M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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each Abbot and Prior flail be bound to pay. The I'ltiu ti
and Monastery of Durham, five hundred Marks j
/Bath four hundred ; of T H o R N E Y, four hundred,

&c. Dated at Anagnia the X of the Calends of July,

in the fecond Year of our Pontificate.



the Terms that were required of him, thinking them fome-
what unieafonable (3), cfpccially fince the Affairs of Sicily
were altered by the Treachery of the Marquifs of Hr.rm
butch. As foon as the Pope heard that the Great Men
besjan to murmur, he thought it time to get all he could
expect from England, plainly forcleeing that the Game he
was playing would foon be at an end. For that purpcle, n-, r ■
he fent into England a Nuntio, one John d, Die, with ydia,\ U n.
fevcral Bulls, all tending to procure Money of the King, in £'"]{„/*"
order to pay the Pope's pretended Debts. By the fiiir, he a -
enjoined the Bifhops punctually to pay the Tenths granted T '• invi-
to the King, notwithftanding all Fetters, Indulgences, or 5 * 5-
Privileges whatever. In all appearance, the Deduction,
which they were before allowed to make, was rendered of
no effect by this Claufe. Another Bull granted the King p 599.



77* P.irlin-

ttUtlt 'tfufs

ti: King
Motley.
Ann. Burt.



for his Voyage to the Holy-Land, from which he had al
Let us return now to the King, who was folliciting ready been exempted, all the Revenues of the vacant Be
with no Icls earneftnefs for the Aids demanded of the



Barons, to place the Prince his Son on the Throne ot
Sicily. The Archbifhop of Meffina was lately come from
Rome, on purpofe to fecond the King's Demand, with the
Pope's Letters to the Lords, exhorting them to give the
King Content. But the Pope's Eagernefs, and the Arch-



nefices. By a third, he gave him the Incomes of Non- Hid.
Relidents. A fourth, granted him the Tenths of all the f. 1.^.
Ecclcfiaftical Revenues of the Kingdom, according to their
extended Value ; whereas they were wont to be rated ac-
cording to the anticnt Taxations. A filth, ordered RuJ- p. 601.
land to adjudge to the King the Chattels of Clergymen



bifhop of Miffinah prefling inltances, proved quite con- who died inteftatc. By a lixth, he commanded the fame p. 601, tsTe.



trary to their Defigns. For it was very vifible, that the
Money was to be put into the Pope's hands, otherwife
he would not have taken fuch pains. Befides, the Par-
liament could not rcfolve to fuffer Troops to be fent into
Italy, as the Pope and the King defired, perfwaded as
they were, that it was expoling them to certain Ruin.



Nuntio, to tax himfelf all the Ecclefiafticks of the King
dom, for the Aid they were to give the King, notwith-
standing all Privileges granted by his Predecefl'ors, and all
Exemptions, or Objections whatever. A feventh, excom- p 607.
municatedall the Prelates who fhould not pay their Tenths
within fuch a time. There were feveral others which it is



Thefe Confiderations induced them to refufe the King the needlefs to mention, fince they all tended to the fame end.

Aid he demanded. To juftify their Denial, they pre- The Importunity of the Creditors of Sienna and Florence

fented an Addrefs, fetting forth their Reafons. I. The ferved always for a Pretence of thefe Oppreffions. Tho'

Difficulty of the projected Undertaking. II. The Po- thefe Debts fhould have been overpaid by all the Levies of

verty of the Nation. III. The dread of an Invafion from Money made in England on that account, they were like

the neighbouring States, if the Forces of the Kingdom the Hydra, whofe heads continually revived.
were fent fo far off". IV. This Project was formed with- It feemed that in this unfortunate Reign, a concourfe

out the Confent of Parliament. V. Laftly, The Con- of malignant Influences met in England, to impoverish



Reafvnlfor
fa doing.
An. Burt.
f. 371.



Henry will
barje the

fi'VJ?** the Cler gy ftand bound for the Sums > the Po P e pretended the "prifons, the Electors of the Empire were di
M. Paris,
p. 965.

Ibe Clergy
refufe ;



1257,



dition annexed to the Grant of Sicily, left the Pope free
to revoke it whenever he pleafed, which was reciprocal.

The King was not fatisfied with demanding of his Par-
liament an extraordinary Aid. He would have moreover



the Nation. Every thing contributed to their Mifery, and
Events feemingly the mod remote, were lound at length
to tend to the fame end. William, Earl of HJland, and Prim Ri-
Kino of the Romans, being killed in a Skirmifh with ^; d ;. .'*

— _ . -.-. * 1 • • 1 j "~ tT g r y tett



ided



Romans-



but yield
at laji.



War with
/ieWellh

Act Pub.



were ftilldue to him (1), and confent that the Tenths about the choice of a new King of the Romans. Some Aft Put,.

granted for three, fhould be continued for five Years, who were the Majority, gave their Votes for Richard ^^ 'T>

Thefe Demands were fo exorbitant, that the Clergy Brother to the King of England, and the reft chofe Al- M . ,>„;,.

could not refolve to comply with them. But there was phonfo King of Cajlile. Richard, more diligent than his 939- ^

not the fame regard for the Spiritual, as for the Temporal Competitor, went immediately to be crowned at Aix la

Lords. The Pope no fooner fpoke with an imperious Chapelle, and fupported his Right by his prefence in Ger-

tone, by the mouth of his Nuntio, but the Clergy tame- many, whilft Alphonfo acted only by Ambaffadors. How-

ly fubmitted, and gave the King the greatelt part of his ever, Richard had no other advantage over his Rival but

Demands. that of being crowned : An Honour, which coft him fo

How large Sums foever were lately drawn out of the dear, that Alphonfo would have been very forry to purchaie

Kingdom, Henry ftill continued his Exactions, as well it at that rate. Richard is faid to carry into Germany Carrh



f.^ss upon the Citizens of London, as the reft of the Kingdom, kven hundred thoufand Pounds Sterling in ready Mo- £ f "



590, &c.
635, t9V.
M. Paris
P-9 8 7.



— — - _ — . . in "i > j t'ufi

He made even the Welfh, whom he confidered as his Sub- ney (4), an immenfe Sum in thofe Days, winch, added to 9mm ,j

jeds, fince they were become his Vaffals, feel the Effefls what the Pope had drawn out of the Nation, made a «^-

of his Greedinefs. The Oppreffions they endured, on very great Scarcity of Money. 1 he meaner Sort of

divers pretences, wearing out their Patience, they had re- People were great Sufferers by it, became, the Han el.

courfe to Arms, and invaded the Frontiers of England, not being very plentiful, they were not able to buy Pro-

from whence they carried away a great Booty. Prince vifions, which were grown very dear (y). A.lthele Evils

Edward would have chaftifed them ; but it was not pof- moved not the King. Infatuated with his Sicilian Project,

fible for him to raife a fufficient Number of Troops to he prefied the Clergy for a trefh Aid, that ot the lalt

Tie King's ftop their Progrefs. The King's Treafury was fo ex- Year not even fufficing, as he allured them to pay his '

Profufenef, haufted, both by the Pope and his own Favorites, that Debts. As he expected to meet with great Oppofition ^X&g

not being able to furnifh Money for this War, he was from the Prelates, he brought into the Aflembiy Prince «

6 - - "-•- '» ■■ « -»• - ■- J-effed in a Sicilian Habit, imagining £<£-



Brothers
and tbe
±%»ten*t it.
lation,.
M. Paris.
P- 917-



forced to fuffer the Welfh to plunder his Borders with im- Edmund his Son dre



punity. His fondnefs for his half Brothers, and the

Queen's Relations, was aftonilhing. He was not fatisfied

with loading them with immenie Prefents, which dif-

abled him to defend his Kingdom, but permitted them to

opprefs his own Subjects, by" forbidding the Chancellor to to grant the K

iffue any Writs to their prejudice (2). ling.






that, charmed Hke him with the Sight, they
readily grant his Demands. But this Artifice would have p- 95
been but of little force, had not the Prelates been again aw'd
by the Nuntio, who compelled them by his Threats
forty two thoufand Pounds Ster-



(1) One hundred and thirty five thoufand Marks Principal, and five hundred and forty more for Interert. M. Parts.

(l) Which, fays MiXttbew Para, was contrary to the Law and Pcjcc ot" 'he Kingdom] p- 95;. .

(3) Thcfc Termsor Agreements are to be leen at the end of 'Tom. I. of the Pub/id Atis. among Thole that were omitted. Rafm.

(4) M. Para 6ys, he was fo rich, as to be able to fpend a bundled Ma.k'w Djv for ten Years together, p 94.*.

(5) The Author of Walter of Ccrrntry' s Julius fays, Provilions were fo force, tint he hirrne f faw the Pecple fighting for thetarcil.es ot aeao Ucg«
and other Carrion, and to eat the Willi that was fet for the Hogs, hut M- . aris oblerves, that this wis owing not fo rn"ch to the Scarcity ot Com, as to
the Want of Money, Corn ha»ing been fevcral times dearer than it was now, and yet none died with hunger, as miny*d at th:s lime.



33 2



Toe HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



1257. To all the Calamities England laboured under during

c m motion t ] ie Comic of this Year, mud be added the War with

r .'At Weill
War.
M. Paris.
? 044.
1". Wikes.



Henry '
^raten.



The King



M. Paris.

P- 979



'"%.



The Ki _
petition* tbt
Pope to
1' r'ten the
Term: re-
letting to
Sicily.
Aft. I ub.



Wales which was vigorously carried on by the Weljh, and
Very faintlv by England. Prince Edward, who undertook to
< .haflile thefe turbulent People, was forced to retreat before
tlnni with ibme Lofs. Their daily Progrefs, obliged the
King to march againft them. But, upon his Approach,
they retired to their Mountains, having themfelves laid
wafte their Borders, and thereby prevented Henry from
proceeding. But this was not all. When he imagined
the Jteljh at a diftance, and feized with Fear, they fo
effectually took advantage of his Negligence, as to fur-
prife him and cut in pieces a good part of his Army j
after which, he thought only of retiring.

It muft be furprifing, that at fuch a Juncture, Henry
imnniioj fliouU think of frightening the King of France. How-
Reftiiationo/cver, without confidering his weak Eftate, he fent Am-
N.irmandy." baffadors ( 1 ) to him, to demand the Reftitution of Nor-
mandy, and the other Provinces in France taken from the
Englijb. It is not known, with what view or from
what motive he renewed this Pretenfion, in fo proud and
haughty a manner, that one would have thought his Af-
fairs in the moft flourifhing Condition, and that he was
able to fupport this Bravado. Lewis, who was better
acquainted with his Affairs than himfelf, forbore however
to infult him, contenting himfelf, with roughly denying
fo unfeafonable a Demand.

Mean time Ruftand the Nuntio, who was gone to
Rome for new Inltructions, foon returned into England,
with Power to excommunicate the King, if, purfuant to
his Engagements, he did not fpeedily undertake the pro-
jected Conqueff. Henry furprized at thefe Menaces, and
not knowing which way to fatisfy the Pope, caufed his Son
T-I. p.614, Edmund humbly to intreat him, to make the Terms more
eafy on which he had accepted the Grant of Sicily. This
Petition proving of no great effect, Henry was at length for-
Ilc -would ced to appoint Ambafladors to go to Rome, and renounce,

c",w"""" '" the nameof the Prince his Son > the Grant of this ima-
p. 630'. ginary Crown which had already coft him fo dear. But
A new this was not what the Pope wanted. Far from receiving
this Renunciation, he fent a new Nuntio, one Allot, im-
povvering him to make fome Alteration, in the Agree-
ment upon this Affair. But withal he ordered him to
ufe his utmoft endeavours, to engage the King more
deeply, by procuring him fome frefh Grants, which coft
him nothing, tince they were made at the Clergy's Ex-
pence. For that purpofe, he charged his Nuntio to publifh
tbtCkrri. a new Bull, enjoining the Bifhops to pay the Tenths
p. 640. granted to the King, under pain of Excommunication j
notwithjlanding all Objeclims, all Appeals, and all Letters
obtained or to be obtained, to the contrary. What is more
ftrange, and hardly conceivable, is, that the vaft Sums
fent to the Pope, not only had not at all promoted the
Conqueff of Sicily, but even the leaft part had not been put
to that ufe, fince after the Defeat of Nocera, the Pope
had no Army on foot. Befides the Tenths, and other
Aids frequently paid by the Clergy to the King on this
account, the Parliament had furnifhed confiderable Supplies,
and yet there appeared no Bottom to this Gulf, which
fwallowed up all the Riches of the Kingdom. The Cler-
gy grieved to fee themfelves thus oppreffed : The Peo-
ple for their part murmured no lefs, when they confidered,
that fo much money raifed in England, and which it
is affirmed, amounted to above nine hundred and fifty
thoufand Marks, was not fufficient to fatisfy the Avarice
of the Pope, who (till craved for more (2).

It was not poflible but fo many Oppreffions would at
length wear out the Patience of the Englijh. The Ba-
rons were ftill more aggrieved than the People, as the moft
confiderable Ports, to which they thought themfelves alone
entitled, were enjoyed by Foreigners. This ufually ex-
cites the Zeal of the Great Men, and makes them fuch
mighty Sticklers for the Good of the Publick. If their
own private Intereft is not concerned, in vain will it be ex-
peeled that the Nobles expofe their Lives and Fortunes in
defenfe of the Liberties of an injured People. This is a
Remark, at which no Nation in particular ought to be
offended, fince it agrees with all times and with all Places.
The Great Men, who then lived in England, were of the
fame Character. The Credit and Riches of the Foreign-



Nuntio with
frtjb Bulls.

f. 6iS.



Sullfo,



T. Wikes.

P- 55-

M. Palis.



p. 9 bz.



1258.
'The i»~' "i
begin t r i take
meajures a-
gatnjl the
King.
M. Park.
T. Wikes.



ers, were the chief Grievance of the Barons, and the 125?.
real Motive of their Complaints. If they urged fome
other Abufes, it was becaufe they themfelves had no ad-
vantage from thence, or to gain the People to their fide.
They had hitherto thought to oblige the King to alter his
Conduct, by binding him with folemn Oaths. But they
perceived at length there was no fecuring this Proteus, as M. Paris-
an Hiftorian ftiles him, unlefs more violent means were P* 9 68 -
ufed. In this belief, they began to hold fecret Confe-
rences together, to confider of proper Expedients to reform
the Government, and efpecially to exclude the Foreigners.
The King quickly furnifhed them with an opportunity TheK.ng
to execute their Defigns, by calling a Parliament (3), o( J ""'"" i '
whom he demanded, according to cuftom, a powerful t ie"parlia-
Aid for the Affair of Sicily ; for as to the Voyage to the mer.t, ivbo
Holy-Land, it was no longer mentioned. The Parliament, c ° m t lj ">°f
purfuant to the Refolution already taken by the principal Ba- |g, p , „ , "
rons, inftead of granting his demand, vehemently complain- 965.
ed of the Breach of his Promifes, and of all the Grievances
in general, fpoken of in the Courfe of this Reign. Henry
perceiving, that a haughty Carriage would be in vain on
this occafion, fell to his old Artifice of appeafing the
Lords, by acknowledging himfelf guilty, and promifing
to reform what was amifs. But for once they were not
fo credulous. They told him plainly, that without iheBarom
leaving it to him, they defigned to reform the Govern-/""; 'be
ment themfelves, fo as to fear no more his Breach of ,

■ .-r^i <- t^** • • reforming

Faith. Therefore, under pretence of the Difficulties in tteCnern-

this Affair, the Parliament was prorogued, and the City of ""'"■

Oxford appointed for the place of the next Seffion. And c j'.',^!j[\,

as he was apprehenfive, that in the mean time, the Barons Oxford

would make preparations, which he found he could not ''"' *■'"."

prevent^ he gave them a pofitive Promife, that as foon ^!-t,. ma „ c „.

as they met, he would join with them in the delired Refor- m. Paris.

mation. He figned likewife a Charter, whereby he con- P 9*?-

fented, that the Articles to be reformed, fhculd be drawn

up by four and twenty Lords, of whom he would chufe

twelve, and promifed to obferve whatever fhould be

fettled by thefe Commiffioners. To give the greater Au- M. Paris.

thority to this Charter, he caufed Prince Edward his F- 97 1 -

Son to fign it with him, to convince them of his Sincerity.

They had been fo often deceived by the like Promifes,

that they could not believe this to be more fincere.

Without relying on the King's Proteftations, the Barons

fummoned all their military Tenants, and on the day

appointed came to Oxford (4), well-attended, and refolute-

ly bent to compel the King to perform his Word. The Four and

firft thing was the Election of the four and twenty Com- '^""'y

miffioners, who were to draw the Articles of the intea-ftnV; M*t-

ded Reformation. The King chofe -twelve (5), and the ten.

other twelve were elected by the Barons (6), who made * a . ru ^\

Simon de Montfirt Earl of Leicejler, Prefident of this An. burtf

Council. The Election being over, the four and twenty p-4> 3 >+"!■■

drew up fome Articles, to which the Parliament re- M '

P' 970.
ferved to themfelves a Power to add, from time to t. wikes.

time, fuch others as fhould be deemed neceffary for P' 5 l -
the Good of the State. They were in fubftance as fol-
lows :

I. That the King fhould confirm the great Charter,
which he had fworn (o often to obferve without any
Effect.

II. That the Office of Chief Judiciary fhould be given
to a Perfon of Capacity and Integrity, that would ad-
minifter ^bftice, as well to the Poor as the Rich, without
diftinction. *>

III. That the Chancellor, Treafurer, Juftices, and
other Officers and publick Minifters, fhould be chofen by
the four and twenty.

IV. That the Cuftody of the King's Caftles fhouU
be left to the Care of the four and twenty, who
fhould intrull them with fuch as were well affected to
the State.

V. That it fhould be Death for any Perfon of what
Degree or Order foever, to oppofe, directly or indirectly,
what fhould be ordained by the lour and twenty.

VI. That the Parliament fhould meet at leaft once
every Year, to make fuch Statutes as fhould be judged
neceffary for the Welfare of the Kingdom (7).



(1) They were no lei's than the Bifhops of WorceJIer, and Wmcbejler, the Abbot of VVcflminJler , the Earl of Leicejler, Hugh Bigiit Earl of Norfolk,
lately made Earl Marfhal, Peter of Savoy, and Robert Waleran. It feems as if he did this on account of the King of France's Scruples. M. Pans, p. g-y.

(l) In Micilent, this Year, wis held a Parliament at Weftmtnjler ; in which the King demanded the Tenths of the whole beneficed Clergy, for five Years,
according to the new Valuatiou, without any Deduction or Allowance. But the Parliament thinking the Demand extravagant, agreed to grant the King
an Aid of fifty thoufand Marks, on condition the Great Charter was obferved. But Henry refufed to accept of it. M- Parts, p. 94.6.

(3) Which met at London, foon after Eafter, Id. p. 963. (4) Which was on June II. Id. p. 968.

(5) The Bilheps of London and WmcheJIer; Henry, Son to the King of the Romans ; John Earl of Warren ; Gaido de Lujignan, and William de Faience.
the Kinjfs Half-Brothers ; Jobn Earl of Warwick ; Join Manfel, Frier ; J. de Derhnglon, Abbot of Wtjlmir.pr ; Henry de lYcngbatn, Dean of St. Mar-
tin's, London ; the twelfth is omitted, but luppoled to be either Peter of Savoy, or James Audley.

(6; The Bithopof WorceJIer; the Earls Simon of Leicejler, Richard of Ghucefter, Humphrey of Hereford, Roger of Norfolk, Earl Marfhal ; the Lord.'
Roger Mortimer, Jtbn Fitx Geoffrey; Hugh Btgod, Richard de Gray, William Batdo'f, Peter de Montfort , and Hugh de Effenjer. M. Paris.

(7 The Annals of Burton, where the Order is drawn up in form, fay, The four and twenty ordained, that there fhould be three Parliaments in the
Year ; the firrt, eight days after Mtcbaelmajs ; the fecond, the Morrow after Candlemafs-day ; and the third, on the firft of June. p. 41 5,



Book VIII.



8. HENRY III.



333



I2;3. It is certain, that twelve Deputies, or Reprefentatives of
the Commons, were prefent in this Parliament ; but whe-
ther it was by permiffion, or right, I mean, whether it
was a new regulation, or the Commons had their Re-
prefentatives in the former Parliaments, is what I dare not
undertake to determine ; fincc the Englifh are not agreed
in this point among thernfclves. However, as in a difpute
of this nature, it is difficult to help inclining to one fide,
I readily own my felf of their opinion, who believe this to
be the firft time that the Reprefentatives of the Commons
were admitted to fit in Parliament. And indeed, if the
Commons had a right to fit there at the time wc arc
fpeaking of, it would be very ftrange, that they fhould
nominate but twelve Reprefentatives for the whole King-
dom. Moreover, all the Hiftorians agree that thefe twelve
were not Commoners [ as now reputed ] but all Barons,
(tiled immediate Tenants of the Crown (i). Add to
this, it would be very furprizing, if the Commons enjoy-
ed this privilege before , that Hiftorians fhould never
diftinguifh them from the Nobility. And yet, among fo
many Writers, who, from the Conqueft to the end of the
Reign of Henry III, have fpoken of Parliaments, not one
has diftinguifhed the Commons , as making a diftinft
Body, or feparate Houfe from the Barons. In fhort, it



a S:ifc-condu£t. This condition being readily complied r:;i.
with, they were brought to London till they could be im- M - P"».
barked. It is affirmed, that during their flay in tl i Citv,
they invited to an entertainment feveral Lords, Ibm
Whom died prefently after ; which gave cccafion td fufpei r,
they were poifoncd. But it may be, the hatred of l
Englijh to thefe Foreigners, w ; as the chief Caufe
this fufpicion. Be that as it will, a few days after,
they embarked at Dover, and returned into their own
Country.

The Barons being thus rid of the Foreigners, agreed, 1U Bjr,..
before their feparation, upon an Oath of Afibciation, to"''
ftand by the Provifions of Oxford with their Lives and if' ' '
Fortunes (j). If wc believe an Hiftorian who has given w. Rift.
us the particulars of this affair, the four and twenty I'' - '
foon abufed their power, in giving :: ! 1 the Places and
Offices to their Relations and Friends. He accufes them
alio of holding frequent Parliaments without the King's
content, whom they conlidered only as the fhadow of a
Sovereign.

In a Parliament aflembled at Winchejler, the Barons !.„„d on „.
refolved to fend Cdmmimoners to the City of London, unintatbt
to invite them to join in their Afibciation. This v.
eafily obtained j the Londoners ha '



aving flill more reafon to m" 074I*"

may be added, as a precedent, by no means favorable to complain of the King than all the reft of the Kin? -
the Antiquity of the right of the Commons, that in France dom. This affair being ended, and the Parliament judg- Itil 1 -■■
it was not till the Reign of Philip the Fair, that the third ing it ncceflarv to proceed in a legal way againfl the Fo-"'**
Eftate was admitted into the General -Alfembly of the reigners, who were expelled the Kingdom, palled an Act



Act
for their perpetual Baniihmcnt. However, as Athelmar
Bishop of Winchifter was in the number of the Banifhed,
there was a neceffity of making feme excufe to the Pcpe,
fince the Bifhops had been long exempted from the civil
Jurisdiction. There was occafion likewife tojuftify to the
Pope the Conduct of the Parliament, both with regard
to the affair of Sicily, and the late alterations in the Go-



Qppufition ti
tbeje Artielet
M. Paris.
p. 97I.



States, as Pafquicr allures us. However this be, as it is
from this and another Aflembly, which I fliall mention
prefently, that fome date the original of the Privilege of
the Commons, it was neccflary to acquaint the Reader
therewith.

The Parliament approving the Articles drawn by the
four and twenty , the King was obliged to give his

atfent to thetny and caufe all ncccfiary orders, for put- vernment of the Kingdom. It was refolved therefore <n
ting them in execution, to be difpatched. Prince Edward that the Barons fhould write to the Pope, to inform him Later t*7b»
likewife folemnly fwore to obferve, and caufe them to be of what had palled. Their Letter was to this cffeift : ?°t"> "
obferved, to the utmolt of his power. Thus Henry, for " That they had been prevented, for feveral end reafons, C'/Vf"



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 140 of 360)