly
cf Sicily. employed Henry feveral years, I think my felf obliged to
fhew, by way of digreffion, the Rife and Progrefs thereof.
I mean, the Pope's Donation of the Kingdom of Sicily to
Prince Edmund, Son of our Henry. But to give fuch an
Idea of this matter, as may ferve for the better under-
ftanding the Sequel, it will be neceffary, not only to fee
what palTed in Italy at the time of this Donation, but alfo
to take the thing from its firft Original. This digreffion
will not feem impertinent, when this unhappy affair will
be feen hereafter to be a fertile Source of Oppreffions upon
the Englijh, as well from their King as the Roman Pon-
tiffs. Befides, it ferves to difcover three things, equally
remarkable in the Hiftory of this Reign. Firft, the Cha-
racter of Henry, and his Indifcretion to engage in the
molt difficult undertakings, without forefeeing the Obfta-
cles. Secondly, The Authority alfiimed by the Popes in
■ England, and the^r manifeft abufe of it. Laftly, We fhall
fee, this fame affair was the chief occalien of the troubles
in the end of this Reign. Though the Events I am go-
ing to relate, formerly made a great noife, and deferved
the greater attention, yet as they belong not properly to
the Hiftory of England, I fhall abridge them as much as
poffibie, and fay no more than is abfolutely necefTary for
the Sequel of this Reign.

Every one that is the Ieaft verfed in the Hiftory of Eu-
rope, knows, that towards the clofe of the eleventh Cen-
tury, fome Norman Nobles, Sons of Tancred de Hautc-
ville, conquered the Ifland of Sicily upon the Saracens, and
Apulia, Calabria, and feveral other Southern Provinces of
Italy, upon the Emperors of Conjlantinople. Thefe firft
Conquerors, from a religious Principle, or fome other
motive, did Homage to the Pope for their Conquefts, and
made themfelves Valfals and Eeudataries to the Church of
Rome, though fhe gave them nothing, nor had even pro-
moted their undertakings. Whatever their Policy might
be, in thus fubmitting voluntarily to the Holy See, it is
a fact beyond all difpute. The Conquefts of the Nor-
mans were at firft divided into feveral Parts, whereof Sicily
beyond the Faro, or the Ifland cf Sicily, made a Kingdom
of it felf. The reft was divided into Dukedoms or Prin-
cipalities, under the name of Sicily on this fide the Faro,
of which Calabria and Apula were the chief. This is
what was afterwards called the Kingdom of Naples. All
thefe feveral Parts, I mean the two Sicilies, were at length
reduced into one Kingdom, under Roger I, Tancred's
youngeft Son, who affirmed the Title of King of Sicily.
He had tor Succellbr JVilliam I, his Son, ftrnam'd the Bad,
to whom fucceeded IVilliam II, his Son, called the Good,
to diftinguifh him from his Father. JViUiam the Good
dying without Ilfue, the Sicilians thought fit to place on
the Throne Tancred bafe Son of Roger I, who added to
the Title of his Predecelfor, that of King of Naples, or
Sicily on this fide the Faro. It is neceffary to obferve,
that by Sicily is meant fometimes the Ijland of Sicily alone,
fometimes both the Sicilies together as making but one
Kingdom.



Vol. I.



Clement III, who fat in the Papal Chair in the time of
Tancred, confidered the Proceedings of the Sicilians as an
Incroachment upon his Rights. He pretended that by the
death of IVilliam the Good, without Heirs, the two Sici-
lies were devolved to the Holy See, and as Lord Para-
mont, he could difpofe of them as he pleafed. Mean
time, as fpiritual Weapons were incapable of dethroning
a Prince in poffeffion, Clement fent into Apulia, and Cala-
bria, an Army, which at firft made fome progrefs. But
death feizing him prefently after, prevented him from
pufhinghis Enterprize any further. Celcjtine III, his Sue*
ceffor, refolved to profecute what his Predeceffor had be-
gun. But perceiving he could not compafs his ends with
his own Forces alone, he deemed it neceffary to engage in
this quarrel, fome Prince who was able to fupport him.
For that purpofe, he invefled the Emperor Henry VI
with the two Sicilies, on condition of the Homage, to
which the firft Norman Kings had obliged themfelves to
the Roman Church. Hswever, it was to be feared, fo
arbitrary an Act, efpecially in favour of a Foreigner, would
exafperate the Sicilians, and attach them more firmly
to Tancred. To prevent this Inconvenience, and give
withal fome colour of Juftice to what he had done, he
caufed Conjiantia Daughter of Roger I, to be taken out
of the Monaftery of St. Saviour's at Palermo, of which
fhe was Abbefs (3). This Princefs, who was then fifty
years old, being brought to Rome, the Pope abfolved her
from all her Vows, and gave her in Marriage to Henry,
thereby to add a more plaufible Right to the Grant he
had made that Monarch. Befides, by means of this Mar-
riage, he hoped to fow among the Sicilians, Seeds of dif-
fenfion, of which himfelf and the Emperor might make
an Advantage. Henry fupported by this additional Right,
immediately headed his Army, and marched into Apulia,
where however he made no great progrefs, by reafon of
the Peftilence that raged among his Troops, and of fome
other affairs which obliged him to return to Germany. So
that Tancred kept the Crown of Sicily till his death in
1 j 4;. IVilliam III, his Son, fucceeded him.

Henry no fooner heard of Tancred's death, but he
marched back into Italy, and befieged the City of Naples,
which made a vigorous defence. The refiftance of the
Neapolitans caufing the Emperor to defpair of accqmplifh-
ing his undertaking by force, he refolved to ufe artifice.
To that end, he propofed to the King of Sicily to decide
their quarrel by a Treaty. William's apprehenfion of
lofing all his Dominions, made him readily confent to be
difpoffeffed of a part, in order to purchafe Peace, of a Com-
petitor much more powerful than him/ell. By the Treaty
it was agreed, the Emperor fhould have the Ifland of Si-
cily ^ and IVilliam, the Kingdom of Naples. Purfuant to
this Agreement, Henry came to Palermo and was crowned.
But whilft IVilliam was preparing to retire to his King-
dom, Henry feized his Perfon, and ordered him to be
conducted to Germany, where this unfortunate Prince was
deprived of his Sight, and caftrated. Henry being thus
without a Rival, took poffeffion of the Kingdom of Na-
ples, in fpite of the endeavours of certain Lords of Norman
Race to the contrary.

The Emperor's affairs being thus profperous, he fent for
bis Emprefs, who was big with Child, though fifty two
years old. Her time of delivery being come whilft fhe
was on the Road, fhe ftaid at Geffi, a little Town on the
Frontiers of Ancona, where fhe ordered all the Women of
the Town, that had the Curiofity, to be Eye-witneffes of
her delivery. To that purpofe, fhe caufed a Pavilion to
be erected in the middle of the Market-place, where fhe
was delivered of a Prince called Frederic. From that time,
Henry kept poffeffion of the two Sicilies till his death,
which happened not before the year 1 199.

This Monarch left his Son Frederic, aged eleven years,
under the Guardianfhip of his Mother Conjiantia, who
immediately caufed him to be acknowledged King of the
two Sicilies, and to be crowned two years after at Palermo.
After that, he was inverted by Innocent III, who was then
Pope. Conjiantia his Mother dying three yea r s after, left
the Guardianfhip of her Son to Innocent, who governed
the two Sicilies by a Cardinal during Frederic's Minority.
This young Prince being arrived at fourteen years of age,
married Conjiantia Daughter of Aiphonjo IV, King of Ca-
Jlile, and two years after was elected Emperor, by the op-
pofite Party to Otho of Saxony, whom the Pope had excom-
municated. He* could not however prevail with Innocent
to fet the Imperial Crown on his head, the Pope dread-



(1) Aiout th's time. King Hinry delivered the Great Seal to William it KilUmi, 3 Man learned in the Civil and Canon-Law. M. Paris, p. 795.

(x) He was taken in a Battle near Damutla, in which all the Kmgbtt Templars were (lain, except three, and all the Kntgbts Hcfpitallen, except
four. There fell likewife in the lame Battle, the following Herfons of Note, Ralph dt Ctfcy, Hugb Earl of Flanders, Hugh Brun Earl of Marcbt, the
F.irl of Pcntbitu, IVilliam Long finer J , Rchtrt dt flit, and about eight thoufand two hundred Soldiers, or, according to others, eighty thoufand. Id. p. 795.

(l) Meztra, fays, that Conjiantia was never a Nun ; but Gio. Summmtt Hiflorian of Naples, alnircs us (he was Abbefs of St. Saviar't. FaztUus, Hi-
Oorian of Sicily, laji thit Pope Ct'.cjiir.t abfolved her from her Vows, ar.d that this appears euo from the Decrees of that Pope now in the Arcbsvtc
• t R\ttt. Aa/.-n.



Jflg



Book VIII



8. HENRY III.



ing it might be dangerous to the Holy See, to raife to the
Empire a Prince of tin; llouli: of Suabia, which had been
fu croublefqme to his Pi edeceilbrs. It was not till the year
I22Q, and after the death of Oiho, that Frederic was
crowned by Honorius III. Conjlantia his Wife died two
ieais alter, leaving him a Son called Henry, who in 1223
was elected King of the Romans. Afterwards he married
Tolante Daughter of 'John de Brienne, titular King of Je-
rufakm, who died in 1228, leaving him a Son named
Conrade. In fine, in 1235, Frederic took for his third
Wife, Ifabella of England, who died in 1241, having
brought him two Princes, Jordan and Henry, the firft of
which died a Child.

Having mentioned this Emperor's fcveral Marriages,
the knowledge whereof is abfolutely necelfary, it is time to
fpeak of his Cornells with the Popes. Ever fmce Richard
King of England quitted Palejline, the affairs of the
Christians m thofe parts were in a very ill fiuiation. The
Saracens taking advantage of the coldnefs of the Europeans,
with regard to the Crufades, made great progrefs, and tlie
Chriftians never thought of forming any frefh attempts a-
gainft them. Honorius III, who fat in the Papal Chair in
the beginning of the Reign of Frederic II, defiring to re-
trieve the Chriftians lodes in the Holy Land, publifhed in
the year 1224, a Crufade, in which infinite numbers of
People of all conditions ingaged. An Hiftorian allures us,
that above threefcorc thoufand Englijh took the Crofs for
this Expedition, of which Frederic was to be Head, both
as Emperor, and as Son-in-law to John de Brienne, titular
King of Jerufalem.

Whilft all Europe was preparing for this undertaking,
fome difputes unexpectedly arifing between the Emperor
and certain Cities of Italy, retarded that Prince's Prepa-
rations, who was willing to fee an end of thefe Contefts
before his departure. Gregory IX, SuccefTor to Honorius,
finding Frederic proceeded but flowly, in comparifon of the
other Croifes, wrote him a Letter, exhorting him to per-
fevere in his pious refolution. He reprefented to him, that
the fuccefs of the Crufade depended on him, fince the ma-
nagement was committed to his care. Mean time, the
Croifes of t.-.e feveral States of Europe, repaired in multi-
tudes to the Holy Land, expelling to be foon followed by
their General. But Frederic chofe rather to employ his
Forces againft the revolted Cities of Italy, than againft, the
Saracens. Neverthelefs, as he was earneftly prefled by the
Pope, he pretended to prepare indeed, and even went and
embarked at Brindifi. But after being three days at Sea,
he failed back to Land, on pretence of a fudden Illnefs,
which he feigned to be feized with, as moft Hiftorians af-
firm. This news reaching Paltjiine, above forty thou-
iand of the Croifes who were gone before, returned in the
fame Ships that brought them thither. The Pope inraged
to fee fo fair an opportunity loft by the Emperor's fault,
as he pretended, publickly excommunicated him, and fent
the Bull of Excommunication to all the Princes of Chrif-
tendom to be publifhed in their Dominions. All the



World however does not think the Pope's Severity to Fre-
deric, proceeded from the fole motive of Religion. Some
affirm, it was only a. pretence to break the Emperor'*
meafures in Italy, in favour of the revolted Cities, which
were privately countenanced by the Court of Rome. Be
this as it will, it gave birth to a quarrel which occah
oned innumerable Calamities to Europe, and particularly to
Italy. Frederic, incenfed at the Pipe's Proceedings, took
care to juftify his Conduft to all the Potentates of Europe,
by Letters wherein the Pope was feverely handled. But la-
was not fatished with fo flight a revenge. By means of a
powerful Party in Rome, he expelled Gregory thence, ana
forced him to take refuge at Perugia. However, to fliew
his Illnefs was the fole caufc of his delay, and confe-
quently the Excommunication denounced upon him w s
urijuft and rafli, he let out the next year lor Palejline.
The progrefs of his Arms in that Country was fo great
and rapid, that in a fhort time he compelled the Sultan of
Mgypt to deliver up Jerufalem. He would have pufhed his
Conqueits farther, if the Knights Hofpit.il.'ers, who were
gained by the Pope, had not laid obftacle:; in his way bl
their daily Plots againft him. On the other hand, Gre
gory, offended that the Emperor regardlefs of his Cenfuie.
ftiould dare to undertake this Expedition, before he wa.
reconciled to the Church, and without making, at he
charged him, Preparations fuitable of fo great an underta-
king, renewed his Excommunication, for two contrary
faults. Firft, for too long deferring his departure. Se •
condly, for departing too foon. But the Pope, not con-
tent with attacking him with Spiritual, employed likewife
Temporal Arms. He fent John de Brienne, Father in-law
to Frederic, at the head of an Army, into the Kingdom
of Naples, with the title of Vicar of the Hoi, See, to wrcft
from his Son-in-law that part of his Dominions.

The quarrel between the Emperor and the Pope ftill
increafing, all the Cities of Italy fided with one or other.
Then were formed the two Factions of the Guelfs and
Gibelines, which fo long harafled that Country, the for-
mer for the Pope, the latter for the Emperor. It will
be needlefs to relate here the bloody Wars that enfued.
Wars, which frequently gave occafion to think, that zeal
for Religion was not the principal motive of the Roman
Pontiffs. It fuffices to fay in two words, that Gregory's
Succeflbrs eafily purfued his Projea of wrefting from
Frederic not only the Sicilies, but all Italy, and the Em-
pire it felf. In fine, Innocent IV, having publickly depofed
him in the Council of Lyons, caufed IVilliam Earl of Hol-
land to be elected Emperor in his place. But, notwith-
standing this pretended depofition, Frederic kept poffeflion
of the Throne till his death, about the end of the year
1250.

To give a diftindf notion of the affairs of Sicily, where-
in England will prefently be concerned, it may not be
amifs to add here, part of the Genealogy of the Family
of Frederic II, extracted from the Hiftory of Naples, by
Giovanni Summonte.



sn



FREDERIC II. Emperor.



1 ft Wife,
Conjlantia
of Cajlile.

I

Henry,

King of
the Ro-
mans.
Agnes of
Aujlria
died be-
fore her
Father.



Frederic
Duke of
Aujlria
in Right
of his
Mother.



2d Wife,
Tolante of
Brienne.



ConradeII,
Emperor.



3d Wife,
IfabeMa of
England.

I
-A ^

Jordan, Henry,
died a King of
Child. Sitily.





Concubine,


Blanch Sezza.

1


Manfred


, Entius,


King of


Henry


Naples


King of


and


Corfa.


Sicily.


Richard






Earl of






Civita.


Constantia,


MARGARtTA,


Wife of /W


Wife to the


King of Ar-


Marquifs of


ragon.




Montferrat.



The fame day Frederic died, he made a Will, and
left Aujlria to Frederic his Grandfon, of which the young
Prince was already in pofleflion, in Right of his Mother.
To Conrade his fecond Son, he gave the Kingdom of Na-
ples or Sicily on this fide the Faro, upon this condition,
that if Conrade died without Iffue, his Brother Henry, Son
of Ifahtlla of England^ ftwuid fucceed him, and in «afe he



died alfo without Heirs, Manfred his Baftard Son fhould
inherit. This fame Henry, Son of his third Wife, was to
be King of the Ifland of Sicily, and Manfred his natural
Son was to have the Principality of Tarentum, with the
Regency of the two Kingdoms, namely, of the firft, in
the Abfence of Ctnrede ; and of the fecond, during Henry's.
Minority,



n » A



The HISTORY vf ENGLAND. Vol. I.



tjJ.



made the Neapolitans often repent of efpoufing the Pope's
quarrel. Mean time, Innocent ufed all poffible means to
ftop his prcgrefs. He thundered his Cenlures againft Con-
radc, as hehad done againft Frederic his Father, and by
aiding the Guelfi his Adherents, he kept up the War in



As foon as Frederic was in his Grave, Manfred would for his Voyage to the Holy-Lend. As Money was the
have taken pofleffion of the Kingdom of Naples, in the moft neceffary Preparation, he took occafion from this
name of Conradt, But the Pope's Party were fo powerful, Voyage to extort great Sums from the Jews, nor were
when thev had nothing more to fear from the Emperor, his Chriftian Subjects lefs fpared. But what could be ob-
that the principal Cities", as Naples and Capa, {hut their taincd by thefe mcar<s, was not fufficient to enable him
Gates aeainft him. This refiftance forced him to call his to make an Expedition to the Eaft, worthy a Succellor
Brother Conradt into Italy, who upon Frederic's death of Richard, whole Memory was ftill frefh among the
aflumed the title of Emperor, though William Earl of Htl- Saracens.

land was acknowledged by the Pope and his Party. Upon Whilft the King was employed in preparing for his TAcCifcon,
the arrival of Conrade, things had another face, and he pretended Voyage, there came Deputies from the Gafcons, ""?'*'" tf

complaining of being unjuftly opprefied by the Earl oftd^^,
Leice/ler. The Earl hearing of thefe Complaints, went to «•/.» »imS.
the King to juftify himfelf, and denied whatever was laid c ^"^ im S<lf'
to his charge : Adding, he could not but wonder, that
the King fhouid give ear to the frivolous Complaints of
ftah, in expectation of a more favorable Juncture. Here the rebellious Gafcons, againft one that had ferved him fo
I fhall end this long digreffion, which I hope will not be faithfully, and i'pent all his F.ftate in s Poft where o-
deemed needlef-, when we come to fee how far England thers were wont to inrich themfelves. Henry replied, But tbe King
was concerned in this quarrel. But to return to our Hi- he gave no Credit to thefe Accufations ; on the con-/'"* Cm-
ftory. trary, to make his Innocence the more confpicuous, he "*°"" '""

The year u<;i was ufhered in with the frrft Inftance of was refolved to lend Commillioners into Guienne (6), to m. Paris. '
rirfl ivfimt the Claufe of Non-objlante in the Orders of the King, in take Informations concerning the behaviour of the Gaf *&■ ''ub.
of ite claufe imitation of the Pope, who ufed it long fince jd his Bulls, cons. Mean time, to convince him, that thefe Accufa- P'474-
Non-cbfcm- ^g g;fh p f Qarlitle having a Law-Suit (i) with a cer- tions had made no ill Impreflions on him, he furnifhed
tain Baron of his Diocefe, and being obliged to go to him with Money, and ordered him to prepare to return
France, obtained an Order from the King, that the Suit to Guienne.

fhouid be ftopt till his return. But, during his abfence, Before the Earl was ready to depart, the Gafcons being rll a rM ' !m
his Adverfary found means to obtain a fecond Order with informed of the King's defign to fend him back, de- ft p if
this Claufe, Non-objlante, or Notwithjlanding the former puted the Archbifhop of Bourdeaux, to renew their Com- j>"»«Iran*
Order, the Baron's Caufe Jhouid not be delayed (z). plaints. Whilft the Archbifhop was at London, the Com- a, tt , t f„

Befides the Principles of arbitrary Power, inftilled by miffioners, that were fent to Guienne, returned (7,). They gainjt Lei-
Hubert de Burgh and the Bifhop of Winchejler fnto Henry reported, that indeed the Earl of Lelceftcr had treated a \^"' .
in his Youth, and which he ufually made the rule of his little feverely fome Lords of that Country ; but however, p . j, 6 _
Conduct, he had moreover another reafon to induce him had only ufed them according to their deferts. Though He King)*.
to have but little regard for his Subjects. This was the Lcicejhr was fully cleared by thefe reports, yet the Kingf' 1 ™' ''f J ~
confideration of the Advantages gained by the Earl of was perfwaded by the Archbifhop of Bourdeaux, that it
Leice/ler over the Rebels of Guienne. Ever fince the Earl the Earl returned to Guienne, nay, if he was not pu-
was Governor of that Province, he had ferved his mafter nifhed, that Province would be irrecoverably loft to the
fo faithfully, that in' ail appearance, he would have no- Crown of England. This Notion was fo deeply im- Haiti* trii
thing to fear for fome time, from the Inconftancy of the printed on the King's mind, that, to feCure the Alle- td h b "
Gafcons. As Henry was foon daunted, fo a very fmall giance of the Gafcons, he refolved to facrifke their Go- *"*
matter fufficed to raife his Courage. The Chaftifement vernor to their refentment. To that purpofe, he ordered
of the Gafcons making him imagine, their Example would their Accufation to be brought before the Peers, not
keep the Englijl) in awe, he fancied for the future he queftioning but he fhouid have Intereft enough to get
might ufe them as he pleafed. Accordingly, without re- him condemned. Mean time, Leice/ler, though furprized
warding the continual murmurs of the Barons, on account at the King's fudden Change, was nbt idle. He found
of the Preference given to Foreigners, he affected to re- means to gain Prince Richard, the Earl of Glocejler, and
Return of ceive, with exceffive Civilities, Guy de Lufignan his half feveral other Lords of great Credit, who promiled to fup-
<, U ydeLu- Q rot her, whorrt the Earl of Leice/ler brought with him, port him. Upon this Afliirance he appeared in Court,,
iignan tbe w ] ]en he came to acquaint him with what was done in and vindicated himfelf with fuch Strength and Ev>
Brother, Guienne. He made him fuch confiderable Prefents, that dence, that the Archbifhop of Bourdeaux was at a lofe
thev would have appeared extravagant,- even though he had how to maintain his Accufation. Befides, whenever he
abounded in riches. Thefe things caufed the Barons to offered to fpeak, in defence of what he advanced, he faw
redouble their Complaints. They could not bear that the the principal Lords always ready to improve their Friend's



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