M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Barons, were however obliged to keep a fort of Neutra- not queftion but the City, difcouraged by his late advan- r-
lity, having experienced how liable they were to be an- tages, would declare in his favour. Perhaps his hopes
noyed by the Garrifon of the Tower, which was ever in would not have been groundlefs, if, fince his being on the
the Kind's hands. Befides, Henry had ftill in the City a Throne, he had treated the Citizens more civilly. But
good number of Adherents, who were a Check upon the the remembrance of their ill ufage , prevented them

' ejlcr con- from expoiing themfelves to the like danger. The Earl



Truce be-
tween tbe
King and
Barons.
T Wikes
M. Well.
p. 383.



It e Kin;

beg r lis liojh.

lines.

T. Wikes.



Rift.

994-



of Le



-■ .- Ear! of oppoiite Party. Mean time, the Earl
Leicsftw fidcring, of what importance it would be,

wants to be
Mafter of
London.
T. Wikes.
M. Weft.



to



have the of Leieejler taking occalion from the King's approach



(1) By the Advice of the B.fh'p of li'ercftcr. M- H'eft.

(a) The King being outwardly reconciled to the Eirl of Leicelier and his Party, the Lord Hugh t" EJptn - was aglin mode Jufticiiry, in the room rf
Pbilif Baffet, and the Earl of Lcicefter was made High Steward of England, and Sir Riger dt Leyburn, who had been looked upon as one cf the King's
grrateft Enemies, was likewife made Steward ot the Houlhold. T. l. rtei. M. IV.-fl.

(3) The ch'ef of whom were, Thomas Fitz. Richard, the Mayor, Themis de Pynlefd n, Matthew Buierel, Michael 'tony , Set. T. Wikes, p. 58.

(4) The chief Contriver of this delign, was one Jcbn Gtfri, a Norman by Birth. j\l. li'efi.

(5) January 13. M. Weft, p. 384..

(6) NoUmut autem, nee int.ndimus deregare per pra'fertem crdinutuncm in aliquo Rcgiis Privil'giti, Chartis, Libtrtctibul, Sr~lutis y G? laudsbtlibus
csnjuctudtwbui Rc?nt Angkte, quat erar.t ante tempus Prvuijionum ipfarum. This shard, { which you may fee at large ii iyrr.l 1 Appendix, N- 7. j bears
date Feb. 3. 1263. in Father Dacbene's }picilegiun, becaule ihe brer.cb brg.in n:>t their Year till our Lady Day, wheieas accorain^ to the Accounts et" ail
our former Hift.trians, the Year began on Chrijtmajs-Day, and fo ihe Sentence is djted, as here in Rapin, in 1264..

(7) The King being returned to England, called a Parliament about MuAmt at Oxford, contifting of luch great Men, as remiin.d faitaVul to him.
T. IVikes, p. 58. M. Ucft. p. 385.

(8) It was liken April 3 The I erfons of Note made Priloners were, William de Terrars, Ratadtvyn, and Nicolas de fVait, Adam de Neumartbc,
Roger Bertram, Simon Fitz. Simon, Engeram de Wnttrvtllc, Hugh Guhym, Thomas Maunfel, Robert Untesitlayn, Rebert de Neuter, Philip de Scrliy. Crym-
b,;l.I df F a-Jiiti-ilt. Beftdei Peier Monjort the Earl's Coulin, and alio Simon M-.nfort his fecond San, wnofc Horf:, as he was r.ding too near the Breach,
tliltad a: 1 mclhing, and run headlong through the Ruins of the Wall down into the Ditch, whence the Ridex narrcwly ej'cap«d breaking his, Neck, but
was' taken op by the King's Soldiers. T, ff^iket, p. 60 Himm^ford, p. 58a.

No 17. V 1 . I. Q_q q q to



33



*



7%e HIST ORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



iik



'Mini n
Lewes.
W. Rilh.
p. 994.



The Earl of
Lticefter

fell nvi b.m,
and pr.fer.tt
a Petition j
W. Weft.

p. 386.



to exafperate them againft him, managed fo dextroufly,
that he perfuaded tliem to go out of the City, and offer
him battle. Henry was futprized at this, and being un-
willing to hazard a battle with them at their own Gates,
retired farther off, and encamped at Lewes in the County

of Suffix.

Mean time, the Earl of Leicejler, with the confederate
Barons, reinforcing their Army with a ftrong Body of
Londoners ( 1 ), marched out of the City in purl'uit of the
King, with intent to decide the quarrel by a Battle.
Purluant to this refolution, they advanced towards Lewes,
and encamped about fix miles from the King's Army (2).
This they did, to try whether there might be ftill fome
means to reftore Peace to the Kingdom. It may be,
they really wifhed it, or elfe it was only to clear them-
felves from the blame, of what fhould follow upon the
King's refufal to accept of reafonable Terms. Before
they approached any nearer, they font the King word (3),
that they had taken Arms, not to withdraw their alle-
giance, but only to reform what was amifs in the Go-
vernment ; that they humbly befought him to join with
them in that work, protefting he fhould find them as
faithful as thofe, who under colour of ferving him, fought

to fet him againft his



lubicb it
haughtily
re'jeiled.
M. Well.
W. Rfh.
f. 994..



They re-

ncur.ee '.beir



rounded on all fides, they threw down their Arms, and 1204,
furrendered at difcretion. (10)

Mean time, Prince Edward, who was returning in Edward «.
triumph from the purfuit of the Londoners, was extreme- 'f^ z J" n
ly fui prized to fee the royal Army difperfed , and to jjjij'fbi'm'.
hear, the two Kings were Prifoners. His full thoughts feif to he
were, to exert his utmoft to fet them at liberty. ^ "{f^'A^
this refolution could have been immediately executed, M . We /L
it would have infallibly changed the face of Affairs. Henvnef.
The Conquerors, employed in guarding their Prifoners, or ' *•
difperfed about the Field in purfuit of the flying Enemies,
would have found it difficult to withfiand a vigorous at-
tack. But the Prince's Soldiers, difmayed at the defeat
of the reft of the Army, and the captivity of the two
Kings, fhowed no inclination to renew a fight which to
them feemed too unequal. This fear, which all Ed-
ward's Sollicitations could not overcome, made him lofe
fo fair an opportunity, wherein, very probably, he would
have gained great reputation. Mean time, the Earl of
Lticefter drew his Army together again, with all poffible
expedition. At firft, he thought only of defending him-
felf, juftly dreading to be attacked in his prefent dif-
order. But when he faw he had time to rally his Troops,
his only concern was, to hinder the Prince from efcaping.
To that end, he fent him Propofals to amufe him, whilft,

re-



Fealiy.



Battle of

Lewes.

M. w c n.

T. Wikes.
Hemingf.
W. Rift.



only his ruin , by endeavouring

moll dutiful Subjects, by their infamous Calumnies. How

refpectful foever this Letter might be, it touched thofe by feveral Detachments, he took care to prevent his
about the King too fenfibly, to be received with mode- treat,
ration. The King of the Romans and Prince Edward
were fo offended at it, that they anfwered it with the Lie,
Defiance, and Threats, and prevailed with the King to
fend the like anfwer (4). If it be true, as it is not un-
likely, that the Barons made this ftep only to clear them-
felves from blame, they were glad of fo plaufible a pre-
tence, to pufh things to extremity. Accordingly, with-
out farther Ceremony, they fent the King word, that
they renounced the Fealty they owed him , and *con-
fidered him no more , but as art enemy to the
State (5).

All hopes of agreement being loft by the animofity
of both Parties, nothing was thought of but a Battle.
The Earl of Lticifltr advancing with his army, drew
it up in order of battle, near the King's, who was pre-
paring to receive him. The Royal Army was divided
into three Bodies of which that on the right, was corn-



Edward

beat l tht
Londoners,
and purfuet
too fur.
M. Weft.
Hemingf.
W. Ri/h. •
p. 995.



Henry and
the King of
tbe Romans
mad* Pnfo-
nert*

W. Rifti.



Edward's uncertainty at firft what courfe he fhould He can «:'-
take, the oppofition of his own Troops, the time fpent' &rr ^ f * f

• rr . , i i /• i » » n- J "or retreat.

in trying to animate them, and the feveral Meilages from
the Earl of Leicejler to amufe him, were the caufe of
his lofing fo many precious Hours, which fhould have
been employed, either in fighting, or retreating in good
order. But having done neither, he found himfelf on a Acaptt of
fudden furrounded on all fides, and under a neceffity o{ bari ?"*'•
accepting conditions, which appeared tolerable in his ill
fituation. This Negotiation, which Jailed but a few mo-
ments, was ended by thefe Articles : That the Statutes Amah of
of Oxford fhould be inviolably obferved ; yet fo , that Lon(i ° n -
they might be amended by four Bifhops or Barons cho-
fen by the Parliament : And if thefe four Commiffioners
fhould not agree, they were to ftand to the arbitration of
the Earl of Anjou, Brother to the King of France, affifted
by four French Noblemen. Thus far, all went well for
nianded by Prince Edward (6), the King"of the Romans the Prince ; but the laft Article was the worft ; namely,
was on the left (7), and Henry himfelf headed the main That himfelf and Henry his Coufin, Son to the King of
Body. The Barons Army was divided into four Bodies, the Romans, fhould remain as Hoftages in the cuftody of
The 'firft was led by Henry de Montfort the General's the Barons, till all things were fettled by Authority of
Son (8). The Earl of G beefier (9) commanded the fe- Parliament. How hard foever this Article was, Edward,
cond. The third wholly confiding of Londoners, was on who faw no remedy, was forced to confent to it. Thefe The Mift
the left, commanded by Nicolas Segrave. The fourth Articles, called the Mife, that is to fay, the Agreement of°f**™t*
was headed by the Earl of Leicejler. The two Ar- Lewes, were figned by Edward, and confirmed by the
mies being thus drawn up, Prince Edward began the King, who was not in condition to reject them,
fiffht with attacking the Londoners, who not being able The Earl of Leicejler having the King and ilmoft all Leicefter
to" ftand fo vigorous a Charge, immediately took to their the royal Family in his power, took all the advantages ™ k " u h "f
heels. As the Prince was animated with a defire, of re- that his policy could fuggeft to him. He, who a little ' N \„"{1
venging the affront done the Queen his Mother by the before fcrupled not to difobey the King, becaufe he was gahfl tbe
London 'Mob, he purfued them above four miles, without directed by evil Counfellors, now only ufed that Mo- %»»■
giving them any quarter. But this revenge coft him narch's name. He made him fend Orders to the Go-^o. Pub .
dear." Whilft he purfued his victory, with more eager- vernors of his Caftles to furrender them to the Barons. T. i. P . 79 o.
nefs than difcretion, the Earls of Leicefier and Glocejter He caufed him to fign Commiffions to the Sheriffs of &e -
gained the fame advantage over Henry, and the King of the feveral Counties, impowering them to take up arms
the Romans. The Barons being very feniible, what their againft all that fhould dare to difturb the State, that is,

againft the King's own Friends. In fhort, he who had
been fo troublefome to the King, on purpofe to curb the
exorbitant power he would have affumed, took it very
ill that this fame King, when guided wholly by his Coun-
fels, was not implicitly obeyed. Thus it is that Men al-
Henry fun endering himfelf to the Earl of Leicejler, and ter their Principles and Maxims, according to their in-

terefts, and as their affairs come to have a new face.
But thefe are reflections that would too frequently occur,
fhould we ftay to make them every time there was occa-
fion.

As the Barons had no other view in the Agreement of 7« Bantu



lot would be in cafe they were vanquifhed, attacked ,
with a fury mixt with defpair, the royal Troops, who
had not the fame reafon to fight with that animofity.
Accordingly, they took to flight, after a faint reliftance,
leaving thu two Kings in the hands of their enemies.



orm a new



Richard to the Earl of Glocrjler, were prefently conducted

to the Priory of Lewes, fituated at the foot of the Caftle,

which was kept by fome of the King's Troops. To this

place the Soldiers of the royal Army fled, in order to

retire into the Caftle. But when they faw the Town

in the power of the Barons, the two Kings made Prifo- Lewes, but to fecure the Ferfon of Prince Edward, they/-''"

Tiers, and in all appearance, themfelves going to be fur- were not very forward to perform it. On the contrary, l^L?."'

M. Weft,
'l) Fifteen thousand. M. Weftm. p. 3 36. Pat. 4S.

(a) At Flcxhgc. ,1'. Weft- ibid. "' 3- m ' "'

Ml In a very'iefpeflful Letter, fealed by Leicefter and Glocefter. at the Requeft of the reft. M. Weftm. p. 3S6. "<>"•

(4) In his anfwer, dated the mh of May 1264, at Levitt, he fays, «< That not h : mfelf, but they were indetd the Caufe of all the War, Deftruflion,
" Rapine, and Mifcry, which had befallen the Nation ; That their Intentions were not according to their Profeflions, nor their Actions agreeable to their
<« Pretences, and therefore he defied them." The King of the Romani Letter bears the fame date. M. Weft, p. 386. IV. Rijb. p. 994.

fe) But this was not till they had interceded with the King, by Henry Biftiop of London, and Walter Biftiop of Worcejlcr, for Peace, and offered thirty
thoufand Pounds in confideration of the Damages done by them in the Kingdom, yet fo, that the Provifions of Oxford might ftand good. T. Wikti,.

;6) Together with William de Valence Earl of Pembroke, his Uncle, and John Earl of Warrtn and Surrey. This laft, and William de Valence, Guy dt
7 ulirnan Hugh Bitot, and many others, ran away during the Fight, and efcaped into France. M. Wtli, p- 387. T. Wiket, p. 63. W. Rijb. p. 994.

M. Weft. p. 387. W. Rip-



[■j) With his Son Henry. The King's Standard was then a Dragon.
(8j A'ld the Harlot Hereford and E[/ex. IV. Rifh. p. 994.



{9) Gtib'rc Je Clirt. with John Fitn-'John, and Willi om de Montcanfit.

(10I This Battle was fought on tha 14th of May. About five thoufand Perfons fell on both Sides ; and among the reft of the King's Adherents, Wit.
Ham de Wilton, the Judiciary. Futk Fitx.-11'arin ; and of the Barons Side, Ralph Hormgander, and William Bland, the Earl of Lei after' 's Standard- Bearer.
B-.lides thole mentioned by Rapin, the following Perfons of note were made Prifoners, Humphrey de Bobun E3rl of Hereford, William Bard:!/, Robert de



Tatttlhale, Rtg.r dt Somen, Henry dt Percy, Fbilip Btjfet j John dt Baillol, Robert de Brut, John Can's, &c. M. Weft. p. 38;,



ihey



Book VIII.



H. HENRY III.



164. they drew up a new plan of Government and refolved was extremely offended at thij reruial, he tlurft nc

to have it confirmed by the Parliament which was to ever continue his Journey. Indeed, there was no lij
meet on the i:d of June. The pofturc of the affairs hood of his entering the' Kingdom againft the confent of



339



To that fur

tot 1 /' J;

fiament it
JuBURsntd.



Conftrvatar
tHM,Jbtd.
Act Pub.
T. [.p.801

M. Weil.



thofe who governed. Neverthelefs he proceeded a |
Boulogne, where he fummoncd all the Englijh Bifho| to
appear, and give an account of their conduct. The Hi-
fhops not thinking ht to obey the Summons he d<
ced againft them the fentence of Excomm mil itii n, 1.
which they appealed to the Pope. At length the afFaii 1 !



of the Kingdom rendered the calling of this Parliament li-
able to many difficulties. Indeed it was done in the
King's name, who could not oppofe it. Hut the victori-
ous Barons were not willing, thofe of the contrary Party
fhould be fummoued, under pretence, they were dill in
Arms againft their Country. On the other hand, a Par-
liament confifting only of part of thofe who had a right the Kingdom being fettled according to the Baron d
to fit there, feemed to want a lawful Authority. It might fire, they thought it neceffary to give the Legate fome
be objected, that it was only an Affembly of private Per- fatisfaclion. To that end, they fent four Biftlop
fons. Thefe difficulties put the Barons upon contriving acquaint him with their reafons for denying him entrance
how to make this Allembly more general, and give it a into the Kingdom. Thefe Envoys found the Legate e>. -
greater air of Authority. To this end, they made the tremely incenfed againft the Harems. 1'or anfwer, the*
King fign Com millions, appointing in each County certain had orders to return into England, pubhfh the fentc: ■• .:
Officers or M.igiftrates called Confervators, on pretence Excommunication againft the Earl of Leice/Ier, am! pui
they were deligned for preferving the Privileges of the the City of London with all the Earl of Gloeejier'shi
People. Thefe Officers, who depended wholly on the Ha- under an Interdict. The Biftiops fending word to /
rons, were inverted with very great authority. Their land of the orders received from the Legate, were met at
Commiffion impowered them to do whatever they fhould Sea by People (4), who pretending to be Pvratcs, took
judge proper, to preferve entire the Rights and Liberties of away all their Papers, and threw them over-board.
fnrKnigbti the Subjects. This ftep being taken, the King was made This proceeding convincing the Legate, it would be dif-
° J '2"pj r ' r ' to "2 n new Orders to the Confervators, to fend up (1) ficult to caufe his Matter's Authority to be regarded at
hamwt. four Knights of each County to fit in the enfuing Parlia- fuch a Juncture, he returned to Rome, where quickly
Originate/ m ent, as Reprefentatives of their refpedtive Shires. Erom after he was raifeil to the Papal Throne under the name of
T/ttfcom- nence many affirm, the original of the right of the Com- Clement IV.

„,»,. mons to fit in Parliament takes its date. They maintain, Mean time, the Earl of Leicejler, who was at the head

Btaoy Hid. this is the firft time, that the feveral Counties undeniably of the Government , was under fome troubl



Vol. 11.



- fcn-

' gl'th L'.'C:

He. 1 he rtm /, „.

p. 649. & a PPear to fend Reprefentatives to the Parliament : That Queen was making great preparations in France to deliver #>•«/> tit

Vol. 1. all the reafons alledged to prove, the Commons enjoyed the King her Spoufe. On the other hand, the Infurrec- Gr -"""""-

p. 136-143 t hi s Privilege before the year 1 264, are fubjedt to fo many tion of fome Lords (5), bordering upon Wales, made him '/J'' B "~

N PP iio] difficulties, that they cannot be faid to amount to a clear uneafy. He was apprehenfive that the li'cljh would inter- M. Weft.

proof. It feems indeed, that a good reafon cannot be pro- meddle in the quarrel, and affift the King's Party. It T ' Wi **

duced, why the Hiftorians fhould unanimoufly take notice, was dangerous to leave the Coafts open to the Invafion of w.'r ft..'

that on this occafton there were in the Parliament Repre- the Foreigners, who, being then in Flanders, waited on- F- 99 6

fentatives of each County, if the fame thing had been cu- ly for a fair Wind to embark. Hut it was no lefs incon-

ftomary from the beginning of the Monarchy, or at leaft venient, to fuffer the Infurrection, which began to apoear

from the Norman Conqueft. Why did they neglect to in the Afarches of Wales, to grow to a head. To pre-

make the fame remark on fo many former Parliaments vent thefe dangers, he refolved to go in Perfun againft the

mentioned by them ? It is certain, thofe, who pretend to Rebels, whilft he ordered the Militia of the Kingdom to

find in the antient Hiftorians proofs of the People fend- aflemble in Kent, and oppofe the Queen's Landing. His

ing Reprefentatives to Parliament, are forced to deduce good fortune equally freed him from both thefe Perils,

them from confequences which appear not always juft (z). Having gained to his Interefts Lewellyn Prince of Wales LeieelWi-e*

The Parlia. The new Parliament compofed in the manner above- who might have given him fome trouble, he vanquished w"w

mentioned, being entirely at the devotion of the confede- the Rebels, and comp?Hed them to throw down their

rate Barons, failed not to approve of the projected Form Arms. He was no lefs fortunate with regard to the dread-

of Government, namely, That the Parliament Jliould ap- ed Invafion. The contrary Winds held fo Ion*, that the Tie %"''-

point three wife and difcreet CommiJJioners, ivbo Jhould have foreign Troops on the other fide of the Water, were for- E ""f r " u

Power to chufe a Council of nine Lords, to whom the Admi- ced to return home, upon the approach of Winter, with- thing.

nijlration of the publick Affairs Jhould be committed. That out the Queen's reaping the leaft benefit from the great M ' Veft-

the King by the advice of the CommiJJioners, might change expences fhe had been at (6). All this while the King V ' ,"

when he pleafed, fome, or all of the nine Counfellors. That remained in the Cuftody of the Earl of Lcicefler who

in cafe the three CommiJJioners Jhould not agree in changing or difpofed of him juft as he pleafed, making him "act againft

chafing the Counfellors, the Majority Jhould decide it. That his own interefts, under colour that it was for the good of



went ap-
pro-vet of
tbe Barons
Plan.
Brady's
Appendix,
N. 213.



the refolutions taken by the nine Counfellors Jhould be in force, the publick.
provided they were approved by any fix of them. But if it
happened, that fix of the:n Jliould not agree, the Bufinefs in
quejlion Jhould be brought to the three CommiJJioners, who



The Barons, who had taken up Arms againft the King, }f^cf



jhould determine it as they thought fit. That the King might cejler's, which was no lefs abfolute. The Earl of Ghcef- C



The King
and Print



purely on account of the exorbitant power he would have ajpitmgn
aftumed, could not but be jealous of the Earl of Lei- '" c " rj ' n -

Gloccficr

change or turn out the three CommiJJioners, provided it was ter (7), above all the reft, was highly difpleafed (S). He km.

with the confent of the Community of the Barons. Laftly, looked upon Leicejler as a Man taking large fteps towards Mi Wtft "

that the Nomination of all the publick Officers Jliould belong to the Throne, under the fpecious pretence of the publick NV ' R *"

tbe nine Counfellors. This Ordinance was to take place Good. For this reafon he was afraid, in promoting his

till the Parliament fhould unanimoufly agree to annul or advancement, of turnifhing him with Arms to his own

are jomd to alter it. It is pretended, the King and Prince Edward as well as to the deftruction of others, who were no lefs

Arfwav' f l were compelled to confent to it, the firft by being threat- jealous of his grcatn-efs. The difgrace of [Robert de

M. Weil, ned with deprivation, and the other with perpetual Im- Ferrars] Earl of Derby, gave him caufe to make thefe

prifonment. So that, if they outwardly contented, it was reflections. This Earl, who was no friend to Leicejler

only with a refolution to recant the firft opportunity, was fent to the Tower, not fo much for a punifhment cf

Mean time the Barons continued to govern the Kingdom the crime laid to his charge, as for an example to fuch,

according to this Model, imagining their affairs to be fo as fhould dare to cenfure too openly the conduct of the

firmly fettled, as not to be eafily fhaken. principal Governor. On the other hand, the Earl of Glo-

The laft Year, Urban IV appointed for his Legate in cejler fancied he faw, in the cold and referved behaviour of

England Cardinal Guido Bifhop of St. Sabine. This Le- Leicejler towards him , a fecret purpofe to deftroy him

gate at his Arrival in France received a Letter from the when an opportunity fhould offer. He was not only no

Earl of Leicejler, informing him, it was no proper time longer called to the private Councils, but alio had no far-

for this Legatefhip, and that neither the Nobles nor the ther fhare in the affairs, than what could not be denied to

People were difpofed to receive him. Though the Legate one of the greateft Peers of the Realm. Thefe reafons,



*77»? Bonn.
re/ ufe to re-
ceive a Let.
ter.

T. Wikes.
M. Welt.
W. Rift.
(■ 997-



(1) Rapin fays, to nominate. But they were to be nominated or chofen by the Affent of their refpe&ive Counties. See the Precept, Pat. 48. I!c:. 3,
m. 12. dorfo. (2) See above, page 155. Note.

(3) Thoie of Worcefltr, London, JVincbeJltr, and Cbri.be/ler. T. ffdet, p. 6+.

(4) Belonging to the Cinque-Ports, ibid.

(5) Roge- de Mortimer, 'James de Audlef, Roger de Clifford, Roger de Leiburnr, Bairr.0 UEfliange, Ihgb de Turbivi'e, with fome others, who had mad;
their efcape from the Battle of Leaves. M. Weji. p. 388. If. Rijh. p. 99b.

(6) Matthew of Wefimmfier lays, Queen Eleanor had got together a great Army, which was commanded by fo many Dukes and Earl?, as feemj incre-
dible, and thofe who knew the Strength and Number of that Army affirmed, that if they had once landed, they would certainly have fubdued the whole



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 143 of 360)