M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Kin" fhouid give fo many Marks of his Affection to Fo- Arguments. The King, perceiving the affair was like



Kl»g < Or
ders-

M. Paris
p.. Sto.
M. Wert.



Kemy
;h?bri the
Englifh.

M. l'aris,
p. S16.



whom be
bads ivttb
trejents.



JktfrvteVJ



to the Fhly-Land. But, on a fudden, he was ad-



reicners, whilft he flighted his own native Subjects.

Henry's wants, and his little profpect of drawing a
If the Kmg» Supply from the Parliament, made him forget his Expe-

cr" England

and icot-

land.

Id. p- 8*9

Act- Pub

T.l.p

Altxai

marries the

Prince/*



to end contrary to his Expectation, could not help (hew-
ing his uneafinefs, and even dropping fome Expreffions
very injurious to the Party accufed. As the Earl of
Leice/ler, not content with juftifying his Actions, boafted



monifhed bv a Letter from the Pope, that it was time to moreover of his Services, and boldly called upon the King

perform his' Vow. He was then at Tori, celebrating the to perform his Royal Word, by rewarding him according

Pul> .' s Nuptials of the Princefs Margaret his Daughter, with the to his Promife, Henry fharply replied, He did not think rbe Ki.

tier ' young King of Scotland (3). This Wedding was not the himfelf obliged to keep his Word with a Traytor. This ™u> &•

- . ° ~ . . ■ . ■,.- 1 a . 1 T» - 1 • r> r 1 1 r . 1_ IT rt . . I TS 1 I . Trauttr



fole motive of his being at York. As the Prince his Son-
in-law was very young, he hoped to perfwade him to



anfwer had fuch an effect on the Earl, who was in a Tra > Ur -

Paffion belore, that not confidering he was fpeaking to his

Sovereign, he told him, He lied : and ivere he not a King, He gives ti*

he luould make him eat his IVords. Then after fome in- f'.'V lie

Lit.



C. fclaUnfc do Homage for the whole Kingdom of Scotland. He

An. cuiton. was ver y ur gent with him, but the young Prince excufed

Henry himfelf very" handfomely. He reprefented to him, that folent Expreffions, added, That it ivas hard to believe fuch

tlioHo- he was come to York to be married, and not to debate an a Prince was a Chrijlian, or had ever been at Confeffion.

<"'g' f'' r ""affair of that nature, liable to many difficulties, and upon Yes, anfwered the King, / an a Chrijlian, and have

which he could determine nothing, without confulting the often been at Confeffion. What fignifies Confeffion, replied

States of his Kingdom. However, he did the cuftomary

Homage for the Lands held of the Crown of England (4).

Whether Henry thought his Pretenfions were not well-
grounded, or was unwilling to difturb the Nuptial Feaft,

by infilling on his demand, the affair went no farther.

We fhall fee 111 the next Reign, that thefe fame Preten-



Scotland ;

v/bitb be
refuf:.



the Earl, without Kepcntance ? I never repented any thing
fo much, faid the King, as the bejlowiug my Favours on one
that has fo little Gratitude, ana fo much ill-manners. After Tbe Kl ^,
this, he would have apprehended him, but finding the Earl's durfl not af-
Friends were ready to oppofe it, he was feized with fear, t r 'i*" d i ""»
and durft not execute his defign. Nay, he fuffered them at! j u t, a .



IZ - .Z.
JheKivgex
::rtl Mcrtry
trim tbe

M. Pan;.



fions were the ground of a bloody War between England to fpeak in the Earl's behalf, and without being revenged

and Scot/and (5). for the Affront he had received, he was contented with a

This Interview ending to the Satisfaction of the two flight Satisfaction, and was outwardly reconciled to him.

Kings, Henry feemed willing to prepare in good earneft However, the Earl's Infolence made fo deep an Impref-

(n About a Manor bought of a Baron by the Bilnop's Predec-rtbr, which the Baron would have recovered again. M. Pun's, p. 810.

(a] Afcr this, thole Writs or Orders, with that deteltable Addition of Non-t/nidntr, became very frequent, which bcinj obferved by Roger it Tbvrfrbj,
oni of the King's Juftices. he lain with a dtep Sigh, AUt ! tubat lima are we fallen into! Bebold, tbe Civil Court ^ it lorrufted m imitat.on of ne
Ecdtji.iftical, and tbe River n fsifoaed Jnm tbat Fountain. Id. p. Sn. This is the Original and Rue of aV«.« b/iante'i in ihc King's Wiits and Char-
ters, 'fyrrel obferves, that this is omitted by Dr. Brady.

(3) On Cbrijlmafi Day, King Alexander 111, was knighted by Henri, and married early next Morning. M. Pant, p. 819. Rymer. T. I. p. 467.

(+} For Lu-bianmi othT Lands. M. Pant, p. S29,

(s; This Year pirtof ll-'aie! was wholly fubdurd. and received the Englijh L»\V5, and that part of it which borders upon Cbtfljire was commVfed t)
the Government or Alar. d^Z'uebe who anfwered to the King eleven hundred Marks a Year. Id. p. S16 This Year alio, February ij, a Parlia-
ment \ias held at London. Id. p. 814..

[6] He fent privately Henry ae rVerigbam to examine into his Actions and Behaviour. Id. p. 831.

(7) The Earl of Leicefter was zoic over to Guienne, fome time before the Aichbiffiop of Bcurdtjux's Arrival, and upon News of this frofli Axuf.iicn,
fpcec.Jy returned to England a^ain. Id. p. 836.

Hon



6ook VIII.



$. HENRY III.






1252. fion upon his mind, that he could never bole upon him
without Horror, which is the lefs to be wondered at, be-
caufe this doubtlefs is the only Inftance of a Subject's giv-
ing his Sovereign the Lie to his Face. For which reafon
one fhould hardly believe fo extraordinary a Fact, were it
not unanimously atteftcd by all the Hiftorians
Tie Earl is

fent to Gui-
enne.
M. Paris,

]>■ 844-
Prince Ed-
ward snnjejl-
ed wi tb
Ouienne.
Id. p. 845.
1/1 . Welt.



Henry de-
mands a
Subjidy of
Ibe Clergy.
M. Paris.
p. 849.

A3. Pub.
T-I. p. 463;

471, 480,



They petit:-
on oim.



The King

threaten:

tbem.



Their Reply.
ibid.



The King
tries to

gain tbem
tn private,
but in vain.



Mutual Ani-
mofity be-
tween the
King and
bi: SuljeS:.



little Ceremony in their Complaints again!) hi Eaie-Ad- 1252;
miniftration. The Londoners were of all the 1 ii
the moft incenfed, by reafon of the frejqueni ! taclioi 1 laid
on them. But they had foon frefli Gaufe td complain of n, A - r
a Tax of twenty Marks of Gold, inapofed on the City b;
the King. This [mpofition was inconfiderable. - '.

How mortally foever the King hated the Earl of Art- cerncd the City of London only. However, the whi
cejler, he fent him Governor again to Guimnt ( 1 ), not Kingdom murmured at it, a flowing from an arbitrary
to favour, but remove him from England, where his Cre- Power, of which they dreaded the confequences. But
d it was too great. Befides, he wis apprehenfive, the Earl however, a few days after, the King, without troubl . ■■
would oblhuct his delign of conferring Guienne on Prince himfelf to pleafe the Londoners, commanded them to i
Edward his eldeft Son, which was immediately done after up their Shops, during Wejlminller Fair, which lafftd fif-
his departure. The Gafcom were overjoyed at this change, teen days. This Innovation, being deemed a manifeft
As they had no longer the fame realbn to fear Leicejler Breach of the Privileges of the City, caufed loud mur-
who was going to be recalled, they laid fo many Snares murs among the Inhabitants, and a refentment, the Effects
for him, that he had like to have been fur/prized. For whereof became vifible upon the firft opportunity (7).
his part, he made them frequently feel the Effects of his Never did Prince fo ill time all his Undertakings as He attach
Refentment before he left the Piovince. Henry. Whereas every one endeavours to make life of L "

The affront lately received from the Earl of Leicejler fcemingly favorable Junctures, Henry had a very particular 'i'vatt*
was not the only thing that difturbed the King. He was Talent to form all his Projects at the n oft improper Sea- Id. p. 853;
ftill more fenfibly touched with the Clergy's denial (2) of fons. He was noi ignorant that the Nobles were diflatif-
a Subfidy, As he was convinced that a bare Demand ficd, and in a fort of Combination to protect the Earl of
would be to no purpofe, he took care to have it fupported Leicejler, He had ju(t given the Clergy a frefli Caufe of
by an exprefs Order from the Court of Rome. Innocent dilgufr, by procuring a Bull to abfblve him from his Oath*
alledging for pretence, that the King could not pofiibly and entirely alienated the Hearts of the Londoners by the
proceed without an extraordinary Aid towards his Voyage violation of their Privileges. At this [tincture however
to the Holy-Land, commanded all Ecclefiafticks to pay it was, that lie undertook once more to have the Earl of
him the Tenths of their Revenues for three years (3). Leicejier tried by his Peers, whom he convened for that
The Clergy being allembled on this occalion, three or purpofe, Accordingly this affair ended greatly to his did;
four Bilhops (4) gained by the King, and particularly the tisfaction. Far from condemning the Earl, the Baron
Bifhop ot Winchefler his Halt-Brother, voted in his favour, faid openly, that the King had done him very great fn-
But the Bifhop of Lincoln ilrenuoufly oppofed it, and got juftice, in giving Guienne to Prince Edward before the
the majority to agree to petition the King, tor his Soul's Term of his Goverment was expired, and without ma-
health, to delift from his Demand. The Bifhop's Peti- king him any 'amends (S). This Declaration, which pro-
tion ferved only to exafperatc the King. He fent them bably was going to he followed by fome ungrateful refolu-
word to take care what they did, iince they not only tion to the King, made him diflblve an AiTembly which
oppofed their Temporal and Spiritual Sovereign, but alfo feemed fo little inclinable to favour his deligns (9).
the Univerfal Church, and Jefns Chrijl himfelf. But Thus tins weak Prince, by an unfteddy and capricious ncoi
without regarding thefe Menaces, the Clergy returned a Conduct, increafed the Enmity of his Barons which of Ik issmirc
very offenfive anfwer, by which they feemed to throw off' all things he ought to have dreaded, had he been wife e- fi't*" "'*
all refpect for him. They upbraided him in very harlh nough to take warning by his Father's unhappy Example. „, '.",',.
Terms, for his Extortions, Tyranny, Breach of Promifes Continually befet with hidifcreet and greedy Foreigners;
and Oaths, and then broke up, without waiting his an- who minded only their own Intereits, he faw nothing but
fwer, on pretence that both the Archbifhops being abfent, as reprefenied by his Minifters, who made him believe,
they could do nothing without the confent of their Pri- that as long as he was fupported by the Court of Rome,
mates (5). Henry, perceiving he could obtain nothing he need not fear the vain Efforts of his Subjects. Thefe
from this Affembly, tried to gain the principal Members Counfels induced him perpetually to countenance the Ex-
by Carefles. To that end, he fent for the Bifhop of Ely, tortious of the Pope, and the Avaricioufnefs of his Rcla-
and cauling him to be brought into his Clofet, received tions and Minifters, to whom he was always making Pic-
rum very gracioufly, in order to extort fome Promife from fents with incredible Profufenefs, It was thus he fpent
him. But this Prelate, who was no Courtier, far from the clear Revenues of the Crown. By this management,
having any Complaifance for the King, exprellixl himfelf fo little confident with his own Interelt, he kept him-
very roughly. He plainly told him, it was a Folly to en- felf always poor; whilft his Relations, his Counfellors,
gage in an Expedition to the Holy- Land, and that he ought and the Pope's Creatures, were enrichini 1 ; themfelves at the
to take warning by the unfortunate Example of the King Expence of his Subjects. The Bifhop of Lincoln deftring
of France, who lay languoring in the hands of the Infi- to open his Eyes, caufed an exact account to be taken
dels. Henry finding, contrary to his Expectation, the this year of the annual Income enjoyed by the Foreigners
Bifhop afTumed the Air of a Counfellor, had not patience in England. It was found to amount to above feventy 7 ,„ K „,. rul
to hear him any longer, and commanded him to be gone thoufand Marks, when the Revenue of the Crown at the fFmigr. '.
out of his Prefence (6). fame time fcarce exceeded a third part of that Sum. To "'""•' t

As the perfiiting of the Englijh in refufing Money, this we may add another particular, to fhew the eafmefs M . -

iim place ftill greater Con- of this Prince, and the greedinefs of bis Minifters. Man- p. 8,39.
Jel, one of his Favorites, a Clergyman, enjoyed no lefs
than (evtn hundred Eccleiiaftical Preferments at once,
which brought him in yearly frur thoufand Marks.

Whilft thefe things patied in England, the Emperor je
Conrade, and Pope Innocent IV, continued their Wars ins...).
Sicily, but to the great difadvantage of the laft, whole
break out. Animofity was come to that height, that as he Spiritual Arms were of little force againft a Prince that
had no regard for his Subjects, they, on their Side ufed as defpifed them. As the Pope found he was too weak to aq. p Lr ..

T. l-i * r.

(1 ) Matthew Pari: frys, the King told him upon going ofT, That if he iu rsfucb a L'.ver of IVar, he miglt that find F.tnp 'tymnet etlDUgb, ami tlb a
Reward anftvcr^ble t<j bi: Merits, as lis Father bad done before him. To which the Earl b,>:d!y replied, That be w 11 - . . , and never return .'..".* ii
bad entirely fubdued the Enemies, end reduced the rebellious Sub'jecls of an ungrateful Prince. M. Paris. Ann. rue.!, p. 044.

(2) Wlvch met him at London, October 13. M. Parts, p. 849. This was a Parliament. See Ann. Hutu p, 322.

(3) Not according to the antient Valuation of their Prelerments, but according to a new and cxatt Valuation that was to be taken of tr.err..
M. Parts, ibid.

(4) London, Chicbefler, and Worecfter.

(,) The Atchbilhup of Canterbury was beyond Sea, and the ArchVfhop of York was abfent for a Reafon then unknown. tAattbnB Parr 1 has? given tho
Eifhp's Reprei'entatinn of the Grievances committed by the King; at length, which llie c.uri..m Reader may fee under the Year Ilex, p. 849.

(6j The King ordered his Officers to turn him oim of Doors lor in ill-br^d Fellow a> h- was. M. Pa^-s, p. S;.;. Nor Jii the King com: rift' b-t er
in an Encounter with the Widjw Countefs of Arundel, who waited on him ab lit her Right to a certain Ward hip, whictl the King chaileni;rd by real n
of a fmall parcel of Land hdd in Capite. When the Counteis law Ihe could not pmvril upon hi.n, Ih: thus b.|i:y accoftod him : '« Mv L,rd the K'sat,
** why do yju turn your Face from Jultxe ? for no Body cm obtain any Right in v mr court ; you are placed between God and us. b-jt y u gc, rn nei-
*« ther your lelf nor us, as you ought : Are you not alhamed, both to oppicfs the Church and dillpiiet the Nobles of your Kingdom t " Tn: Kii g knitting
his Brows anfwered, '« What do you mean, Lady Countefs I havL- the grc.it Men of Bnglsnd c immitiioned you to'be d.ii Advocate ? " I ut Hi I '. _h.
young) did not anfwer like one, '« Not fo (Sir,) the Nobles have not made me any luch Charter, though you have bVoke ih.t which you al 1 \ ,r
** Father have granted, and fworn inviolably to obferve, and for which you have fo otten extorted Money from your bubjecb : Where are th- Libei lies ot"
«< England f> often reduced into writing? la often granted, and (o often redeemed ? Therefore I, though a Woman, w;th alt your na'unl 9abject>, dr»
<* appeal from you to the Tribunal of God, the great and terrible Judge, and let him revenge us. " At which Reply the King was confoundi J and held
his Peace, becanfe his own Conlcience told him ihe fpoke no more than the Truth, co he only faid, " Did not you ask a lav. r b caufe you were my
•' Coufin ? " To whom (he replied, «' lince yon have denied me Right, how can I expect any Favo-. ? " The King thu- reproved la:d no m .re, ani
the Countefs went away without taking leave, and without any other Sati-.tacf.iou than that of having freely facte:* her mind. M. Fans, p. 853, Brsc.j
has omitted this and lome other of M. Paris's Relations of this kind.

(7) This Year King Henry renewed the Charter of Liberties, and the Charter of the Foreils. An. IVanicrl. p. 210.

(8) The Earl of Leicejler had then three Yeais and an half yet to come in his ehrrter, by which the Government of that Country ivas committed tc
him- M. Paris, p. 853.

(9) When the Karl heard of the King's defign, he laid, " I am very we'I fa i.ried, the King would deilroy me to inrich. fome Pnvttfit in PoieJevin
• » with my Earldom. " td. p. 8S4.

No 17. Vol. I. Nnnn Compafs



provoked the King, and made hii
ridence in the Poiclevins, fo the continual favours he heap-
ed on the Foreigners quite alienated the Barons from him.
It was therefore almoft impoflible but thefe mutual dif-
contents fliould caufe in the end very fatal Effects, as it
afterwards happened. It is even a wonder that the Rup-
ture between the King and the Barons did not fooner



Tbs B I S T O RY of ENGLAND.



326

c mpaf: hi: end , he imagined that by offering the Crown
, to Come rich Prince, he fh iuld eaiily perfwade him

Innocent to fupply whatever was neceffary lor the Conqueft. Of all
a/.rt Sicily ^e Pnn'ces in Europe on whom he cart his Eyes, he faw
no better qualified to embark in this Undertaking than
M Richard Earl of Cornwal, Brother to the King of Eng-

land. Belides that this Prince was mafter of a large
Eftate which he knew how to manage better than the
Kino liis Brother, it was very likely he would be dazzled
with the Luftre of a Crown, That of England feeming to
be too remote from him, as the King hrid two Sons. This
refolution being taken, Innocent difpatched one Albert as
r„mJ\'t his Nuncio, to offer him the Crown of Sicily, on condi-
rttyhtd h tion he would wreft it from the Sons of Frederic. Ri-
ibt Pop. chay!{ re ; e £ted not the Propofal j but infilled on certain
previous Articles, which the Pope did not relifh. I. That
the Conqueft of Sicily fhould be carried on at his and
the Pope's joint Charges. II. That Innocent fhould de-
liver him up certain places in the Kingdom of Naples, as
well for his Security, as to ferve for Magazines. III. That
he fhould give him Hoftages for the performance of his
word. Thefe Terms agreed not at all with the Pope's
defigns. He was in hopes Richard, deeming the bare
Grant of Sicily as a lingular Favour, would engdge to
fupply what Monev was neceffary for the Conqueft, and
rely on the word of him that made him fo noble a Pre-
fent. But when he faw the Prince was not willing to
be his Dupe, and feemed to underfland his own Intereft
too well, he dropped the Project, and recalled his Nuncio.
Negotiation This Negotiation not having the effect he expected, he
■j i«fe up. was ]jijg e d to continue the War at his own expence,
till he could engage in the Undertaking a more eafy and
lefs wary Prince.
S-cn: fne- Hairy thought he had prevented the Revolt of the
tica oj tie Q a r cons by removing the Earl of Lcicejler from the Go-
ufltoL vernment of Guienne. But it was not long before he
perceived, the Vigilance of that Earl, which they confi-
dered as an infuperable Obftacle to their pernicious dehgns,
Tit Khg r/to be the real motive of their Complaints. Leicefter had
Caftilejprt- n0 f ooner refigned his Patent (1), but a Plot was difco-



Vol. I.



tends to
Guienr.e.



vered in Guienne,



to deliver that Province to the King



Id. ' r . 863- of Caftile. Though that Prince had never before made
known his Pretenfions to Guienne, when he faw his Party
ftrengthned by the Earl of Leicejier's Retreat, he began
openly to declare himfelf. He pretended a Grant of that
Country from Henry II, confirmed by Richard and John.
It is true indeed, thefe Charters were never produced.
But he had artfully perfwaded fome difcontented Lords,
An. Pub. that they were in his hands. Upon this foundation, he
T.I. p. «6. fonned m Guienne a powerful Party, of which Gajlon de
Moncade, Vifcount of Beam, was head. It is very likely,
Henry's want of Courage infpired the King of Caftile with
the thoughts of becoming mafter of Guienne upon this
frivolous° title. At lead, he believed he had reafon to
hope, that, either by Arms, or by way of Treaty, he
fliould procure fome part of that Province. Be this as it
will, thefe Pretenfions, though apparently very weak,
raifed Commotions in Guienne, which made Henry often
Henry it repent of removing the Earl of Leicefter. In fhort, the
farced to go Male-contents, aided by the King of Cajhle, made fuch
Act Pub. progrefs, that Henry was forced to go in Perfon to lave
T.I. p. 491, the Country. But there was occalion for Money, and it
&'■ 497- was i n vain to alledge the war in Guienne, to procure
T. w.kcs. ^^ ^ g u bj e £ s> who were too much dillatisfied with

all his warlike Expeditions, to be prevailed upon by that
He demands Confideration. It feemed therefore more expedient to
"", ifik" kee P t0 his old P retence > n amel y> his Voyage to the Holy-
Holy-Land. Land, becaufe Religion was therein concerned. As foon
as the Parliament, called upon that account, was met (2),
the Kino- demanded a large Sum to enable him to accom-
plifti his Vow. He reprefented, that having been hitherto
under an impoiubility of undertaking the Voyage, the
Chriftians of Palejlinc muft have been great Sufferers by
thefe delays.
The Aid a Though the Barons were fully convinced, the King
gr "d"L The °' d not intena to S° t0 tne Holy-Land, they were afraid
'ctJrteri however of giving him fome advantage, in cafe they re-
ore hft. f u feJ the Supply demanded on fo plaufib'e a pretence.

M. Paris.



866.



They refolved therefore to grant an Aid, but clogged with
Conditions, from whence they expected fome Benefit,
whether the King executed his Project, or, as was fuf-
pected, applied the Money to other ufes. This refo-
lution being taken, they fent Deputies to him with their
anfwer, the Subftance of which was, That in cafe he



would leave to the Churches the freedom of Elections, i: - '
and hncerely obferve the King his lather's Ciiartcrs,
they would do their utmuft to content him. Henry, who
expected this Meffage , was prepared with an anfwer.
He told them, he owned that on certain occa:io:is he had T,:! K, '.~
carried the Prerogative-Royal a little too far ; but was ^Z,',, ,'
firmly refolved never to be guilty of the like fault again, the f.i . _
Adding, they might be affured, the Charters of King " •-'■'■
'John fhould be punctually kept. Then addreffing himfelf
to fuch of the Deputies as iveie of the Clergy (>)> ne bid
them corifider, thai among the Pielates who then go-
verned the Church of England, the.e were few but v.; it
were promoted to their Dignities, by means of that Pre-
rogative Royal thev complained of. He asked them,
whether they themfelves, at the time of their Elections,
would have wifhed for that freedom they now fo earneftly
demanded ? He continued to fay, fmce they defired him
to correct what was amifs in the Government, they them-
felves ought to fet him a good Example, and reiign their
Bdh'.ipricks and Abbies acquired by illegal ways, and he
promifed them, their Places fhould be filled with none
but Perfons of Learning and Piobity. The Prelates being
confounded at this fh.irp reproof, had nothing to repiy,
but ihat the Buftnefs at prefent was not to undo what was
pajl, but to prevent the like Evils for the future. As the
King's fole aim was to draw Money from the Parliament,
he did not puih matters any farther. Content with hav-
ing a little mortified the Clergy, he faid, he was ready to
join with the Parliament in all neceffary meafures to re-
drefs the Grievances. Upon thefe Afiurances the Clergy A Aid it
granted him the Tenths of their Revenues for three years, ^T^*'.
and the Barons, three Marks of every Knight's Fee held
immediately of the Crown.

The King's Promife to obferve the Charters, was too Excmmmi-
exprefs not to be executed. Accordingly, without any Sol- "•»«■ /»
licitation, he convened (4), in the great Hail of the Palace ,J. '
of Wejlminjler, an Aflembly, at which were prefent all S ahft the
the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, with lighted Tapers in *"«/<>«" f
their hands. The King would not hold one, fa_» ing, he M * Paris r
would lay his hand upon his Heart, during the whole p. 886.
Ceremony, to fhow he fincerely consented to what w'as An - 8ult -
going to be pronounced. Then the Archbifhop of Can- a q p ubi
terbury ftanding up before all the People, denounced a ter- T. I. p.^Sgt
rible Curfe againft all, that for the luture, fhould oppofe



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