M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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directly or indirectly the obfervance of the two Charters ;
and likewife, againft thofe that fhould any way violate,
diminifh, or alter the Laws and Constitutions of the
Kingdom. This Anathema being denounced, the two
Charters were read aloud, and confirmed by the King,
who kept his hand all the while on his Breaft (5). This
done, every one threw down his Taper upon the ground,
and wifhed that thofe who violated the Charters might
thus fmoke in Hell.

Who would not have thought that the King's Affent to K
a Curfe fo folemnly denounced, was an undoubted Proof tn-jn n
of his Intent religioufly to keep his Promife ? Pethaps he ir ' ai
really intended it when he laid his hand upon his Heart. £^" a -
However, the Parliament was no fooner diflblved, but he mm.
fell to contriving all poflible means to break through it. M - Piris -
Befides that he was naturally inconftant, and not over icru-
pulous, it is faid, he was perfwaded to this reflation, by
fome of his Favorites, who told him he would be but the
Shadow of a King, as long as thefe Charters were in
force. But as they perceived he was retrained by the con-
fideration of his Oath, they ad\ ifed him to apply to the
Pope, intimating, that for two or three hundred Marks it
would be eafy to get it annulled. This weak Prince, who
generally followed the moft pernicious Counfels, embraced
this immediately. It was agreeable to his Inclinations, and
that was fufficient to caufe him to trample upon what Ho-
nour and Religion required of him, and to hinder him
from reflecting on the enfuing Mifchiefs. But, ii it be
ftrange, this Prince fhould fo little regard his Word and
Oath, there is no lefs reafon to be furprized, that fuch
Principles fhould be authorifed by the common Fractife of
him who ftiles himfelf Chri/i's Vicar.

Mean time, Henry laid out, in the Preparations for the Hf j,,, M
war in Guienne, the Money granted by the Parliament JbrGnxmu.
for the Voyage to the holy-Land. When all was ready, "• P- S6S -

™ .i • rr* ii- An.VvavclI.

he came to Port/month, where his T. roops were ordered to x. Wikcs,
meet him. Then leaving the Regency to the Queen and
Prince Richard, he fet fail (6) attended by a great number
of Lords, who being his military Tenants, were obliged to
that Service. Upon his Arrival at Bourdeaux, he headed



(1) The King bought out the remainder of his Term ( which was three Years, ) and gave him Security f.
(1) A fortnight alter Eajicr. Id. p. 865.

(3) They were all of the Clergy, 1 - X. The Archbiftiop of Canterbury, and the Bilhops of Carhjle, Salnbury
wh ' were fent by the Bilhops and all the Prelates, (ays M. P~rii, p. 866.

(4) 1>t ay 3. fjys jVl. Par. 1. But the Ar.n. Burton fay it was the 13th. p. 3;;. See Ryrrer's Feed. T- I.

(5) And faid after all was performed, Si miy GOD help me, I ivill imritlMy cbfirv! all tbefe rf'i^J, as
tm a Knigbt, as I am a crooned and anointed King. M. Paris ieems to intimate only the E;fn"ps had Tafti
lay he would not ho.d one, becaufe be was r.o Prtejt. p. 867.

{6) Auguji 6, and arrived at Bourdeaux the 15. M Paris, p. 868.

4



r the Money.

and Etbelmar

. p. 4 S 9 -
J an a Man j

s in their 1 u.jd



M- Faritm
Bifhop cleft of JPirxb'tfitr,



a\ I an a Ctr. :
s, lor he make;



'r'jr, as I
ti.e Kin£

hl8



Book VIII.



8. HENRY III.



17.53,



r > miis
Eleanor of
Caftik in

{ '» Frwct
Edward.
Acl. Pub.
T.I.p-49 1
♦98— S3 1 -
M. Paris.

:•• •■' :•

■. w Matt b
si concluded*



Arrival of
Lci< efti 1
«»>£ Ojrf 1
oj Servi c
•Ihc Gaf-
cons _/a^-
Ar/.
Id. p. 879.

1254.
Henry l\r/«
in •vain to
get Money
from tie

Parliament

on pretence

cf the War

in Guienne.
M. Paris.



M. Paris,
p. S81.
M. Weil.



He


extorts


Money from


tbt


Jeu%


M.


Paris,


P-


887.


M.


Wei).


Mc


Triage


"J


Prince


Ed


ward*


M.


Paiis,


P.8S9, S 9 o.


M,


Weltm.



]<i. p. 895.
K9S.

U. Weft.



Jfe earatfs
M'.nef from

M. Paris.

p. 901.



his Army and befieged Reoie Cattle then in the hands of
the Rebels. As they depended upon the King's ufual In-
dolence, they negledled to fortify the places they had feiz-
ed. By which means he eafily became mailer, not only
• .:' this, but of all the other C. files that were in their power.
Mean while the King of Qajlili neglecting to fuppor't his
Adherents, Henry imagined he waited for his departure to
raife frefli Commotions in the Province, and was afraid
that would be always the Cale. This Belief made him
very uneafy, becaufe, to prevent his Enemy's defigns he
faw hiinfelf obliged to keep a {landing Army in Guienne,
without having wherewithal to maintain it. To free hiin-
felf from this difficulty, he difpatched an Ambaffador to
Spain, with Orders to propofe a Marriage between Ed-
ward his cldcft Son, and Eleanor Siller ( 1 ) of /llphonjo King
of Cajlile. Altihonfo found there was no likelihood of his
becoming mailer of Guienne, fince the arrival of the En-
: r l : f!< Succours. Befides, he confidercd, the Marriage pro-
pofed was very advantagious for the Princefi his Siller.
Accordingly, without much Solicitation, he agreed to it,
.md thereupon, religned to Prince Edward all his Preten-
fions to Guienne (2). This affair was tranfacled with great
Secrecy, Henry intending to ufe the pretence of the war
to obtain a frefh Supply from the Parliament. Mean time,
the Earl of Leicejler, who was retired into France (3),
finding Henry engaged in a War with the Gafcons, levied
fome Troops at his own Charge, and came and offered
his Service. The arrival of the Earl, and the report of a
private Treaty between Alphonfo and the King, frightened
the Rebels, and caufed them to return to their Allegiance.

Mean time, Henry pretending to fear the attacks of the
Cajiilians, fent Orders to the Queen to fummon a Parlia-
ment, and demand an Aid. But this attempt did not
anfwer his Expectation. The Parliament having fome
intimation of the Treaty negotiating in Spain, replied,
all the Barons would be ready to ferve the King with their
Lives and Fortunes, upon the full news of his being
invaded by the Ca/lilians. This was not what the King
wanted. However, as he thought the Treaty of Burgos
was yet a Secret, he wrote to the Queen and Prince Ri-
chard, that he was extremely embaraffed, having received
certain Advice, that the King of Cajlile was preparing to
invade Guienne with a numerous Army of Moors. And
therefore, he commanded them to prel's the Parliament (4)
to grant an Aid anfwerable to his Neceflities. But the
news of the Treaty with Alphonfo being confirmed by the
Pari of Leicejler, who was returned into England, the
Queen durll not prefs the Parliament (5) upon fo frivolous
a Pretence. Henry, being thus difappointed, was forced
to fend Orders to the Prince his Brother, to extort Money
from the Jews at any rate. Richard difcharged his Corn-
million with fuch rigour, that by his Oppreffions he re-
duced the miferable Jews to defire leave to depart the
Kingdom. But even that being refufed them, they were
forced to pay the King a greater Sum than ever.

As foon as the Queen had notice that her Son's Marriage
was concluded, fhe hallned to Bourdeaux (6), with Edward
and Edmund her Sons, and the Archbifhop of Canterbury.
Immediately after her arrival, Prince Edward was fent in
great State to Burgos, where he married the Infanta Eleo-
nora, and in a few days fet out again with his Bride for
Bourdeaux, where the Kino; and Qiieen waited for them.
During their Stay in that City, the King confirmed by a
new Patent the Grant of Guienne to the Prince his Son,
to which he added Ireland, and the Sovereignty of
H'alei (7). Henry having nothing more to do in Gafcognc,
prepared for his departure. But to avoid the Fatigues of
the Sea, he defired leave of the King of France, who had
happily purchafed his Liberty of the Infidels with a great
Ranfom (8), to pafs through his Dominions, and embark
at Boulogne. Lewis not only very courteously granted his
requefl, but met him at Chartres, and conduced him to
Paris, where he entertained him eight days (o).

Henry made his Entry into London (10) with extraordi-
nary Pomp, and received from the City a Prefent of a
hundred Pounds Sterling, which the Londoners were wont to



327
" z 5*



give on the like occafions. But as he did not feem fatil
fied, they gave him moreover a rich piece of Plate of ex-
quifite Workmanfhip, with which he was content. This
did not hinder him however from embracing an opwrtu-
mty, a (ew days after, to draw from the City a more con-
fiderable Sum. A certain Pried accufed of Murder, cf
ing out of Newgate, where the Bilhop had confined him,
the City was amerced in no lef's than three thoufand ,11'
Marks as a Punifhment for its neglecSt. This Sentence
was deemed the more unjuft, as it was proved by good
Evidence, that the Bifhop's Officers themfelves favoured
the Prifoner's efcape (1 2).

I left the Emperor Conradi and Pope Innocent very both ■■'•■
engaged in War. The Pope at length departed from Lyons ''
to repair to Genoa, from whence hc\k-ligned to go and re-
lieve the City of Naples, clofely befieged by Conrade. But Vmnit
this refolution being taken too late, the Emperor had tin.
to make himfelf matter of the Capital, and afterwards of all r> " r '
the reft of the Kingdom. This fortunate Succefs infpircd
him with the thoughts of fiizing likewife the [fland of
Sicily, and, if certain Hiftoiians may be credited, he ac-
complished this defign by a notorious Treachery. It k '"''"'
faid, that alluring to Melphi young Henry his Brother, to M . ,.
whom Frederic II bequeathed Sicily, he caufed him to be
murdered. This Prince, fays an Hiftorian of Naples, oi
all Frederic's Sons, was the worthiefl and mofi hopeful.

Before the death of the young Prince, the Pope, who" - -; •-
faw his affairs in great confufion by Cenrade's Progi , ' '
difpatched to ^England the fame Albret before fp n of,
to offer the King the Crown of the two Sicilies. But ' N! !
Henry rejected this offer on the account of his Nephew, ' ,
whom he was unwilling to depofe. Innocent not fuccceding
in this Project, took occafion from the death of the Kin
of Sicily, to renew Conrade's Excommunication, whom 6
he charged with the murder of his Brother. But the - ■ • •
Emperor, whether he was innocent, or thought it would
be difficult to convicfl him of this Crime, boldly denied ir.
Nay, he wrote to the King of England to acquaint him
with the death of the young Prince, and to exprefs his
extreme Grief thereat. This is not a proper place to ex-
amine whether his Sorrow was fincere. It fuffkes to ob-
ferve, that in cafe he were guilty of the murder, he did
not long enjoy the Fruits of his Treachery. He died five He it pol*
months after, poifoned, as was faid, by a Phyfician bribed f°* d b *
by Manfred his bailard Brother. Far from fufpecling the m"p»A.
hand which gave him his death, he left the Guardianfhip
of his Son Conradin to the fame Manfred.

The death of Conrade in 12^3, entirely changed the Im^enttr.
face of affairs in the two Sicilies. Manfred under co- ''''7'
lour of a&ing for his Pupil, who was in Germany, formed t^KsS
the Projecl of becoming matter of the two Kingdoms.
But he found fo many difficulties, that he was forced to s 'e l - u
conceal his defign till a more favorable opportunity.
Mean time Innocent, who then refided at Peru/a, he?ded
an Army, and marched into the Kingdom of Naples, where
the People declared in his favour. Manfred hiinfelf, find-
ing there was no oppofing the Torrent, went to him at
Naples. When he came there, he fo artfully difiembled,
that the Pope, thinking him really in his Interclls, ad-
mitted him to all his Councils, and confirmed to him
the Emperor his Father's Grant of the Principality of
Tarentum. Manfred, finding himfelf thus in the Pope's »" •»*
favour, began to contrive how to make it fubfervient to "
his defigns. To that end, he advifed him to difperfe his
Troops all over the Kingdom, and backed his advice
with two reafons, by which Innocent fuffered himfelf to
be enfnared. The firft was, the neceffity of eating the
Inhabitants of Naples, left: being too much burthened,
they fhould think of revolting. His other reafon iva,
grounded upon its being no lets important to keep in awe
the Germans, left by Conrade in the Countrv, under the
Command of two Bavarian Princes. Tr.is Stratagem
fucceeding to his with, he turned to the two German Prin-
ces, who probably, were no more difficult to be deceived
than the Pope. By means of fome (ecret Emiflarres, he
intimated to them, that he was a Friend of Conradin's



Manfred.



(1) Unpin by miftake fays, Daughter. See ,Vf. Paris, p. 765.

(2) The Bilhop of Batb and John Manjcl his fpecial Chaplains, were the Agents in this affair, and brought back a Charter fealed \v::h a "olden Seal :
Which is now to be feen in the King's Arcbiires, in the old Chapter- tioufe at H'.Jlmtnlier j and is inlerleo in Rymtr'i Fad. T. 1. p. 531.

(3) Where it is faid he generoully refufed the offer of being High-Steward of France. M, Paru,
{ir) Which met 'January 27. Id. p. 8S1.

(5) Which was alfembled again, in order to be prefT-d to grant an Aid. Id. p. 887.

(6) She failed from Portfmoutb, May 29. Id. p. SS9.

(-) And likewife the City and Towns of Briflol, Stanford, and Crantbam. M. Pant. Tefore the King's return, upon ftatinrt his Accounts, it ap-
p:aicd that the Expencesof his Expeditions amounted to twenty thoufand leven hundred Pounds, b.lijes Lar.ds, Wardlhips (5c. giTen to fo.-eigners, a. d
thirty thouland 3nd two hundred Marks fpent upon his PoiHevm Brothels. Feing told, lays Matthew Pans, of ihis Kicat Expcnce by one about him, he
replied, Ob, for the Head cf God , fay no more of it, te/t lie -very Relation make Men jiand amazed. M. Pens. p. 948.

(3) Four hundred thouland L'.vres.

(9] Henry was attended by a thoufand brave Horfe with noble Riders, and there were with him his own Que»n and hi Sifter the Countefs of Corn,
vial, who weie met oy the Queen of France aud her Sifter the Countefs oi" Atjau. Thither came alio the old Counted 1 r i •menu, Mother to ail th< e
Ladies. M. Paris, p. 900.

^lo) He landed at Dover, about a Week after Cbri/lmafs. HI. Paris, p. 901. Deemier 27 . T. Wiles, p. 50.

(II) Rafin by miftake fcys ihree hundred. Sec M. Pans, p. 913.

(ii) This Year King Hen-y appointed fevenA-of the malt coi.ndciable Abbots, of St. Augufiin's Order, to be Juftices itinerant. M p. S95..— -And
(ouftituted Henry ul Wenghan Keeper of the Great Seal, in the room of William de kilicr.r.i. Id. p. got.



.' i.



28



U'j<r-



The HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



uid only feigned out of Policy to adhere to the Pope, paid upon his arrival at Lyons. A mighty Contribution

Then he magnified the Pope's Forces in the Kingdom, towards an Enterprize of this nature ! However, the

and advifed them to go to Germany for Recruits. What obligation was clogged with this Claufe, uniefs the Pope

farther induced thefe two Princes to follow his Advice, Jbould have occafan for the Money himfelf for the Defence of
v/as the Affurance he gave them, that m their abfence he



tnr ■■ '
.•" i 5i( ■
! < Priticc
Edmund.
A&. Pub.
T.I. p. SOS
51:.



Henry ac-
crpn the

effer,



would take care of their Troops. He told them, he
would undertake to engage the Pope to furnifh them with
Neceflaries, in expectation of fending them back to Ger-
many, and in the mean time, would prolong the Negotia-
tion till their return. By this double advice Manfred
weakened the Pope's Forces, by caufing him to difperfe
them, and freed himfelf from the troublefome Prefence of
the two German Princes, keeping their Troops to be em-
ployed upon occafion.

The Army brought by Innocent into the Kingdom of
Naples, could not be maintained without a great Expence,
which he could not long bear. Apprehenlive as he was,
that his Troops would quickly disband themfelves, if he
did not find Money to pay them, he made a frefh attempt
upon the King of England, and with better Succefs than
before. Under pretence of informing Henry of the cir-
cumftances of his Nephew the King of Sicily's death,
he fent a Nuncio, to offer him in his name the Crown
of the two. Sicilies for Prince Edmund his fecond Son. He
reprefented to him, that his fcruples were no longer fea-
fonable, fince the death of the young King his Nephew :
That befides, he ought to confider this Offer as a very
particular mark of his Efteem and Affeclion, which any
Prince in Europe would think a great Honour. In fhort,
that a Crown was a Prefent to be accepted without much
deliberation. Thefe tempting Offers had the delired
Effect. Henry, without confulting his Brother, or the Par-
liament, from whom he was to expect the necefiary



the Holy See.

What care foever the Pope took to procure the King ib. p. 515,
Money, he was afraid it would not fuffice, or the King
would vainly lavifh away the Treafure he fhould raife.
For this reafon he admonifhed him by a Letter, to re-
trench ali fuperfluous Expences, not excepting thofe de-
figned for pious ufes, becaufe the Conqueft of Sicily was
above all works of Charity. Though Edmund as yet
enjoyed only an empty Title, the King his Father, blinded
with the hopes inftilled by the Pope, confidered this young
Prince, as the real Monarch of the two Sicilies. In this lb. p. 5-;;.
belief, he caufed him to give, by an authentick Patent,
to Thomas Earl of Savoy the Queen's Uncle, the Princi-
pality of Capua, which, like the reft of the Kingdom,
was (fill in difpute between the Pope and Conradin. But
though the Pope feemed to divert himfelf of this Kingdom
in favour of Edmund, he fuffered him not however to dif-
pofe of any thing without his Confent. There are in the ib. p. i-j,
Collection of the Public k Ails, feveral Grants made by the &<■
Pope, in this fame Kingdom, to the Marquiis of Hccn:-
burch his General, and others.

Whilft the Pope continued his Negotiations in England vanfied
with all poffible Secrecy, for fear of alarming the Sicilians, ?'«"<" **-
Manfred the Baftard was taking mealures at Naples to '"■"■, '" s "*
procure the Crown of the two Sicilies. He praclifed up- c.io.' Sum.
on the German Troops brouaht thither by the Emperor ■ i>ans -
Conrade, and fecured the affiftance of the Saracens \vho p ' 9 9 °
were very numerous in the two Kingdoms. As foon as jj e «„;,,
matters were ripe, he waited an opportunity to declare ><-•< P°pe'i



Aids for this undertaking, accepted this imaginary Prefent, himfelf openly, and it was not long before one offered. C ^f r J r f



M. Paris.
p. 896.



A3. Pub.
T.J. p. 51



with all thankfulnefs. From that moment he caufed
Prince Edmund to affume the title of King of Sicily.
After this unwary Prince was rafhly engaged in this af-
fair, he had never the Power or Prudence to get clear
of the Snares laid for him by the Pope on that pretence.
Innocent told him, that with an inconfiderable Sum of
Monev, he would have the fatisfaction to fee, in a fhort
time, his fecond Son on the Throne ; and a Crown, like
that of Sicily, was well worth taking fome pains to ob-
tain. Pleafsd with thefe flattering hopes, Henry readily
fent the Pope all his own Money, all that the Prince his
Brother would lend him, and all that he could extort
from the Jews or his other Subjects, by means of itine-
rant Juftices fent into every County. But this not fuf-
ficing to fatisfy the Pope, lie was fo very imprudent, as
to oblige himfelf, under pain of being excommunicated and
deprived of the Royal Dignity, to pay all fuch Sums as
the Pope fhould borrow, for accomplifhing their Filter-
prize. Innocent, impowered in this unlimited manner,
• fpared not his Friend's Purfe. By borrowings, real or



Having killed a Man that affronted him at the Pope's Hi » and,
Court, and being obliged to abfeond, he was fummoned to kjt "ti tarl
appear and take his Trial. Upon his refufal, Innocent or- m '
ders his Troops to march to the little Town of Nocera,
inhabited by Saracens, where the murderer was fled. This
was a furKcient pretence for Manfred to affemble his
Friends, who were already prepared. With the Succours i\ e h.aiitbt
that came to him from feveral Parts, he met the Troops fofs.
that were marching againft him, and attacking them with
Advantage, between Troya and Foggia, killed part, and
put the reft to flight. Innocent was much furprized at the
defeat of his Army, and to find upon his hands a frefh
Enemy, whom he deiigncd his Inftrument to clear the
Kingdom of the Germans. This Incident convincing him
that Manfred had only amufed him, he perceived, fince
the Germans fided with the Ballard, it would be difficult
to maintain himfelf in the Kingdom with only his own
Forces. In this belief, he repeated his Inftances to the
King of England, for Men and Money, with an Englijh
General, threatning, in cafe of refufal, to give the Crown






pietended, he engaged him fo deeply, that his ordinary of Sicily to another Prince. But as this Supply was yet innocent



Ibid.



Revenue could not poffibly anfwer the expence. This
put him frequently under a neceffity of making fuch De-
mands upon the Parliament, as rendered him daily more
odious to his Subjects. But he was fo fond of this affair,
that he regarded not the Complaints and Murmurs of the
People, as long as he thought to find the neceffary Money
for executing his Project.
Tbi Pope Innocent was very fenfible, it was not in the King's
iifei [mcral p ower to perform his Engagements. But he hoped, by
TbT'for.f" ufing the Plenitude of his Apoftolical Authority, to furnifh
1 '■;■. him with means fufficient to get Money from his Sub-
jects. The full of thefe means was a Bull directed to the
Archbifhop of Canterbury and Bifhop of Cbichejler, im-
powering them to borrow Money of Perfons of all condi-
tions, in the name of the Church of Rome, with Orders
to pay what Sums fhould be thus raifed into the King's
hands. It is eafy to fee, the Pope made ufe of the
name of the Church of Rome, becaufe he knew no body
would lend the King Money ; and becaufe the Church
had it in her power to compel People, Ecclefiafticks at
leaff, to lend their Money, which the King could not
do.

The Voyage to the Holy Land furniflied the Pope
with a pretence to grant the King two Tenths upon the
Clergy. But withal he commanded the Money to be
depolited in a fafe Place, from whence it could not be
taken but by his orders. He pretended it was to prevent
the King from putting it to any other ufe than the Expe-
dition to Pale/line. But in reality thefe Sums were de-
fined for the projected Conqueft of Sicily. By a third
Hull, he granted the King a twentieth part of the Church's
Revenue in Scotland, provided the Money could be raifed
without giving offence. Mean time, as he had himfelf in-
gaged to contribute to the charges of this intended Conqueft,
he promifed to be anfwerable to Prince Edmund for a
ed thoufand French Livres. half whereof fhould be
4



!b. p. 4.80.



?• 5'7-



lb. p. 516.



very remote, the Vexation to fee his affairs in fo ill a''"
fituation, threw him into a fit of Sicknefs which laid grander''
him in his Grave. Though moft Hiftorians reckon above iv.
a year between the death of Innocent IV, and the E- M - r ' i " u
lection of Alexander IV his Succelibr, the Collcdion cf the ^a, 9 [„b.
Publick ASts of England plainly fliow, that Alexander IV T.I. p. $14,
was elected a few Months after Innocent's deceafe. And — i3 6,
indeed, we find there Bulls of thefe two Popes, dated the
end of the fame year 1254.

Alexander, following the fteps of his Predeceffor, re- 1255.
folved to profecute the War againft Manfred, who, ftil! Alexander
concealing his defigns, declared for Conradin, for Fear of "*"" *
frighting away the Germans, of whom he ffcod in great %^i„*
need. As the Pope had no lefs occafion for the Succours Man/red.
from England, inftead of menacing Henry, as Innocent A j*' Vah -
did, he fent the Bifhop of Bonoma, with a Ring, to inveft M , p;, rl ^
by that Mark, Prince Edmund with the Kingdom of Si- p. 906.
cily. But whilft the Legate was on the Road, Alexan-
der's affairs were entirely ruined. The Pope boi row-
ing Money from all hands, on the King of England's
account, found means to draw together an Army of
fixty thoufand Men, and gave the Command to Cardinal'
0, c lavian Ulba/dini Floreutinus, with orders to befiege
Manfred in Nocera. The Cardinal hat (or his Lieute- m. p ar j s .
nant-General, the Marquifs of Hoemburch a German, who Aft. Pub.



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