M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Caufe better, by urging the Pope's Authority, gave tr,aks » yf
occalion to widen the Breach, by unadvifedly (hewing the k > h " '"'
Bull, winch abfolved him from his Oath. The difco- **"*"•*
very of this Secret, which he ought to have concealed at
fuch a juncture, did him an irreparable damage. The
Barons, who till then were in hopes to bring him to
equitable Terms, refolved to lay afide all Ceremony.
They plainly faw, there was no reliance upon an Ac-
commodation, to which the mod folemn Oath could
give no manner of force. Purfuant to this refolution, „
they formed a defign to forprize the King in lyinchef.er,^;^^-,,
where he was gone in hopes that the Negotiation on foot
would have a good Iffue. But Henry receiving timely
notice, retired again to the Tower. As foon as he found T. Wik«.
himfelf fafe, his firll care was to fend into all the Coun- M - Wlrft '
ties, Orders, to turn out the Sheriffs appointed by the
four and twenty, which caufed a general confufion in
the whole Kingdom. Some v/ere for obeying the Sheriffs'
nominated by the King, whilft others refufed to acknow-
ledge them (5).

Mean time, the Barons continuing to take meafures to Tit (San*
oppofe the King's defigns, prevailed with the Governors v * x ■'«'■■>•>
of the Cinque Ports to fit out a Fleet to guard the 'S'^ ,b '
Coaft, left Succours mould come from fome foreign m. Wrt>,
Prince. The Cinque - Ports were obliged by their Char-
ter to equip fifty Men of War whenever t!.; King's
Service required it (6). Upon this occafion, the Ba-
rons of the Cinque-Ports, interpreting tne^ King's Ser-
vice by that of the Kingdom, pretended to ferve the
King, by making ufe of their Forces againft him.
This Maxim will not appear very ftrange, when it is
confidered, that in England the King and the State
have always been deemed but one ^nd the fame Body.
Upon this foundation it is affirmed, that when the
King comes to foparate his Intereft from thofe of the
Publick, he lofes his Prerogatives, which are rather the
Prerogatives of the Crown, than of the Sovereign's

Every thing manifeftly tended to a Civil War. But the , ,5,
fear every one of both Parties were under of rendering Tie Km';
his condition vvorfe, fofpended the Effects of their mutual f"'"'f" "
Enmity. Whilft the King and the Barons were equal- "^^ p^_
ly defirous to avoid the blame of beginning the War, vifijns.
the King of the Romans improved this Difpoiition, to Mi v ' c "*
try to procure a good Peace. His Mediation being ac-
cepted, he prevailed with the King his Brother, to pro-
mife, that he would confirm the Oxford- Provifions, and
with the Barons to depart from fuch Articles as were
moll difpleafing to the King. In all appearance, the
four and twenty were then deprived of their Autho-
rity, and the more, becaufe from the beginning of the
Troubles it was not generally acknowledged. The Lt ; .«
Earl- of Leieejler refufed to confeftt to this Agreement, mini 'ft:
and chofe to retire into France. He faid, he durft not ^ a °"' t
rely on the word of a Prince, who fcrupled not to break
his Oath, when he found it for his Intereft. Among tha

T. W;Jtt>.

(I) About this :'mc a!fo th?re w.rs held a Parliament, where a new Judiciary, Chancellor, and Treafurer, were appointed by the Bifns, in ttt
Places of thofc that were ciiher lately dead, or had rehgned ; as Nitbolas, Archteacon it' £/>', was maae Ketp.r . I the Great-Sear ; the Abbot of Peter-
borough, Treafurer ; and llugb ,U EJperfer, Chief Judiciary. T. Wikcs.

1 -j To get his Election to Wmcbejttr confirmed, which was done, and alfo a Lerrer was lent by the P.pc to the King and Darons, to intercede fox
his Re-ddmifiion ; but the Ar.fwer, pr n'cd in Dr. Brady againft y.r. Pt'yt, was a f,>: Denial.

(3j The pubiick Treafure b.-.d lor fon;e time been kept there. T. H'.ics. M. h\J).

(4} He was tone thither in Cvmp.iny wiih the Duke of Bretagnt\ Son, ana the two Sons of the Earl of Lclctjltr, (whom the King had knighted)
to be present at a great Tournament, f. tViktt.

(5) ihe Writ or Letters iifued cut by the King On this occafion, are upon Record <nd printed in Dr. SiaI.'i //" uiix, No. 205. The Snhftance'
of them wis: " Thir the Barons not having performi'd their Part or the Oxford Prwiji-.m , he hr-d bit . : L h i sq the Pope from hs Oath
** to oblervc them. That he was ready to do Juftice to ail Men in his Ce-urls, and to keep the A.ticles ot the Great Chatter, and charter of Foufts (
" which the SheiifR v.crc ordered to proc'aim ill all places, Cue "

(6) Ir 111 heme may be feen the great Power of the Lin.ite-Ptrlt in thofe Day?, to which the chief Guard of the Kingdom, by Sea, was then corn -
m-.tttJ, anJ wlixh round the Kino, no icis, than a Flcel >t fifty SaU, each T.wn according to its prcpoitk.n ; and this they were to do for the Privi-
!«Ses they enjtpea.



i ' 6 ! ,


Vol I.

Barons who figned this Agreement, there were feveral no Leicejler, fearing all thefe delays would only tend to cor- n6i
lefs diflatisfied with it. But as the Majority gave their rupt his Adherents, convened an Affembly of the Barons
Confent:, they chofe rather to accept it, than be deemed where it was unanimoufly refolved to maintain the Oxford-
alone the caufe of the Troubles. By this Treaty, Eng- Provijions by Arms (3). This refoluiion being taken, they L~iccfv r
land feemcd to be reftored to its former Tranquillity. But chofe the Earl of Leicejler for General, and each went and cio l"> c ""*
the Fire which lay concealed under the Cinders, loon re- drew together the Troops which were already prepareJ,
kindled, and burft out into new flames. in the uncertainty of the Succefs of the Negotiation!

During this Calm, which Henry hoped long to enjoy, The Foreigners, difperfed in the Kingdom, were the Forrl

firfl: that felt the fad effefts of this rupture. The People w'' ? .'";.
were fo exafperated againft them, that, without diftin- w ' K m '
guifhing the innocent from the guilty, they perfecuted all "' 9a *"
alike that could not fpeak good Englifli, that Mark alone
being fufficient to render them odious. On the other
hand, the Earl of Lcicrjler plundered without mercy the
Eftates of the King's Favorites and Counfeilors, and pub-
lickly declared, he would hearken to no Propofals of Peace,
till they were all entirely deftroyed (4). As' the King had
The King's abfence afforded Lcicefter's Friends an op- no Army to withftand the Barons, he ftill remained in
portunity to renew their Cabals, and" unite the Party di- the Tower of London, whilft they became mafters of G fo-
wled by the late Treaty. They comparted their ends cejier, Hereford, Bridgnorth, Worcejler and other Place;
the more eafily, as the King gave the Barons a plaufible near the Severn. Thefe Conquefts were followed- with l«*» *.
Pretence to complain, by delaying to confirm the Oxford- the declaration of the City of London in their favour. The cllr " !'■'
Provijions. When the Earl of Leicejler was informed Londoners eagerly embracing the opportunity of being re- %' \,T"'
that this Party began to revive, he fpeedily returned into venged of the King, fent him word, they were refolved
England, where his Prefence entirely reftored the Courage to adhere to the Oxford Provilions, and to fhut their Gates
of thofe who, out of fear or weaknefs, had figned the againft the Foreigners, in cafe he fhould think of bring-
c»d ib^Khg late Agreement (z). Upon this the King came over in ing any into the City.

Aft. Pub '' tnc affairs of Guienne obliged him to go over to Bour-
T. I.p.7+8, deaux (1 ), where falling ill of a Quartan- Ague, he flayed
longer than he defigned. Richard Earl of Glocejler dy-
ing in the mean while, his Son Gilbert immediately re-
paired to Guienne, to be inverted with his Father's Inhe-
ritance, Henry having no kindnefs for that Lord, was
follicited fome time before he would do him that Juftice.
And it was not till after receiving a confiderable Pre fent,
that he fent him away fatisfied.

Tbe Party
of the Ba.

rim umte.

M. Wert.

T. Wikes.

)'• 55-

dies, and ■
. ted: J Ity
ha Son.
M. Wert.


The Barons
fnjent an
An. S Aug.
T. Wikes,

V 56-

Tie King

great hafte, but it was now too late. The Barons had Though thefe happy beginnings gave the Barons great TleB-.r,

refolved to put themfelves in a condition not to fear his In- reafon to hope well of their" enterprise, they believed, that.?"/"" ""

conftancy. Immediately after his return, they prefented to gain the People ftill more to their fide, it was ne- ***"!' "

an Addrefs to him, calling upon him to confirm the Sta- ceffary to fhew, they had taken up Aims with grief, and T^Wike.,

tutes of Oxford, purfuant to his Agreement, and threat- were ready to lav them down with joy. To that' end

ning, in cafe of refufal, to take fuch meafures as would they prefented to 'the King a Petition drawn up in very

not be agreeable. They were in hopes, that fear would refpeclful Terms, wherein they offeied to confent, that

oblige him to grant their demand, and it was a great fur- a free Parliament fhould review the Oxford Provifions

prize to them to find themfelves called Rebels, and threat- and annul fuch Articles as were found too prejudicial to

nts. It will doubtlefs feem the Royal Authority. But withal, they denied, that the

his prefent Circumftances, King fhould confirm the reft, and the Kingdom be co-

ned with the fevereil Punifhments
ftrange, that the King, in

fliould behave thus haughtily. But he had a private Reafon verned by the Natives, as was' pra&ifi
m tains bit unknown to the Barons. During his Voyage to Guienne, tries. This Petition had no efftd

other Coun-
upon the King, who,

^eA»,,.A l 1 1 • t „. - . b "J"b~ •■" *.»..#»»«, — -. » ...o luuMi nau iio ciiccl upon nerving;, wno.

Z™™4 ^, had . | ai f d . the ^"'g of the Romans and Prince Edward, though blocked up as it were in the Tower, expected every
of the Ro- ' he 'fit had now railed fome foreign Troops, under co- moment the Prince his Son to come and relieve him. This


T. Wikes.

."• 5°. 57-

lour of employing them againft thelVel/h, but in reality too was what the Barons feared7aV.dThe7e'fbre'to"prevent "™tS,"

to oppofe them to the Barons. The War however did the defigns of Prince Ediuard, they port themfelves at Aa ' Pab -

not break out fo foon. There were ftill fome Negotiations, Thijlhworth, through which place he muil neceflarilv oafs m vv P t*'

bur which ferved only to widen the Breach, and give the to deliver the King. The Barons precaution caufed the

Barons time to prepare themfelves. During this interval, King to alter his refolutions. As he began to defpair of

Ediuard carried the War into Wales, where however he being relieved, he found himfelf obliged to fend
did noihin? confide '

ihing confiderable, for want of Money to pay his word, he would confirm the Provifions of Oxford. This
. In this fad fituation, the Prince not being able was all the Barons wanted, fo that a Treaty containing

nnt havino «,!«.,-,.- four principal Articles, was eafily concluded, namely U);

I. That the King's Caftles fhould be put into the hands A

to refolve to disband his Army, and not having where
il to fatisfy them, he thought he might ufe fome ex

"del of
M. Welt.




Edwarf inordinary method to ra.fe the Money he wanted. On of the Barons. II. That the Provifions of Oxford fhouFd "« *™'

tb,"f*»d Jfuudenhe came to London, and without communicating be inviolably obferved. III. That all Foreigners except \ '

p«,nJ,j nm D^ defign, led a Company of armed Men to the new fuch as fhould be allowed of by the unanimous' confent I

thereout Temple, and took out of the Treafury of the Templars of the Barons, fhould be banifhed the Realm IV That

Ao. S?Aug. ten tho " fand Pound s Sterling, depofited there by the Citi- the Adminiftration of Affairs fhould be committed

zens. This Violence railed loud murmurs among the Par- the King's natural Subjects, approved of

ties concerned ; but their Complaints were in vain. The rons.

Prince had now caufed the Money to be conveyed to This agreement would have reftored Peace to the Kino-

Windfor Caflie, (10m whence it would be very difficult to dom, had the King confented to it with defign to cer-

iin-,*? '?"?' ,- a-,. form it. But as his fole view was to free himfeif from his

W Jniit thefe things parted in England, Urban IV, al- troublefome State, it was not long be.ofe he broke it
tered his meafures with refpecl to Sicily, and took no care The infolence of fome Londoners did not a little contri-
to give any notice to Henry. The Revolution in England bute to his taking this refolution. One da
caufing him to coniider that Kingdom as an cxhaufted
Fund, he turned to France, and entered into a Negotia-
' F ' - 9 ' tion with Charles Earl of Anjou, to place that Prince on
the Throne of Sicily. To prepare Henry for this change,
he wrote him a long Letter, wherein, after reproaches for
what the Holy See had done for him, he complained of
the Non-performance of his Promifes. In fhort, he let
him know, he fhould be forced to feek another Prince for
lpeedier and more effectual Supplies.

Mean time the Negotiation between the King and the
Barons was ftill continued

I eatutt
Henry r->

Sli ily
to J not her.
Aft. Pub.

'The begin-
ning if the
Bai ■!

T. Wikes,
p. 56.

. but proceeded very flowly ,
both Parties having no other Intention but to lay upon each
other the blame of the rupture. At length the Earl of

ay, as the Uueen rA , „,
was going by Water to Windfor, the Mob, juft as fhe Ufu,$Z
was going t,o fhoot the Bridge, hollowed at her in a man- ,il ■*«*•
ner very mortifying to a Queen. They not only fet $?'«>"
upon her by foul reproaches, but fome were fo brutiih as
to call Dirt and Stones at her (6). The King was ex- Henry „.
trcmely mcenfed at this infult, audit ferved to confirm fi:™*> «-
him in his refolution, of making a vigorous effort for the '" b ' m I'!f-
recovery of his Authority. He began therefore to ftore
with Arms and Provifions the Caftles that were ftill in
his power, which was a fufficient hint to the Barons, to
be upon their Guard.

Matters ftanding thus, it was hard to fay whether the
Kingdom was in Peace or War. Though Huftilicies

(1} About the latter end of July, or beginning of A t »J. M. IF.JJm. p. ,S r

fi if.J 1 P . Arnva '. "« Held by fbtltf Ballet the ufticiary. and prrduced a B e, v.heren h-.or,

firmed he P™V'f.0r» O f Oxford. t „i recalled .he King', AbLlution, declaring he was deceived in granting it. This Brief was publicklv read in "h~ C> ""
ol eontra.y to he Will ol the Jaft.ci.ry, ( lately put in by .he King ) but as fo™ as the Earl had publinVd it. he wen. back into F,a,c, . Th £ VS"
"found in no Mbei ; Writer, except the Manulcrip, Chronicle of St. A.guliin ; and, if tine, B iv ( , us the Reafon of the fo fadden Change in the IT
mour, trom what .t was ,n the beg.nn.ng o, ,h:s Year, and thews the caule of what happened the next, as will be feen prelco.lv. U, if "he Ahfelu^
»va: recalled, it was fh.;ttly ai.er re-cunfirmed. AUomnoo

(31 And farther, according to the City Annals, they fent a Letter, ( fealed by the Lord Roger Clifford, in the Name of the
toobierve the Provtjton, of Oxford, and d;ficd all thofe that oppoled .hem; the King, Queen, and ihcit Child.en excepted.

(4) The Storm tell moll npn Job, Murje/ and Robert M'aleran, who were thought to be .he King's chief Advifer, not ,o come to an A^.eement. A- A
I.kewile on S,«. de Walton, li.fhop ot N.r-w-.cb, who with Manjel had publifhed the Pope's Bull to ablolve ILr.ry f,om his Oath to '
Art. o. All£t 7. priies, p. 57.

reft) lo petition his Majefly

.0 the 0>fird Pnvifit

W- S lrtf* firft ArtiC ' C ""^ " TH " ' l '" rJ ' S ° n ° f thC Ki " S ° f ' he *"*"" > wh ° "" kept PrIr ° ner ! ' n Frm ") ftould be releafed." T. W,ht.

2£ ^Z^X^Z. hP ' <he W " TC ° mUCh ° i3[nt{ thC Ki " § ' S f ' Sn ' mg ' hf ' a ' C TrK ' y ' Thh kfuh W ' S *< a " re of ,h = kfs ° f *« Batile cf



Book VIII.




were not vet bcnin, the diftruft on both fides was (o great, Metropolis on his fide, marched towards it through the I 263.

that the two Parties looked upon one another as real County ol Surrey, fituated South of the Thames ; in hopes

Enemies; each being ready to take what advantages that his Friends (3) would be able to open to him the

prince TJ- fhimld offer. During this ftate of uncertainty, Prince Gates of the P.ridge. But the King having notice of thi

ward blocked £ ( j wari i thought it neceflary to (lore with Provifions dclign, left the Tower, and encamped with his Troops a-

WLtjibe Brijiol Caftle, of which, the King his Father had en- bout Southwari, with intent to oppofe the Enemies paf-

Citizem. trufted him with the Cuffody. To that end, he came fage. The Karl of Letce/l'er, who relied more on the sHrmi

to Bri/lol, and would have obliged the Citizens to find him afliftance of the Citizens, than on his own Forces, vigo S a I ...

what Provifions he wanted. As People then flood difpofed, roufly attacked the King's Troops, in expectation that

this demand, made perhaps a little too haughtily, raifed a the Londoners would favour his entrance. During the

fedition anion'-' the Townfmen, which forced the Prince Fight, fome Citizens of the King's Party, p > the

M. V\ eft
W. Rift.
p. 99*-

to retire haftily into the Caftle. He was no fooner there,
but the Inhabitants refolved to befiege him, or at leaft, to
keep him fo clofely blocked up, that he mould not elcape,
well knowing that, for want of necefldries, he could not
long refill. This refolution threw Edward into a very
great fti eight. He got out of it however by a device,
TyaDc-uue, which indeed freed him from the prefent danger, but
foon brought him into another , from whence he could

He gets off

net fo happily difengage himfelf. He fent for the Bifhop tered the City.

City was in motion to aifift the Far), locked up the
Bridge Gates, and threw the Keys into the River (4);
This contrivance had like to prove fatal to the Earl of
Leice/ler, who lor (o.ne time was in gie.it difbrdi r, ! .... ing
brought with him but lew Soldiers, for fear his delipn
fhould be difcovered. But at length the Gates being broke jjj 1 a-i
open, and ihe Citizens (allying out in multitudes to his""'" u '
afliflance, the King was loiccd to retire, and the Earl en- »'

The advantage gained by the Barons was attended with 1:64.
the ulual effect, that is, the King made them Piopofals Tbt t:«-r
of an agreement. But as all the Treaties hitherto con- ""f B '£"'
eluded were fruitlefs, Ixcajfe the King complained of o ...
being forced to accept of too rigorous Terms, which the " ,ht KlT l
Barons would never grant ; it was agreed on both fides, '' '
to refer all their differences to the arbitration of the King p . 58
of France. Lewis accepting the mediation, Henry, atlen- M - We &-
ded by Prince Edward, met him at jfmi'ns (5), where
the States- General were aflembled. The fentence pro- LcwWiSt*-
lewis, upon thefe difference.-, was favorable to ""'•
He declared the Provifions of Oxford to be null x. is. 776.

a nee.

and /huts
himfelf up
m Wijidloi
W. Rifti.
p. 991.

tbe Caftle

of JForce/ler, and intimated to him, that he intended to
adhere to the Barons; but defired firft to talk with the
King his Father, to perfwade him to give them entire
fatisfaition : That not being able to execute this defign,
by reafon of his being thus blocked up, he intreated him
to be fecurity for him, and accompany him to London,
to be a witnefs of his Conduct. The Bifhop being per-
fwaded of the Prince's fincerity, told the Citizens of
Brijiol, it would be for the good of the common Caufe
to let Edward go ; to which they confentcd , and the

Blockade was raifed. Accordingly the Prince fet out, in nounced by Le

company with the Bifhop, who did not queftion but Henry.

this Journey would prove fuccefsful. But when they came and void ; reftored the King to his antient power ; ad-
near Wind/or, Edward clapping Spurs to his Horfe, rid judged that he might nominate all the great Officers of
away from the Bifhop, without taking leave, and (hut him- the Crown ; and that Foreigners were as capable of Of-
felf up in the Caftle. However, this Fraud did not turn fices and Dignities, as the Englijh thcmfelves. But he
fo much to the Prince's advantage, as he expected. The added one Claufe, which deftroyed the whole, by de-
Bifhop, provoked at this deceit, carried his complaints daring, it was not his intent to abrogate the Privileges
to the Barons, who immediately refolved to lay Siege to granted to the Englifh, by their Kings, before the Parlia-
Windfor. This Caflle was fo ill provided with every tnent of Oxford (6). The Barons looked upon this Claufe, '■;^' i b
thing neceflary for a good defence, that Edward thought as a manifeft contradiction, becaufe they pretended, the''
it not in his power to (land a Siege. But on the other Provifions of Oxford were enacted only to corroborate their
h feized at hand, he could not refolve to lofe the Place. As he de- Privileges. This furnifhed them with a pretence to reject
a Conference, pended very much upon his addrefs, he imagined, it would the Award, and renew the War (7).

and /cced to not f, e jmpoflible to amufe the Barons by a Negotiation, The account of what palled between the two Parties, **« >■'■"'

which would leave him in pofTeffion of the Caftle upon till the famous battle of Lewes, is clogged with fo many xTwito*

certain Terms, the performance whereof would be in his confufed circumftances, for fuch as know not the fituati- m. Weft.

power. For that purpofe, he went himfelf to the Earl of on of the places where the War was waged, that it muft

Leieejler, who was advancing towards Windfor. He met be very tedious. It is better to haften to that remarka-

the General at King/Ion upon Thames, where he held a ble event, which put an end to the quarrel, in favour

Conference with him. But, juft as he was preparing to of the Barons. 1 mail only obferve, that during the 1»' K«g

return, without coming toany agreement, he was feized ( 1 ), Interval between the renewal of the War and that Battle, l "™{? : " 1

and by that means forced to accept of what Terms were Henry gained leveral advantages over the Barons ; and g,,,

impofed on him. He was required, to furrender the Caftle alio by means of the Prince his Son, and the King of T. wikes.

of IVindfor to the Barons, and to order the Garrifon, the Romans, gained feveral of them, who confiderably „^3^ t

confifting wholly of Foreigners, to depart the King- ftrengthened his Party. Moreover, he became mafter of w. Rftu

dom. Oxford, from whence he expelled the Scholars, for (how- P 99*. —

The War fcemed to be going to rekindle with great- ing too much partiality to the Barons. The Town of* 94 "

er fury than ever, fo much did the two Parties appear Northampton was taken by ftorm by the King's Troops,

exafperated againft one another. Neverthelefs , as the where fifteen Barons, and fixty Knights, were made

King was not ready, and it was the Barons intereft to let Prifoners (8). The King was like to have hanged them

him begin the Hoftilities, in order to gain the People to all ; but the advice of his Generals, and the fear of Re-

their fide, fome peaceable Perfons took the opportunity prifals, diverted him from proceeding to that extremity.

to mediate a Truce, which was followed by a Peace on The taking of Northampton, was followed by that of

the fame Conditions with the former (z). But this Trea- Nottingham. Then the King marched into Kent, where

ty reftored not tranquillity to the Kingdom. As the he obliged the Barons to raife the Siege of Rochejier, and

King was forced to it, he foon broke it, by endeavouring retire to London.

to furprize Dover Caftle, then in the hands of the Ba- The King was equally fufceptible of Preemption and //, ap-
rons. This attempt obliging both Parties to take Arms Fear, according to the pofture of his affairs. Flufhed />-»<■*"
a^ain, every one tried to ftrengthen his Party, by feizing with the fuccefs his arms had hitherto been crowned -j-'^."),'
feveral places. The Londoners, though inclined to the with, he refolved to march directly to London. He did v.-

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 142 of 360)