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had long ferved Innocent IV, but was now corrupted hv ': 1,p ' s * ! '
Manfred. Upon the approach of this Army to Nccera,
the Marquiis, who watched an opportunity to ingage
Oclavian in fome falle Step, reprefented to him", that it
was not only needlefs, but a leffening ol his Honour to
employ fo great an Army againft a paltry Town. Ad-
ding, the Country adjoining afforded no Forage, and be-
fides, it was plain, Manfred coidd nuke no gim Efforts,
fince he kept himfelf thus immured. The Eccle/iaftical
General, unexperienced in the Art of War, looking upon
the Marquifs as an able and faithful Soldier, wus eafily





Manfred d:
flttl tbe
Pc-fe't Ar

it crowned
King, of

p. 3 4<-
T . Wikes

The King
demandi an
jiid of the
M. P.iris.
p. 913.
An Burt.
P.34- 1 -

perfwadcd to divide his Army, en the falfe notion cf his
Enemy's being afraid. He had no fooner committed this
Error, but Manfred Tallied out of Nocera, and fuddenly
falling upon the Army which was coming to befiege him,
entirely put them to rout. The Pope's lofs in this Action
was fo great, that he was forced to abandon the Country.
So Manfred eafily became mafter of the two Sicilies, and
was crowned at Palermo, after fprcading a Report that
young Conradin was dead in Germany.
Ibthtgatt Though Alexander had no refuge in Italy, yet he did
iwcjl: Ed- not Jefpair f reftoring his Affairs by means of the King
""slclfie's. of England, who little knew of the late Revolution in a
Aft. Pub. Country where he was fo much concerned. For the Bi-
T.i.p.550, jhop of Bononia (1) came to London, and, without riien-
M.'&is. tioning what palled in the Kingdom of Naples, or Man-
p. 9 i 1,965. fed's Coronation, inverted Prince Edmund with the two
Sicilies (2). This was done with a Solemnity that in-
eiealed Henry's Satisfaction. This weak Prince was as
much pleafed with the Ceremony, as if Edmund had been
actually put in poffelfion of a Crown. But if there were
Flatterers, who congratulated him upon this augmentation
of Glory, there were wifer People, who grieved to fee
their King become more and more the Pope's dupe. In-
deed it was eafy to perceive, he was ingaging in an under-
taking, which all the Ready- Money in the Kingdom
would not fuflice to accomplifh. »

Henry had little reafon to expect any great Aids from his
People, whom he had extremely difpleafed. Much lefs
ftill could he hope to gain the Barons approbation of a Pro-
ject, fo rafhly undertaken, without confulting thofe who
alone could furnilh him with means to come off with ho-
nour. Neverthelcfs, he demanded of a Parliament fum-
moned this Year (3), an Aid of Money, with the fame
affurance as if he were labouring purely for the Good of
the Publick. Though the Parliament was unconcerned
about the Succefs of the Affairs of Sicily, they thought
however to reap fome advantage from the King's Ne-
ceffities, by improving this opportunity to procure, in a
two Condi- lafting manner, the obfervance of the two Charters. To
"°"' "i 1 "' that end, they told the King, they would grant him an
Aid, upon thefe two conditions; that the Charters fhould
be obferved, and the Jufticiary, Treafurer, and Chan-
cellor, nominated by the Parliament, without being liable
to be turned out but by the fame Authority. The King
not thinking proper to agree to thefe Terms, prorogued
the Parliament till Michaelmas.

In the mean time, Henry was obliged to take a Journey
into Scotland, on account of the Queen his Daughter, who
complained of her hard Ufage from thofe that governed the
T. I. p. 561. Kingdom, during the King her Husband's Minority (4).
— -5 6 5- The Prclence of the King of England helped very much
p. 90 "90S. to fettle the Affairs of that Kingdom, which began to feel
An. Burt. the ufual effects of a Minority. He made but a fliort
flay in Scotland, being impatient to return into England,
where the Affairs of Sicily called him.
Ruftand tie The Sums pretended to be borrowed by this, and the
f,'/ccLs 'into former Pope, for the Affair of Sicily, were fo exceffive,
England that the King faw it impoflible to fatisfy the Creditors, real
unttjmnl or feigned. Alexander was not ignorant of it, but recko-
ning the Englijh, and particularly the Clergy, were refpon-
fible for their Sovereign, he ufed all imaginable means to
draw Money from the unfortunate Kingdom, fo much ex-
haufted already. His firft Attempts were made by a Nun-
tio, one Rujland, whom he furnifhed with feveral Bulls,
all tending to exact Money from the Clergy. The firft
produced by the Nuntio, was an order to gather a Tenth in
England, Ireland, and Scotland itfelf, as well to the Pope's
as the King's ufe. This Bull was expreffed in Terms
which left the Clergy no room to cavil. The Pope
laid this Impofition on them, Notwitbjlanding (5) any
former Letters, Indulgences, Privileges, Exemptions or other
Grants, under any Form, and for what Catife foever, and
notwitbjlanding ail Objections which could be devifed. A
fecond Bull gave the Nuntio Power to change the King's
Vow to go to the Holy Land, into that of undertaking
the Conqueft of Sicily ; a Conqueft, according to the Pope,
much more important than that of fcrufalem. Henry en-
gaged in this new Vow, by a folemn Oath on the Relicks
of St. Edward, as he had done with regard to the firft.
Moreover the Nuntio ordered a Crufade to be preached
againft Manfred as an Enemy to the Chriftian Name,
and promifed the Pardon of their Sins to all that fhould
allift the Holy See againft that excommunicated Prince.
The publifhing of this Crufade was of little confequence

Tbe Parlia-
ment pro-


The Kin?" 1
"Journey to
Act. Pub.

in England, but the effects weie felt in Pah-f.ine, as it 125;.
obliged the Chriftians there, when they found the Suc-
cours, intended for them, diverted to other Ufes, to con-
clude with the Saracens a Truce for ten Years.

The Parliament, that was prorogued, being met, TheParhmt
the King follicited in vain for a Supply. He had taken '"""' "'

M. Paris.

p. 913.

An. Hurt.
p. 349.

M- Paris,
p. 914.

p. 913.


care not to funimon ftich of the Lords as fhov.cd nioft
Steddinefs in the lalt Seffion. But from this very thing An. Bur;,
the Parliament took occalion to refufe his Demand. They Rtfufeue
alledged that, according to the Tenour of the Great Char- fwitrK-r P _
ter, they were not obliged to debate any Bufinefs, unlefs "
all that had a Right to fit in Parliament were fummoned.
Henry, feeing little hopes of procuring any Money from •• difllhej.
this Allembly, diffolved them, and took other Courfes to
attain his ends (6). He would fain have borrowed once Rij, ar d
more of the Prince his Brother; but could not prevail. trill tut Md
Richard was difpleafed that the King (hould rafhly engage ']" K '"&
in this Affair, without vouchfafing to confult either him, or M?PirU»
the Barons of the Realm. p 914.

But what Henry could not do by his own Authority, ,

he tried to effect by the Pope's help, who was the more Divert Built
ready to aflift him, as his own Intereft was concerned. t° get Mtr.y
It may be freely faid, that in this unhappy Century the-£"".
Court of Rome had loft all fenfe of Shame. Of this, An' Burt,
what I am going to relate is a clear evidence, not built M. Pari .
upon the Tellimony of a fingle Hiltorian, whofe Fidelity p 9! . rj Ct
fome have endeavoured to call in queflion, but upon the
very Bulls of Alexander IV, extant in the Records of
England, as printed in the Collection of the Publick Ads.
By the way, nothing can be more proper to confute what-
ever has been alledged to weaken the Authority of Mat-
thew Paris, than the Harmony between the Bulls and his
Hiflory. What is more ftrange in the Conduct of Alex-
ander, is, that he did not even employ in the War a-
gainft Manfred, the exceffive Sums inceilantly drawn
from England, under that pretence. If we compare to-
gether the Hiftories of England and Sicily, we fhall find
that when the Pope was draining England of Money for
the projected Conqueft, he fuftered Manfred quietly to
enjoy his Crown, without ufing any effectual Endeavours
to dethrone him. Thus the Conqueft ot Sicily was only x. Wikei-
the Pope's Decoy, to get large Sums from Henry, upon
the vain expectation of placing his Son Edmund on the
Throne. In the Collcttion of the Publick Ails, we find
under the Year 1255, divers Bulls clearly fhowiflg with
what greedinel's the Roman Pontiff exhaulted wretched

In one of thefe Bulls, he orders Henry to pay four Aft Pub>
thoufand Pounds to the Bifliop of Bononia, lor the Charges T. 1 p-54".
of his Legatefhip, as if the Court of Rome had no Intereft
in the Affair.

In another dated the fame Month, he confirms the ... .
Change of the King's Vow to go to the Holy Land, into p 54 s.
that of an Expedition into Sicily, to the end the Money
defigned for the War againft the Saracens, might ferve
to pay the Debts contracted for tljp. Conqueft of that

By one of the fame kind directed to the Archbifhop of p. 549.
Canterbury, he makes, by his Authority, the fame Change
with regard to the Vow of the King of Norway and his
Subjects. Then he commands them to fend into England,
for the pretended Expedition to Sicily, the Money raiied
for the Voyage to the Holy-Land.

A third, enjoins all the Englijh, who have received any
Money for their Journey to Paljline, to pay it into the ' i
hands of certain Commifiioners, to be employed in the
Sicilian Expedition.

Though he had before confirmed the Change of Hen- p. 552.
ry's Vow, he granted him however, by a Bull, the twen-
tieth Part of the Clergy's Revenue in Scotland, to be
employed in the Expedition to the Holy-Land. This Bull
bearing date after that, whereby the King's Vow was
changed, muft be confidered as a real Cheat, to make the
Scots believe, their Money fhould be expended in the
War againft the Infidels.

After this, by a fubfequent Bull, he abfolves the Sects .. -,.,
from their Vow of going to the Holy Land, on condition
they would fend into England a certain Sum, to be em-
ployed in the Conqueft of Sicily.

He granted the fame Favour to the Englijh, by a Bull, p . - j6 ,
dated in Augtjl the fame Year.

Laftly, By another in October he commanded his Nun- ? . 5:9.
tio to compel the Englijh Prelates, to pay the Tenths

*-K.ing Henry lint to the Pop: upon that account fifty thoufand Marks

p. 913.

(I) Of Romania, fays M.Parit, p. 911

(l) About the middle of OBohr. ibid.

hundred thoufand more. An. Burl. p. 348.

(3) And which met Sober 1^. at H'ejlminjler- M. Pa.

(4) Sir Robert de Rofi, and Sir John Ballot the Regents, were accufed of keeping the Q^cen like a Prifoner, and not permitting the
her Embraces. But tknr, hiving fined the Governors, brought the King and Careen together again, and cut them inrc luch a Condition
M. Parti, f. 907. ( 5 ) ^ „.^Jiante.

(6) During the laft Day*s Siflion of this Parliament, there happened a »ery great Quurel between the King and the Earl Marital, 01 wh
Reader may (ce an account in M. Par it, p. 917.

and engaged to fend him r.vo

King to enjoy
as thev liked.

No. 17. Vol. I,

O o o

ch the curious



Vol. I.


granted to the King, for the Payment of the Debts con-
traded fince his Ingagements with Innocent IV.

M. Vim.

If the Originals of all thefe Bulls were not among the
Records of England, it would be hard to believe that
Chrift's Vicar was fo little of a Chriftian, as to prefer
his own private Quarrel before the Caufe of God, for fo
the Crufades againft the Infidels were then reckoned.
Neither is it lefs ffrange, that Alexander (hould think of
making the Scots and Norwegians, who lived in the utmoft
bounds" of the North, contribute to the Charges of his
Quarrel with the Houfe of Swabia, about a Kingdom
fituated in the moft Southern parts of Europe. But if what
the Hiftorian adds be true, which however can fcarce be
doubted, it will be cafy to perceive, that in order to raife
Money, there was no means, though never fo unjuft, but
what was approved by this Pope ( i ).

The Sums borrowed in the King's Name amounted,
according to the Pope's account, to one hundred thirty
rive thoufand five hundred and forty Marks, principal
Money, befides Intereft (z). Alexander was not ignorant
that the King's Revenue fcarce fufficed for his neceflary
Expences, and confequently it was impoffible to take from
thence wherewith to fatisfy the pretended Creditors. To
h=lp the King out of this ftrait, he caufed him to allow
that all the extraordinary Levies of Money in his King-
dom fliould be applied to that Ufe, for which, he under-
took to find means himfelf to raife what Sums they fhould
want. It was not fo much the Purfes of the People or
Barons, as of the Clergy, that were to be drained. Be-
fides that the Clergy had moft ready Money, they more
tamely fubmitted to the Pope, than the People would to
the King. Accordingly, to oblige the Clergy to pay the
greateft ihare of this Debt, Alexander made ufe of a very
extraordinary means, fuggefted to him by the Bifhop of
Hereford (3). He caufed a great Number of obligatory
cl "Ri- Notes to be drawn, whereby each Bi {hop, Abbot, or Prior
t.qi2"a'%i m England, acknowledged to have received of fuch a
&c. Merchant of Sienna, or Florence, or fome other place in

Italy, the Sum of- (4), for the occafions of his

Church, and bound himfelf to repay it at fuch a time.
This done, Endeavours were ufed to conftrain each to
fign one of thefe Notes, as if he had really borrowed the
Money. This was fuch an Opprellion, that it would be
difficult to find an inftance of the like among the moft
famous Tyrants (5).

To execute this defign, Rujiand allembled all the P.e-
lates of the Kingdom, and acquainted them with the
Pope's Pleafure, that each (hould fign one of thefe Notes,
and bind himfelf fpecdily to pay the Sum mentioned there-
in, under pain of Excommunication. This Propofal fo
furprized the Prelates, that the Bifhop of London could not
forbear faying aloud, That he ivould lofe his Life rather
than J'ubmit to fo tyrannical an Opprejfton. The Bifhop of
IForceJter faid as much, and in fine, Rujiand had for Anf-
wer, That the Clergy of England -would not be Slaves to the
Pope. The Nuntio complained to the King of this bold
Anfwer, intimating that the Bifhop of London was the Au-
thor of the Clergy's Difobedience. Henry, who was no
lefs exafperated than the Nuntio, fell into a great paffion
with the Bifhop, and told him, fince he was afraid neither
of his, nor the Pope's Indignation, he fhould quickly feel
the Effects. This Threat not being capable of daunting
the Prelate, he replied, he was very fenjible, the King and
the Pope were more powerful than He, but in cafe his Mitre
were taken from him, he would clap a Helmet in its place.
However this Firmnefs was not capable to make the
Nuntio give over his Projedf. By the help of the Bifhop
of Hereford, he fowed Difcord among the chief of the
Clergy, by carefling fome, frightning others, and caufing
Accufations to be brought againft fome, from whence he
took occalion to excommunicate them. Thefe Cenfures
were the more terrible, becaufe, if within forty days they
fued not for abfolution, which could not be obtained but
by fubmitting to the Pope's Will, all their Revenues were

But what the King and Pope extorted from private Per-
fons by thefe violent ways, could not amount to a Sum

M. Pari;.
p. 917,91c

Aicant ujed
by tbt Pope
to get t \.oniy

An. Burton.
T. Wikcj.

I Z56.
M. Paris.


p. 920.

fufficient to anfwer their occafions. There was a neceffity
of prevailing with all the Clergy to fign the Notes, o-
therwife it was not worth the while to commit fuch flagrant
A£ta of Injuftice. Wherefore Rujiand once more fum-
moned the Prelates upon this Affair. But the abfence of the
Archbifhop ot Canterbury, who was out of the Kingdom,
and the Vacancy of the See of York (6), furnifhed the
Prelates with a pretenfe to defire a delay, which could
not be refufed them. They hoped that time would pro-
duce fome favourable turn, to exempt them from paying
the Money demanded. But the Conduct of the Nuntio
quite deftroyed thefe hopes. He fell into a Rage with
thofe who raifed any difficulties in this Affair, and
thought it very ftrange that the lead oppofition fhould
be made to the Pope's Pleafure. Leonard, a Deputy or ia.p
Prolocutor for the Clergy, infifiingon the Injuftice of the
Pope's Demand, Rujlund commanded him to fay whether
he fpoke for himfelf, or in the name of the Prelates.
Then he wrote down the Deputy's Words, faying, he
would inform the Pope of his infoient Expreffions. Ano-
ther Clergyman willing likewife to fpeak a little freely of
this matter, the Nuntio told him in a furious tone, that
if he had not a regard for the Prelates, he would not leave
him a hair on his head.

The delay granted the Clergy being expired, all the u
Prelates, with the Archdeacons, the Reprefentatives of
the inferior Clergy, aflcmbled at London. As they met
purely upon this Affair, Rujiand renewed his Inftances
the very firft day. The Clergy replied, by Leonard their
Prolocutor, that their Poverty hindered them from con-
fenting to the Pope's demand, confidering it was found-
ed neither upon Reafon nor Juftice. The Nuntio made
anfwer, There was no Injujlice in ivhat the Pope claimed,
fince, as all Churches belonged to him, he could dijpofe of their
Incomes as he pleafed. This extraordinary pretenfion was
replied to by Leonard, faying, " Indeed all Churches
" might be faid in fome fenfe to belong to the Pope,
" but it was only that he fhould protect and defend them,
" and not appropriate them to his own ufe. In like
" manner, continued he, as we fay in England, all
" things are the King's ; Yet no man ever imagined
" the King was Proprietor of all the Eftates of his Sub-
" je£ts : So with regard to the Lands of the Church, it
" can never be proved that it was the Intention of the
" Founders to give them to the Pope." This Reply did
but ftill more exafperate the Nuntio, who however
thought not fit to argue and difpute any longer. He
contented himfelf, with faying in a menacing tone,
" Let every one fpeak for himfelf, that the Pope may
" know who is for, and who againft him." This he
faid to frighten them : But his violent Proceedings had a
quite contrary Effect:. The Prelates, full of Indignation
at this Treatment, unanimoufly replied, they neither
could, nor would fubmit to fo unjuft an Exaction ; that
this was their laft Refolution, and they were ready to
fuller Death, in a Caufe much more juft than that for
which the Blefled St. Thomas Becket endured Martyr-
dom. The Nuntio finding there was no prevailing by
Threats, grew more calm, and faid, he would go himfelf
and talk with the Pope, about the Difficulties which oc-
curred in the execution of his Orders. The Clergy fent
likewife, in their name, the Dean of St. Paul's to ac-
quaint his Holinefs with the reafons of their Denial.
To finifh at once this Affair, which I have no defign to
refume, I fhall relate here what Terms the Clergy obtained
from the Court of Rome, after long Solicitations. As the
Pope pretended, the Sums in queftion were really borrowed
for the Service of the King and Church, he ordered that
each Prelate fhould pay his fhare in proportion to his Re-
venue : But that the Money thus paid, {hould be de-
ducted out of the Tenths which fhould hereafter be
granted to the King. After this decifion, refufing to
hearken to any thing further, the Clergy were forced to
pay Money they had not borrowed, and to the payment
whereof they were bound without knowing any thing ol
the matter.

Some time after, the fame Nuntio convened all the Ab- 7?,, ifmuit
bots of the Cijlercian Order, and demanded one Year's *<t m*i tbt

C' Mercian
M. Palis,
p. 914.

(1) This Year King Henry ordered by Proclamation, that the Great Charter of Liberties fhould be faithfully and inviolab'y ob r ervcd. But, as M. Pan's
well obferves, to what put pole were thefe Proclamations, when the King and his great Men, let the reft of the Nation fo ill au Example, by their frequent
Violations of it, p. 907.

(2) Befides liny thouUnd more, in which the Prelates flood bourd to the Pope, though without their own Knowledge and Content. The Wnrds of
M- Pans, upon this occauon, are thefe : *• The facred Privileges of Churches Signify nothing ; and though th'- Pnpe has a Power only 'or Eaiiicat: n, and
** not far Destruction, yet the Tax upon the Clergy, which was granted at firft but for three, is now changed into five Year' j ard I rnvr'y Lay- men pa:d
** Tithes to the Clergy, but now even the Prelates are compelled to pay Tenths to the Laity : An Ad was gran'ed in Succour of the Ih'y-LarJ, and we
'* are compelled to pay it, to fight againft the Christians of Apulia j A Tenth was alfo granted by us to the K ; ng 'or the ( >bfervati< n of the Great Charter,
• « which notwithstanding is not kept ; befides many other Grievances then dune to the Clergy and church cf Er.glmd by the Pope's means, though wjtij
«• the Privity and Connivance of the King himfelf, too long to be here repeated, " which hs Mr. 'Typrel observes , though omitted by Dr. Bnid\\ yet
may fcrve to let us fee the fa<l Condition of the People, where the Prince, inftead of defending them, give* them up for a Prey tJ a foreign Power,
See j\,. Paris, towards the Clofe of the Year 1255. p. 91S.

(3) Peter Egeblank a Foreigner- See M- Pant, p. 910.

(4.) Five, fix or feven hundred Marks a-piece, or more. M. Paris.

(>) This Year, among other arbitrary Acts, the King took a Tallage of five hundred Marks from th<- CitVens rf London • and invaded all the Pofteflnras

of Robtrt de Rcs f a Man of Note. A-/. Parts, p. 929 And alfo lifted out a Proclamation, th-t all wl ■ re worth fifteen Pounds a Year in Laid,

fliould take upon them the Older of Knighthood j and that thofe who would not, fhould buy it oft* w h : 1

(6) Wtkerdi Grey, wh,o had b«n Archbishop near forty Years, died the laft Year, and was lucteedcd b> $ew« I sn of the Church of *flr*. T, Wike*,p. 50.
4 Revenue

Book VIII.



:;6. Revenue of their Wool, to fupply the occafions of the
Pope and the King. They anfwercd, they could not
errant fuch a Demand, unlets debated in a General Chap-

Mean time the Pope was not yet content with the vaft r z;6.
Sums drawn from England. He prellcd the King con- '■'■/■
tinually to fend him Money, threatning to revoke the ^ .'" " ,\
Grant of Sicily, if he did not fpeedily perform what he had M

ter of their Order. This Reply not fatisfying the Italian

Prelate, he fell into a Paffion, and fworc, if he could not promifcd. Henry excufed his not fending yet Troops into **■ |,jb -

prevail with them in a Body, he would fo treat them Italy, with an Englijh General, becaufc, inftead of being

lingly, that they fhould be conftrained to comply. He able to defray this frefh Expcnce, he could not yet ac

loon performed his Threat. For flight or imaginary
Faults, he attacked them one after another, and caufed
them to be grievoufly fined. But this Order had fuch

A& Pub. powerful Protectors about the Pope, that the Nuntio was

T.i- p. 554- commanded to defift

compl.fli the Payment of the Sums demanded by the Pope.
Hut to faiisfy him in fome meafurc, he remitted him five prinerii-
thoufand Marks, and ordered Prince Edviard his Son, wrd -an/:
who was to fucceed him, to ratify the Agreements relating

to Sicily, In another Letter on this occaiion, he acquaint- Ski

(btC III,

relattni '

Bull of
IV. vobieB



been fissd

about the
M. P.iris.

The Tyranny cxercifed by the Court of Rome upon cd him, that the Barons of the Realm refufed to fubferibe to '" I : '

the Clergy of England was of fo ftrangc a nature, that
the Hiftorian who relates all thefe Facts, was afraid he
fhould be fufpciited of inventing them, unlefs he produced
an authentic!: Proof. This doubtlcfs was his view, in in-
fcrting at large in his Hiftory one of Alexander's Bulls,
which fhews, that nothing was done in the Bufinefs of
the Notes but by his exprefs Words. This Bull, directed
to Rujland, concludes with thefe Words : You Jhall take
■are to let the King know, that all this is our Will and
Pleafure. Wherefore I fet down in thefe Pre/ents, what

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