M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Kingdom. But God, ( fays our Author ) in his Mercy ordered it otherwife. So true an Englijhman was this Author, thot'gh he appears highly concerned
for the King's Intereft, that he did not think it fate lor the Nation to have had the King reitorcd by an Army of Foreigners, p. 383*.

(7) Gilbert de Clare.

(8) That which moll offended him was, That the Earl of Leicejler took to his own nfe the Profits and Revenues of the Kingdom, and all the Monev
that was paid for th: Rajifom of Prisoners, which by Agreement was to hive been divided between him and the Earl of Giocejler, H '■■, Rijb, p. 95,7. s^
1 } ,,-l, p. X039.





Vol. I.

(cents 'wil-
ling to ftt
Edwara at
M. Weil.

A Par/is-
incut called
to tbat end.

1c tubtcb
are \ummin-
ed two
from each
Sbtre, and
tiuo Bur-
geffil from
each Bo-

Remark on
that ac.

Eiward de-
livered to
tbe King,
•woo conti-
nue* Jidl a
Rot. Cart.
49. H. 3.
M. 5.

W. Ri/h.
p. 996.

openly a-
gamjl Lci-

M. Weft.

and more thin all this, his envy at Leiujler's greatnefs,
led him to countenance the Male-contents in the Marches
of If ales, in order to employ them in oppoiing the am-
bitions defigns, of him whom he now confidered as an
enemy. The Cbals he openly made, convincing Lei-
ccjhr, that lie ought to omit nothing to deftroy the defigns
of fo dangerous an enemy, he caufed an Order to he lent
to all that had lately taken up Arms againft the Eftab-
liihment, to retire into Ireland. But they, inftead^of
obeying withdrew upon the Lands of the Earl of Glo-
cefter, where they met with protection.

Mean time, the Earl of Leicejler's Enemies publifhed in
all places, that his rigorous treatment of the King, and
alfo of the King of the Romans and Prince Edward, was
but too evident a proof of his pernicious defigns. As
thefe reports began to he prejudicial to the Earl, lie
thought it neceffiiry to efface thefe impreflions, by letting
the People fee, he was very far from forming the ambiti-
ous projects afcribed to him by his Enemies. To that pur-
pofe, he fummoned a Parliament (1) declaring, it was to
confider of means to refbre Prince Edward to Liberty.
He intended by that to (how, that fince he was willing
to releafe the Heir to the Crown, it was very unlikely he
mould have thofe pernicious views he was charged with.
The calling of this Parliament was remarkable, for that
each County, was ordered to fend, as their Repiefenta-
tives, two Knights, and each City and Borough, as many
Citizens and BurgelTes (2). The AfTertors of the anti-
quity of the Houfe of Commons infer from hence, that
linc'e the Hiftorians obferve not that it was a new Inftitu-
tion, it was therefore a cuftomary thing. Others, on the
contrary, pretend, if it had been ufual, it would have been
needlefs to take notice of this circumftance, alter mention
of (o many Parliaments, without the like remark. The
reader will choofc of thefe two confequences that which to
him feems moft natural.

When the Parliament met, the Earl of Leicejler, who
difpofed in great meafuie of the Votes, caufed an Order to
be pafl'ed for the releafe of Prince Edward. But it was
clogged with a condition that rendered the favour of no
ufe ; namely, that he Ihould remain with the King his Fa-
ther, and obey him in all things. This condition was a
plain fign, it was only intended to dazzle the Eyes of the
publick. And indeed, to ordain that Edward ihould be let
at liberty, and yet continue with his Father, who was him-
felf a Prifoner, was no better than changing, or at moft,
enlarging his Prifon. Purfuant to this Order, the Prince
was taken out of Dover Cattle, where he had been con-
fined ever fince the Battle of Lewes, and delivered to the
King, that is, to the Earl of Leicejler. This is what was
called giving him his liberty. In the mean time Henry
continued in the Cuftody of Leicejler, who carried him a-
bout with him, and took all imaginable care to prevent
his Prifoners from efcaping.

The late Scene ferved only to increafe the Earl of Glo-
cejler's fufpicions, or rather fully to convince him that
Leicejler was paving his way to the Throne. He would
not however have broke yet, if an opportunity had not
offered, where it would have been dangerous to diffemble.
The two eldefl Sons of the Earl of Leicejler proclaiming
a Tournament for all the young Nobles, the Earl of Glo-
cejlcr did not think fit to be prefent. He believed, this
was only a device to draw him into fome Snare. Whe-
ther his fufpicions had any foundation, or his prejudice
made him confider them as plain proofs, he openly con-
federated with the Lords of the Marches of Wales, Ene-
mies to Leicejler, and fortified his Caftles, as preparing for
War. This proceeding furnifhing his Enemies with a
plaufible pretence to fall upon him, a Proclamation was
iffued forthwith, declaring the Earl and his adherents
Traytors and Enemies to the State. Purfuant to this de-
claration, Leicejler put himfelf at the head of an Army,
in order to punifh thefe pretended Enemies of the King.
With this defign he marched towards the Severn, and af-
terwards came to Hereford, carrying his two Prifoners along
with him.

His great care to fecurc the King and thePrir.ce his 126;.
Son, did not hinder the Earl of Glue/ier from projecting Prince "Ei.
Edward's efcape. He perceived as long as his Enemy had Zj! of'Ui-
the King in his power, he would make great advantage cefter'«
thereof. For which reafon he thought it expedient to a-r.^ Hands.

Aft Pub

the Prince out of his hands, to oppofe the Authority of T | Sl ' _
the lawful Heir to the Crown, to that of the captive • Hem.
King. Probably, he did not judge it fo eafy to free the **■ ^.J' t -
King as the Prince, or perhaps depended more upon thep.'„ -,,'
afliftance of Edward than of the King his Father. Be
this as it will, he communicated his delign to Roger Mor-
timer, one of the Lords Marchers, who furmlhed him
with means to put it in execution. Mortimer having im-
ny Friends at Hereford, made Edward a prefenr, by a
third hand, of a very fwift Horfe, and withal acquainted
him with the u e he was to make of it, and the defign
laid for the recovery of his liberty. To fecond the project,
the Prince feigning himfell ill, and to want exercife, deiired
leave to ride fome Horfes. The Earl of Leicejler, who
fulpccted nothing of the matter, granted his rcqueft, though
with great precaution. Behdes his ufual guard, he ordered
fome Gentlemen to keep always near him, and to have
their eve upon him continually. Edward being come in-
to the Fields, immediately breathed two or three Horfes.
Then he called for that lately prefented him, and as if he
had a mind to ufe him gently to his Rider, walked him
at fome diftance from his guard, being accompanied by the
Gentlemen who kept clofe to him. When he was come to
a certain place which he had before carefully remarked,
and which feemed proper for his defign, laying the reins on
his Horfe 's neck, and clapping Spurs to his fides, he fo
furprized thofe that attended him, that he was at a good
diirance belore they were recovered from their aftonifh-
ment. However they rid after him till they faw a r l roop He pint tU
of Horfe, fent by the Earl of Glocejler to favor his efcape. Earl of
Edward being thus freed, went and joined the Earl of Glo

tvbo make's

cjler, who received him with great joy and refpect. Ne- bimf-weano
verthelefs, his view in procuring the Prince his Liberty,'"''"/"*'
was not to re-eftablifh the arbitrary power ufurped by the ^"^."f"'
King. Accordingly he plainly told Edward, he could not T. wikes.
promife his afliftance, unlefs he would oblige himfelf by P> 6 7-
Oath, to ufe.his utmoft endeavours to reftore the antient
Laws, and to banifh all Foreigners from about the King's
Perfon. Edward promifed and fwore it, in the prefence
of feveral Barons, and then took the command of the
Troops raifed by the Earl of Glocejler.

Though the Earl of Leicejler was very fenfible of what LeiceRer
confequence the Prince's efcape might be, he pretended to*' rf " *"
be unconcerned at it, and continued, as before, to go-
vern in the King's name. He iffued under the Great
Seal, all fuch Orders as he judged expedient for the Good
of the State and his own intereft, thefe two things being
generally confounded, by thofe who hold the Reins of the

It would be needlefs to relate here all Leice/ler's Pre- He does all
cautions, to fupport himfelf in his Authority, to inrich ** '"" '"
his Friends, and to advance his Creatures. It fuflaces lout"' "*'
fay in a word, that he omitted nothing that might turn to Rot. P«.
his advantage, or contribute to the bafHing the defigns of +9- H- J"
his Enemies (3). All this was for his own fake, and with ' * 5 ' **'
a view to his own interelt ; but he did one thing very be-
neficial to the Kingdom in taking at length from the
Popes, the pretence, fo long and fo fuccefsfully ufed by
them, to inrich themfelves at the expence of the Englijli.
As he found the People had not for the Pope the fame He reman.
efteem and deference as formerly, he ordered a Com- " s J"
mifiion to be drawn up, empowering him to renounce '"".' ?'

u v j ti • r>j 7. 11 m " nd '*'

in the King and Prince Edmunds name, all prcten • c r ~wn of
lions to the Crown of Sicily, By virtue of this power, he Sc| y'
made an authentick renunciation, of which he took T ^| p "s|.
care to give the Pope notice in a Letter from the

Mean time the Earl, forefeeing how fatal Prince Ed- reward'*
ward's efcape might prove to him, caufed very fevere F " r "' '"'
Orders to be publifhed to all the King's Subjects, to op-'™'*'
pofe to the utmoft of their power, Prince Edward, the

(1) To meet January iS. See Brady, Vol. I. p. 14.4.

{2} Thefe Writs ot Summons to the Sheriffs of the Counties, to return the Knights of the Shires and Burgeffes, are the fiift Writs of this kind that are
now extant on the Rolls, which made Dr. Brady infer, that they were the firft that were ever iffued, and that this Parliament in the 49th of Henry 111,
was the firft to which Knights of Shires, and Burgeffes were fummoned. But how truly, fee the Works of Mr. Petit, Mr. lyrrel, and Mr. Hcdy. It

may be fome Satisfaction to the curious Reader, to fee the firft Writs of Summons, as they »re extant in Dr. Brady, Vol. I. p. 140 Mandamm eft

ilngulis Vicecomitibus per Angliam quod venire faciant duos milites de legalioiibus & difcretioribus milititus fugulomm comitatuum ad Regcm London, in
Oftabis Sanfti Hillant. , ......

Rex Baronibus & Ballivis portus fui de Sandwico, falutem. Cum Prelati & Nobiles rcgni noftri tarn pro negotio liberations Edward! Primogeniti noftri
quam pro aliis Communitatem Regni noftri tangentibus ad inftans Parliamenlum nofttum quod erit London, in Oflab. Saneti Hillarti, convocari tecimus, ubi
veftra licut & aliorum fidelium noftrorum prefentia plurimum iudigemus. Vobis mandamus in fide & dilefiicne qmbus nobis tentmini firmiter injungentes, om-
nibus aliis prietermifiis, mittatis ad nos ibidem quatuor de Legalioribus Sc Dilcretioribus portus vertri. lta quod frnt ibid, in Oc"rab. pia?diclis, Nobifcum &
cum prsfatis Magnatibus Regni noftri traftatum So fuper prsemiffis Confilium impenfuri, Et hoc ficut honorcm ncftrum & veftrum, Sc communem utilita-
tem Regni noftri diligitis nullatenus onv.ttatis- Tefte Rfge apud Weft. 20. die 'Januar.

(3) He made the King, on the 30th of May, write Letters to all his Tenants m Capites and on June 7, to the G'lardians of the Peace, and Sh fl rifU
of every County, to prohibit all People in general, from giving any A : d or Afti tance, to his Son Edward, the Earl of GUccjitr, or any of th-ir Confede-
rates. See Brady's Appendix, N. ill, 122.


Eook Vlfl.





files before

T, Wikcs.
p. 68.
W. Rift-
An- Waverl.

tdward de-
feats Simon
T- Wikcs.

again/1 the

An- Waverl

Bank of
W. Rilh.
T. Wikcs.
An. Wacl

Ed ,ard
gains the
ViShry, and
frca bis
Wj Hcming

.W. Hcming
p. 5 S 7 .

T. Wikcs-
An. Waver


on the Earl
of Le.ceftcr-

Earl of Ghctfter, and their Adherents, who were all (tiled
Traytors to the King and State. But notwithstanding
this, many Barons (1), Officers and Soldiers, came and
offered their Service to the Prince, who, in a fhort time,
faw him fell' at the head of an Army, fupcriour to that
of the Confederates. Then it was that affairs began to
have a new face. The Earl of Leicefter, who, a little
before, had all the Forces of the Kingdom at his difpofal,
could not prevent Edivard from becoming mailer of Glo-
cejlcr and feveral other Places. He was even forced to
give ground to that young Prince, who followed him
from place to place, and to ufe all his Policy and Expe-
rience to avoid a Battle. As he was a very good Gene-
ral, he took timely Care to poft himfelf Co, as to be
able to retreat, whenever he fhould be prefied. Mean
while, he ftnt repealed Orders to his Son Simon, to quit
the Siege of Pevenjey, which detained him in AV/.7, and
come and reinforce him. Simon obeyed, and with his little
Army began to march with extraordinary expedition, to
join him. But as he drew near Eve/ham, where his Fa-
ther was encamped, Edward having notice of his com-
ing, fuddenly lell upon him with all his Forces, and
cut in pieces this little Body, which could not rclilt
him (2).

This Victory animating the young Prince with frc-fh
ardour, he immediately returned to attack the Father, be-
fore he had received the News of his Son's defeat. He
fo deceived the Watchfulntfs of the old General, by this
fudden Refolution, that he was very near the Enemies,
when the Earl imagined it was his Son coming to ins
aififtance. Leice/ler's Surprize was fo great, that he
could not help fhowing it. However he put every thing
in a good poflure of Defence, perceiving that a Retreat
would be ftill more dangerous than a Battle. The Fight
beoan about two in the afternoon, and laired till Niglrt,
notwithftanding the hafty Flight of the IFclftt Men, who
deferted the Earl at the very firft onfet. He fultained
however, by his Courage and Conduct, the Efforts of
Edivard, who fought with an aftonifhing Valour, well
knowing that the good or ill-fortune of his Life depend-
ed on the Succefs of that day. At length, after a long
Refiftance on the fide of the Barons, the Earl of Leicef-
ter and his Son Henry being (lain on the fpot, their Troops
weredifheartned, and the Prince obtained a full and com-
pleat Victory (3). His Joy at this Succefs was the great-
er, as, during the heat of the Battle, he had the Satis-
faction to deliver the King his leather, from the Captivity
he had been in ever fince the Battle of Lewes. The Earl
of Lciccjler, who durft not fuffer his Prifoner out of his
fight, had been fo cruel, as to expofe him to the Danger
of the Battle, in which, he was wounded in the Shoulder.
Nay, it is laid he was like to be killed by a Soldier, who
knew him not, if an Officer had not run to his Aifif-
tance, upon his crying to the Soldier, Don't kill me, I am
Henry of Wincheiter, thy Sovereign. Edward, who was
not far from the Place, being informed of his Father's
Peril, ran thither immediately. He left him to a ftiong
Guard, and juft asking his Bleffing, returned to the
Battle, that he might not lofe fo precious a time.

This Battle was fought near Eve/bam on the 4th of
Auguft 1265, fourteen Months after tire Battle of Lewes,
wherein the King loft his Liberty. The Body of the
' Earl ot Leicefter being found among the dead, Roger Mor-
timer was fo inhuman as to mangle it in a barbarous
manner. At laft he cut off the Head and lent it to his
Wife, as a certain Token of his being revenged of his
Enemy (4). Such was the end of Leicefter, who, though
a Foreigrrer, found means to make himfelf the moft con-
siderable Peer in the Kingdom, and was even fufpected
of afpiring to the Throne. But of this however there

is no certain proof, the Reports that were fpread being '
built only orr bare Sufpicions, and, perhaps, Calumnies. But
it carr't be denied, that he abuled hi, Power, and the
Confidence ol his Friends and Collegues. At Ieaft lie dis-
covered by In, Conduct, that he wa. not fo g-< it an Ene-
my to arbitrary Pov hi p tended, when placed at the
head of the Confederates. This is no proof however ol
his afpiring to the Crown, Certainly, this Karl had noble
Qualities. If he was like the Earl 1 , ith 1 ii 1.;.
Valour and Bravery, at lead be ri him not in his
Cruelty. He always expreffed fo gi -.-d for fJtt
Monks, thai after In Death, theyw fainted him,
at any late, pre' idiug that 1

at his Tomb. A modern Hiftorian affure us, 1 1:1.

an antient Manufcript feveral Prayers directed to him
Martyr(sj). Tin, Opinion •-• mong the

People, that the Pope as fo ced to ufe all his Authority
to pur a (fop to that S iperflition. However this be, as
we are uncertain ol the Motive of the Karl's Actions, wc
are no lefs fo, whether he was mote worthy of Blame
than of Pity. If in taking up A:;. the King,

In-, Sovereign an I tor, he was entirely I

Ambition, one can't fufficiently deti i etoa

Prince his Brother-in-law, who had loaded him with
Favour.,. But it he was head of a Party folely with a
View to the Good ot the Publick, and to free the King-
dom Irom the manifeft Oppreffion it groaned under,
doubtlefs there would be People, who would not want plau-
fible Reafons to juftify his Conduct. Mean while, without
examining this Motive too clofely, modern Writers, for
the moft part, inveigh bitterly aga'nlt him, and tht Englijh
Catiline is orre of the belt Names they afford him. But
this is no more than what we are to expect from moft
Hiftorians, who generally dedicate their Works to Kings,
Queens, Prime- M milters, Favourites.

The Defeat of the Confederates entirely changed the Th <mf,-
face of Affairs. Thofe who a little before were perfecu- '
ted, became Perfecutors in their turn. They plagued fete", md
their Enemies a thotiland Ways, and made them endure '

many Hardfhips. The King, who was naturally revenge-
ful and greedy of Money, was extremely impatient to be
revenged of thofe who had offended him, and to fcize their
Spoils. To that end he called a Parliament (6), which R t- Pat.49.
wholly confuting of his Creatures, granted him the Con- !!' V m ' 8 *
fifcation of the Eftates of the Rebels (-). The Citv of i. "-,
London was not fpared. The Parliament having decreed/'"- '
that fhe deferved to forfeit all her Privileges, fhe was ^'£^4
left to the King's Mercy, who took away her Gates, t wj«s.
Chains, Magiltrates, and exacted a large Sum of Mo- M - Wcft '
ney (S) from the Citizens, to reflore again what he had
taken from them. The Confederate Barons feeing them-
felves expofed to a Revenge, \\ hich probably would have
no Bounds, were in the greater Confirmation, as they faw
no Remedy in this their Diftrefs. Simon de Montfort,
eldcft Son ot the Earl o( Leicefter, did not queition but
he fhould be attacked one of the firft, confidering the
King's Hatred to the Karl his Father and his wdiole
Family. In this belief, he endeavoured betimes to make An Waver!.
Richard King of the Romans his Friend, whom he had T ' '
in cuftodv in Kenelworth Cattle, by releafing him (9)
without demanding a Ranfom. This Example turned
to the advantage of feveral Prifoners of the Battle of
Lewes, who were likewife fet at Liberty with the fame
view by their Keepers ( 1 o).

Meantime, the King was revenging himfelf on thofe Tot Ki-.g
that had taken Arms a-gainft him, by feizing their Eftates, ' v, ~
which he kept to his own ufe, or beftowed them liberally j;, Enemet.
on his Favorites. Inftead of troubling himfelf about theT-Wikes.
Conferences, he entirely gave way to his Paffion, with- P - '*'
out confidering, that People reduced to Beggary are not

(1) The Earl of Warren, William di Valence, and Hugh Bigot, who a little before had l.inded in Pembrelefoire, with a ftrong Party, came in to
him ; as alio John Gifford, the leconu Man to the tail of Gloce/ler in military Affairs, brought a t r at number of Heiic and Foot. 'T. li'ihs, p. 63.
W. Rijbanger, p. 997.

(2) 'I. Wikcs lays, the Prince, marching all Night, came by break of Day to Keneltaortb, and fet upon Simon and his Men whs were then in their
Beds, and killed and took Prifoners moft of them, the eh cleft ci whom were Robert de Vere, H .. am Lord Muncbattjy, and Adam of Newmai I :.
Simon efcaped into Che Cattle, p. 1-9.

(3) In this Battle were Main, Hugh cPEfpenfcr the Judiciary, Peter it Mmtfirt, Will . ',' , Ralph Soffit, Jobn de Fl tucbamp, Roger
de St. John, Walter de Creppinge, William at York, R •' de h r, Thomas dt Kcflelce, G . , Roger dt Reulce, ace. The P

Guy de Montfort, the Fail's third Son, John Fitx-Jobn, Humphry de Bobun, Henry de Hajiings, 'J a . , £\ 'yve, Bahheia Wake, &c.

jinn. Wcfverl. p 220. W. Rijhanejtr. p. 99S. Hemingjlrd, p

(4) The Bodies of the Earl of Lticejler, his a,on Henry, and H*gb ovEfptnttr, were buried in the Church belonging to :!:a Abbsy of E-jtJbjm.
Ann. Wavtrl. p. 220.

(5) Tyrrel ("ays, he had ken at the end of a Manufcript in the publick Library at Cambridge, certain Prayers directed to h:rr. a: a Saint, with a great
many rhyming Vcrfes in his Praile. Vol. II. p. 1052

(6) On September 14. at Wincbefier, where he came from Worcefler. At this Parliament were fummened the Bilhop?, Abt '-, and TY.rs; all the
great Men of the Kingdom j and the Wives of the Earls, Bus-ns, and Knights, that were eithei flain, >r taken Pr.f r.er- 1 the W Eat the
B-lhops of Lincoln, London, Worcefier, and Cbicbejier, were not lunimencd, became they had been too deeply engaged with the Barons, Ant.. Waverl. p. 220.
T. Wiies, p 71. This Parliament was afterwards adjourned to Windfir, and then to Weflminjkr. Ann. Waverl. p. 220.

(-) Whereupen the King appointed two Commillioncis, who, with the Sheriff, were to return the Extent •( the Rebels Lands, with the Names
ot them, and or theowneis, to himfelf at Wefiminjler by [he 15th ui October; and they were to appoint two Collectors in cveiy Hundred; to collect the
Michaelmas Rents. See Brady's Appendix, N. 223

(S) Twenty thoufand Marks. Ann. de Land. None of the Meney went into the King's Exchequer, but was paid to feme Per&ns in France, who badi
fupplied the Queen in Money, during her Ablence beyend Sta. 1. Wikcs, p. 74.

(9) September 6. Ann. Waverl. p. 220.

(10) Except thofe tlrat were imprifoncd in the Celtics ofDorer and Keneltmrtb. TheWidcw of Jl:'gb le Defpen/er fet at liberty all thefe ihe kept con-
fined in Wailingford Cattle, and retired to Philip Bajja her Father. T. Wika, p. 7t.

No. XVIII. Vol. I.

R rrr


3* 2


Vol. I.


far from Defpair. He would have done much better in imi-
tating the prudent Conduct of the Earl of Pembroke his
firft Governour, who reftored to the vanquifhed Barons
their Eftates, for fear of expofing the Kingdom to frefh
Troubles. But Henry was not of that Character. It was
not his Fault that he loft not the Fruits of the Prince his
Son's Victory over the Barons, by refufing them the leaft
T.w.kes. Favour. Simon de Montfort, perceiving his Cafe defperate,
An. Waver), left the Caftle of Kenelworth, with a ftrong Garrifon, and
aflembling fome of the Remains of his Father's Army,
threw himfelf into the Ifle of Axbolme in Lincoln/hire (i).
As it was very eafy to fortify that Place, he foon put it
in condition to ferve for refuge to himfelf and Friends.
Great numbers rcforted to him daily, who at length began
to make their Enemies uneafy.

Whilft the Court was preparing to hinder the Confequen-
ces of this new Revolt, the Queen arrived from France (z),


The S}ueen

arrive:, and


The Pope
rcmkci the
Grant if
T. Wikes.

the Earl of
Anjou v/itb

tifallrwtd where fhe had retired with Prince Edmund her Son, after
by a Legate, the Battle of Lcuies. She was quickly followed by a Le-
•wba extern- „ ate r \ w ho, a few days after his comma:, convened a
Rebel Ea- Synod, and folemnly excommunicated the late Earl of
Lelccjier and all his Adherents, as well dead as alive (4).
Clement IV, finding the Englijh tired with fupplying Mo-
ney for the Conqueft of Sicily, thought it convenient to

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 144 of 360)