M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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fate the Honour of the Holy See, which had fomewhat
fuffered by Prince Edmund's renuntiation. For that
purpofe he gave the King notice by his Legate, of a Bull
of Urban his Predecefior, revoking the Grant to the
Prince his Son. He had kept this Bull private, becaufe he
was willing to fee the iilue of a negotiation with Charles
Earl of Anjou, to whom he actually gave this very Year
the Inveftiture of the two Sicilies. Henry, who had
quitted his Pretenfions, only as forced to it by the Earl of
Leicefter during his Captivity, could not without regret
fee himfelf obliged to renounce his Hopes. But he could
not help it.
Sxmari m Thus ended at length the Affair of Sicily, which had
the Affair o/been to the Popes a fertile Source of Oppreflions upon the
People and Clergy of England. If it coft the Engliflj im-
menfe Sums, they reaped at leaft this Benefit by it, that
it fenfibly leffened their former good Opinion of every
thing that flowed from the Court of Rime, and taught
them to be more upon their guard for the future againft
her Ufurpations. This is what we fhall have occafion
to know more particularly in the following Reigns, where
we fhall fee the Englijli much lefs tractable with regard
to the Popes. It may be faid, further, that this Affair
was the principal Caufe of the Misfortunes to which
Henry was expofed for fo many Years, and withal, of
the folid Eftablifhment of the Great Charter, which from
thenceforward was but feebly attacked. Had not Henry
been under a neceflity of fatisfying the Avarice of the
Popes, he would have lefs oppreffed his Subjects, and the
Barons wou Id have wanted the moft plaufible Pretence .
of their Confederacy. It is very ftrange, the Pope's Grant
to Prince Edmund (hould be unknown to the Hiftorians
of Naples and Sicily, who mention it not, though the
Countries of which they have written the Hiftory were
fo much concerned. There is but one that juft fpeaks
of it, and even he is miftaken in the Name of the En-
glijh Prince, to whom he fays the Pope would have
given Sicily. Villani, an Hiftorian of Note, recites the
Pope's Speech to the Cardinals, to induce them to ap-
prove of his defign to inveft Charles of Anjou with the
two Sicilies. In this Harangue, the Pontiff reprefents to
them, all the Injuries fuftained by the Church from
Manfred, the Neceflity of deftroying the Houfe of Sivabia,
and the Advantages which would accrue to the Church,
if thefe Kingdoms were given to a Prince who was able
to undertake her Defence. One would think, this was a
very natural occafion, to mention the Endeavours of his
Predeceffors to dethrone the Ufurper, by the King of
England's Affiftance, in giving the Crown of thefe King-
doms to one of his Sons. But he fays not a word of the
matter. What may then be inferred from this Silence
of the Pope, and the Neapolitan and Sicilian Hiftorians,
but that the Court of Rome never really intended to pro-

cure this Crown for Prince Edmund, and that her fole i2fJi.
Aim was to drain England of Money, under fo frivolous a
Pretence ?

As Montforfs Retreat to the Ifle of Axhilme, might be Simon it

. . .

ced tt

attended with fuch Confequences as required Prevention, ''" •
Prince Edward was fent with an Army into thofe Parts. ,
It was no eafy matter to diflodge the Male-contents from T. VVJ .
a Place fo ftrongly fortified both by Art and Nature. An " v
However, the Prince failed not to accomp'.iih it. After
an obftinate Defence, the Bekeged were conftrained to
furrender (5), on condition their Lives and Limbs were
(pared. As to their Eftates, it was agreed they fhould
fubmit to the Judgment of the King of the Romans, and
Prince Edward. This Capitulation being figjtied, Mont-
fort was brought to the King (6), and found a powerful
Mediator in the King of the Romans. This Prince ?S-' n > lK '"S'f
firmed, that after the Battle of Eve/ham, the Garrifon of :hl R T""L
Kenelworth would have muitheied him, if Montfort had him.
not hindered it at the Peiil of his own Life. Then he
entreated the King to paidon him, in confideration of
his having generoufly releafed him, without demanding a
Ranfom. It is faid, Henry, moved with Montfqrfs good
Offices to the King his Brother, was inclined to reftore
him intirely to Favour, if the Earl of Ghcejlcr had not
openly oppofed it. So that, as it was neceilary to keep Montfort is
fair with Glocefier, as well as with the King of the Ro- " dd, ' L " r *P
mans, it was refolved in Council, that Montfort fhould ^h " ^
have Liberty to depart the Kingdom (7), and the King cannot.
fhould grant him a yearly Penfion of five hundred T- w,lces -
Marks (S), provided he delivered up Kenelworth- n " "
Caftle. But it was not in his Power to perform this
Condition, becaufe the Garrifon refufed to obey him.
All the other Rebels in AxhAme were pardoned, upon their
fwearing, never more to bear Arms againft the King :
an Oath which was afterwards very ill kept. This Af-
fair being over, the Kingdom immediately enjoyed fome
Tranquillity. Montfort feemed pretty well fatisfied with
his Lot. But fhortly after, whether out of Inconftancy, He turns
or becaufe he had not wherewithal to fubfift, he ioined / r "Jz

1 * i* ir - 1 ■ n r 1 n< r» J 1 An. Waverh

himfelf with certain ryrates of the Cinque Ports, who
gave him the Command of their Ships, with which he
plundered, without diftinction, all the Merchant-Men that
came in his way. As it plainly appeared, that the Inha-
bitants of the Cinque Ports countenanced thefe Pyracies,
the King fent Prince Edward to chaftife them (9). But Edward
the Prince found means to reduce them to their Duty, " uc " tbt
without ufing Force (10), namely, by promifing them a Ports*
general Pardon, and the Confirmation of their Privileges, obedience,
for which they renewed their Fealty to the King.

How fuccefsful foever the King's Arms might be, it Several in.
could not be faid, that Peace was fully reftored to the l"'reti hns,

T. Wikes.

Kingdom, fince Kenelworth- Caftle was ftill in the
Hands of the Male-con tents. There was likewife, in the
northern Counties, a Troop of armed Men (11), who
obliged the King to fend againft them Henry, eldeft Son
of the King of the Romans. This young Prince made
fuch fpeed that he furprized the Rebels, and killing the
greateft part, difperfed the reft. He could not however The Male-
feize the Ring- Leaders (12), who joining with other Male- «»«*« fiizt
contents, and particularly thofe of Axholme, became maf- E1 ' J ' a *
ters of the Ifle of Ely in Cambridgjhirc. From thence
they made continual Inroads into the neighbouring Coun-
ties, committing great Ravages.

At the fame time, another Rebel, Adamfde Gurdun,] A / " a ' B '
taking up Arms in Hampjhire, Edward marched into ^.f"*?* 1
thofe parts, where he had occafion to give fenfible proofs F< jwird.
of his Courage and Generality. In a Battle with the m it Weft.
Rebels, Adam, who was ftrong and valiant, attacked the w *~.?' ,
Prince hand to hand, and obliged him to ufe all his T '
Dexterity and Valour. The fingle Combat was not in-
terrupted, till Adam, being down on the ground, was
forced to yield himfelf Prifoner to the Prince (13). This
Act of Bravery in Edward was immediately followed by
another of Generality, which gained him no lefs Ho-
nour. Without fullering himfelf to be tranfported with
a defire of Revenge upon a Man who had put him in
fo great Danger, he generoufly gave him Life and Li-


(1) About the middle of Y vembir. T. Wikes,

(2) She landed, Oclobtr 19. at Dover, after having been abfent about two Years from England. T. WVtcs, p. 72.

(3) Othobvn. ioid.

(4) At tiie Lime time, a Parliament was held at Northampton hi November, wherein all the Earl of Lcieefter's Adherents were difiruWted. Heminrfard.
p. 587. Ann. Waverl. p 2:1 " ~

(5) Ahem December 28. T. Wikes, p. 73, (6 ) Who was then at Northampton, ibid.

(7) And not return, with, ut the King's Licence, and the common Confent of thegrcat Men of the Kingdcm. A id.

(8) Four hundred Pounds of Silver, from the Revenues ot the Earldom of Leicrjhr. ibid.

(9) Abe.ut November 25. they burnt Port/moult, in revenge, for fome of their Fellow Citizens being han-ed by Kin? Henry's Order. Ann. IVaverU
p. 221.

tio) The Annah of Wavtrly fay, Edward had an Engagement with the Inhabitants of rVincielfea, wherein gre t Numbers were (lain and drowned,
and ther Leader, Henry Pchunt, taken, whom Prinse Edward ordeied immediately to be hanged, but was perfuaded by Gilbert Je Clare to fpare his





(11) Headed by Robert Earl of F.rrars, in Conjunction with Baldwin Wake, and "John Deyaille, and it
icr, th.. re It elcapedt.. the ifle of £/v. T. Wike:, p. 7 .-. Ann rVaverl.

(12) h l.'i E,rl„r 'Ferrari was taken at Cbcjterfield, and fent Prifoner to JVindfor Calile. T.rVikts.p. -6.

everal ether Barons. The Earl was taken Pri-

Cbejierfeid, and lent Prifoner to Windfor C-'altle. 'l.nirrs.y.
(13) " e h cms '. tnc Prince, when he came up with the Rebels between Farr.bam and Alf.n, hall.ly leaped over a Ditch or Trench which furrounded their
Camp, and his E,t«s nut being able to follow him prdVntly, he was obliged to light thus Hand to' Hand witli Adam. ibid.



Eook VIII.



The King
1*. Wikes

berty. Adam fenfibly touched, as lie ought, with this
Favour, ferved liim faithfully ever after (1 ).

The Garrifon of Kenelworth was become f<> formi-
dable, and withal fo odious, by their Outrages committed
in the neighbouring Country, that the King's Council re-
folved, this Caftle fhould be immediately inverted, and
An. WavtiJ. t) ie Siege of Ely put oft" to another time. The King
•was extremely incenfed with the Governor of Kenelworth
for infolently cutting oft* the Hand of his Herald, fent to
fummon him to fun under. His defire to punifh him,
made him refolve to go in Perfon to this Siege, imagin-
ine his Piefcnce would ftrike the crreater Terror into the
Befiegcd (2). But they defended themfelvcs fo ftoutly,
that alter a fix Months Siege, there was no appearance
of forcing them to capitulate. This vigorous Refiftance
was the reafon, that the Siege was turned into a Blockade.
Mean time, the King continued in the Town, of which
he was mafter, expecting that Hunger would compel the
Garrifon to furrender (3).

During the Blockade, Henry called a Parliament at Ke-
nelworth (4), to confider of means to reduce the Rebels of
Ely, cither by offering them an eafy Compofition, or by
Force, in cai'e they rejected the proffered Favour. To
this end the Parliament drew up certain Articles, con-
taining the Terms on which the King was to grant a
general Pardon (5). Thefe Terms were very moderate,
confidering the prefent Circumftanccs. To have pofieflion
of their Eftate^ again, fome were to pay five Years value,
fome three; others but one. But whether the Male-
contents could not depend upon the King's Word, or
thought thefe conditions too hard, they refufed to accept
them. j They even took occafion from thence to increafe
their Outrages, and had the Boldnefs to make an Excur-
fion as far as Norwich, from whence they carried away
above twenty thoufand Pounds Sterling (6).

Thofe of Kenelworth, though clofejy blocked up, and
forced to eat their Hoifes, relying on the Afliftance pro-
mifed by Simon de Montfort, held out fo long a Siege
with an invincible Refolution. At length, when they
could fcarce withftand any longer the Hunger by which
they were prefled, feeing no likelihood of AfTiftance,
they capitulated (7) to deliver up the Caftle, in cafe they
were not relieved within forty Days (8). Mean time,
they were to be furnifhed with Provifions. This Term
being expired, they came out of the Caftle fo pale and
meager, that it could not be conceived, that a Garrifon in
fo wi etched a Condition fhould have the Afl'urance to
demand fuch a Capitulation (9),
The Earl cf The taking of Kenelworth, and his hopes of fpeedily
clocefter reducing the Rebels of Ely, made the King forget his
tain mea- ft Misfoi tunes f 10), as well as the Prince his Son's En-

agamj. r /7 . .._._—.

A 1 ir/ia-
mert at
An- Waver!.
Terms offend
to the ',iale-
corterts of




M. iVefl
T. Vvik.
W. kiln

The Oarri
(on t) Ke-
T. Wikes,

M. Weft.


the King.
W. Rilh.
M. Weft.

gagement for him, with the Earl of Gloeejler ( 1 1 ). Ed-
ward himfelf, though more particularly concerned, by rea-
fon of his Oath, was more intent upon reducing the
Male-contents of Ely to the King's Obedience, than upon
executing his Promifes. The Earl of Gloeejler obferved
with extreme Regret, that as the King's Affairs profper-
ed, the Father and Son acted with lefs Moderation,
and were more ready to ftretch the Prerogative Royal be-
yond the bounds prefcribed by the Laws. What he had
done for the King and Prince, was not fo much to en-
large the Royal Power, as to prevent the Earl of Lei-
cejler from paving his way to the Throne. This was
very evident from the Oath he required from Prince Ed-
ward. The King's Conduct, who was returning to his
former Courfes, convincing him that if the Male-con-


tents were once reduced, it would be very difficult to 1267.
confine the Sovereign within the Hounds of an Authority
limited by the Laws, he thought it ncceflary to oppofe his
1 rogrefs in time. Thus refolved, he retired to his own
fcftate on the Border, of Walts, where he made a League
with Leivcllyn, and fome neighbouring Barons. After
this he lent word to the Male-contents of Ely, that he
would endeavour to relieve them.

It could not be but his Abfence and Preparations
fhould give fome umbrage to the Court. Nevcrthclcfs,
as he concealed his Defigna under the pretence of a Quar-
rel with Mortimer (12), he ftill left room to doubt of the
Motives of his Armament. Mean time, whereas Policy
and good Senfe required, that the King fhould try to
give fome Satisfaction to fo confiderable a Lord, all his
I houghts were engrolTed, about means to reduce the
Rebels of Ely; not fo much to reftorc the publick Tran-
quillity, as out of impatience to render himfelf as much or
more ablolute than ever. He plainly perceived, he could
not attain his Ends, whilft a Body of Rebels were in
Arms in the midft of his Dominions. Wherefore, he con-
vened a Parliament, to take meafurcs about quelling the
Male-contents (13). The Earl of GloceJler\ Refufafto be lie , f h »
prefent, made the King uneafy, who fent fome Lords ( 1 4) "" " ''"'-
to admonifh him to come and take his Seat. Thefe Lords wTin
found the Earl very bufy in raifmg an Army ; and as
they fhewed their Surpnie at it, he told them for their Sa-
tisfaction, that the Troops were defigned againft Morti-
mer his Enemy. Nay, he fcrupled not to give aWri-"'""t.
ting under his own Seal, whereby he engaged never to',' .' <"''
bear Arms againft the King (15). By this means, he re- ' i " M "' i ' ru
moved all Sufpicions, that were entertained of him. This
Fear being vanifhed, the King and Parliament thought of
nothing more, but how to befiege Ely, the only thing
that ftilj gave them any difturbance. The Refolution Tie Parlia.
that was taken, of vigoroufly pufhing this Siege, furnifh- "*" "■""'
ing the King with a plaufible pretence to demand an Aid, '/^%ttA
the Parliament granted him a very confiderable Sup- '
ply ( 1 6). Although the Legate had not the fame Reafons,
he prefled the Clergy however, to grant the fame Aid to
the Pope. This unfeafonable Demand extremely aro-'TULsgen
voked the Prelates. They not only refufed to comply, Jaumb "•
but committed to writing the Reafons of their Denial, cbt but
which were not much for the Honour of the' Court of k • > denied.
Rome. W. Rift.

As foon as the Parliament broke up, the King took the 1U King
Field at the head of his Army. He advanced as far as •-"" "
Cambridge, where he halted to fend and fumnnn the Re- w"^'"
bels of Ely, to return to their Duty. But their Anfwer M.' Weft,
plainly difcovered, they were not eafily to be frightened.
This Refolution, and the Situation of the Ifle^of Ely,
which had formerly very much embarrafl'ed William thf
Conqueror, fomewhat abated his warlike Ardour,-and cau-
fedhimto wait (17) the coming of the Prince his Son, who
was then at York ( 1 8).

Whilft the King was at Cambridge, the Ear! of Glo- The F.arlof
cejler headed the Army, raifed on his own Lands, and Gi cdler
in Wales. He forthwith marched towards London, and *S""""
with that expedition, that he entered the City before they l''.' .'
had time to hinder him, and even before they knew *«"* I '■
whether he acted for or againft the King. It is how- T " wt "' .
ever probable, the Magiftrates and principal Citizens, 5J" W»™H.
were not ignorant of his Deiigns. Be this as it will, the I". Wikes.
Earl, leaving every one to make his own Conjectures,
approached the Tower, the Cuftody whereof was, by the
King, commuted to the Legate. He fummoned him tw

( 1) T. Wi'te fays, he fent him in Chains to Winder Caftle, there to keep Earl Ferrari Company, p. 76.

(2) The King began to lay Siege to that Caftle, Juitt 25. T. Wikes, p. 76.

(3) Before the beginning of this Siege, the King lent his Son Prince Edward to reduce the City of Lincoln, which had been furpriied and plunder-d
ty fome of the Bai a: belonging to the Me of Axhalme ; but, upon his approach, they difperfed. Ann. Waver I. p. 222.

(4) Augufi i.\. In this Parliament the King confirmed the Charter of Liberties, and demanded the Tenths ol the Revenues of the Clergy, for three
Years, ibid. p. 223.

(5) Thefe Articles were called Dilium de Kenelworth,^ and were to be put in Execution by Pcrfons nominated by the King and Barons aflcmblcd ia
Parliament ; and if any Corned arole, Othoi-m the Pope"s Legate, and Henry, Son to Richard King of t,he Romans, w-re to be joined to them. Thele
Perfons were, the Bilhopsof Batb, Worcefler, Exeter, St. David's; Roger de Humeri, Robert Wa.-eran, Alar. ,te ia V. . ; the Lei Is . t C

Hereford; John de Balol, Philip Bafj'et, IVarm de BaJ'engiburne. This Decree or Statute of Ken.l-a.-onh is to be feen at large in a Manuscript Copy in
the Cottonian Library, and in Tyrrel, p. 1064, 1065. It was publilhed in the Camp before Kenellv.ttb, Ofl>b 31.

16) They did the fame by the Town of Cambridge in their return to Ely, carrying away not only feveral Jew, but alfo thcriaheft cf the Townfmen
whom they kept Prifoners, till they would tanfom themfelvcs at exorbitant Rates. % Wikes, p. 77. Ann. Waver!, p. 222. W. Rip. p. 1000.

(7) About the beginning of November. T. Wikes, p. 7S.

(8) Riehard de Edmundevil, and leven Knights, remained Sureties, ibid.

(9) The King bellowed thisftrcng Caftle, which was forfeited to him by the late Earl of teicef.er, upon Earl Edmundhh fecend Srn, whrm he had created
fome time before Earl of Derby, upon the Attainder of Robert de Ferrars. T. Wiles, p. ni. M. IVijl. p. 397. Rymer'% Fad. T. I. p. S10.

(10) He came from Kenelivorth to Woodjloek, where he kept his Cbrijlmas, and thence went to London, where he'held a Parliament. 1. Wikes p $.
W. Rijhanger. M. H'efi. p. 39S. (1 1) Gilbert de Clare.

(12) Mortimer was one of thole, who mod earneftly oppofed an Accommodation with the difinherited Lords, becaufe the King had granted him feveral of
their Eftates. He even conlpired the Death of the Earl or Ckeejter, who was moft aclive in this Bulinels. W. Rilh. p. 1001.

(13) This Parliament was abi ut February 10, at St. Edmut-dfbury. T. Wikes. p. 78. W. Rijh, p. 1002.

(14) Jobt. ac Warren, and William de faience. W Ri/h. p. 1C02.

( 1 5 ) He exhorted the King in the fame Writing, to remove Foreigners from his Perfon, to caufe the Oxford Provifions to be cbferved, and to perform his
Promifes to him at E-vejham. W. Rijh. p. loot.

(16' The Tenths of the Goods of all Ecclcliaftical and Religious Perfons, for three Years; except the Templars, Hcfpitallers, and Ciflercians. Ann,
Waiierl. p. 223.

(17) At Cambridge, where he removed; after having in vain endeavoured to reduce the Ifle, by Water, with fti.rs, got together from Jpfwicb
Dumvicl . Yarmouth, 2ni Lin. I. lilies, p. 78. J '

(18 Employed in reducing John ae Velei, ci
a.'id ■. ilur Lands adjacent. '/. Wikes, p. 78, 7a,

Vunu-ia . termataa, and Lm. I. ti ikes. p.

( 18 Employed in reducing John ae Vejci, tl) e ef the difinheiite^ Batcss, who bad railed fcjne f vices in the North, and recovered his Caftle ei Alnwick,


: 44-

He B I S T R Y of E N G L A N D.

Vol. I.

Idwaid '
bii Fatbn
M. Well

77v £ .;v.i.'
j4rmy m-

»26". deliver it up immediately ; alledgjng, it was not a Poft
to be trufted in the hands of a Foreigner, much lefs of
rn Ecclefiaftick. The Legate furprized at this unex-
pected Summons, made a fhow of defending himfelf. But
as he wanted Provifions, and the Earl had ttrictly forbid
the fendin 0- in any, he was quickly conftrained to fur-
render. As foon as the Earl was matter of the Tourr,
he was not fo careful to conceal his Defigns. Befides,
as feveral of the Male- contents fi) daily joined him, it
was vifible, his Intention was not to act for the King's
tottublijha Intereft. At length, he pulled off the Mask, and pub-
* ' ' ' ' liihed a Manifefto, declaring, he had taken up Arms, to
% f obtain reafonable Terms for the Male-contents. More-
over, he complained of the King and Prince, affirming,
his Defign was to oblige them to the better performance of
their Promifes. Surprized at this frefh Revolt, Henry
fent prefling Orders to the Prince his Son, to come and
join him immediately, being in continual fear of an At-
tack. He did not think himfelf in a condition to come
off with Honour in an Aff.ur of this Nature, if forced to
a Battle. Thefe Orders meeting the Prince in his ie-
turn from the North, where he had finifhed his Affairs,
obliged him to march with all poffible fpeed to the King's
Relief (2). As foon as they were joined, they advanced
together towards London, and encamped at Stratford,
within three Miles of the City. The univerfal Efteem
for Edward among the Nobles and People rather than
their Affection for the King, caufed in a very fhort
Space, the Army to be coniiderably increafed (3). For
this Reafon the Earl of Glocefter continued in London,
from whence he durft not ftir, for fear of engaging at a
great Difadvant.ige (4). He had been in hopes, the whole
Kingdom would fide with him, and the King be fudden-
lv deferted by his own Tioops. But finding he had re-
lied upon uncertain Affiftances, and his Friends began to
forfake him, he timely applied himfelf to the King of
I. ,,.S 4 i. the Romans, by whofe Interceffion (5), he obtained much
T.Wikcs, De tter Terms than he had reafon to expect (6). He was
P -8 ' - n ot only forgiven, upon laving down his Arms, but had

the Satisfaction alfo to have the City of London included
in his Pardon, which otherwife would doubtlefs have been
feverely punifhed. He would fain have procured the fame
Favour tor the Rebels of Ely; but the King and Prince
beino- inexorable in that refpect, he was forced to abandon
their Interelts.

This Affair being ended more happily than there was
room to expect, Edivard approached the Ifle of Ely (j).
As the Male-contents had no profpect of Relief, they
chofe to furrender (8), before they were reduced to ex-
lUEndof tremity. The only condition granted them, was the
the Btrmi f av j n g their Lives and Limbs. By this were extinguifhed
the Troubles, that had for five Years tormented the King-

Henry, having an Army ready, refolved to correct: the
Infolence of the Prince of Waits, who, during the late
Troubles, had all along affitted the Rebels. To this end,
he advanced as far as Montgomery, where Lewellyn fent
An. Waverl. Ambafladors to fue for Peace. His offer to pay the King
thirty two thoufand Marks, and to do him Homage for
his Piincipality, was an inducement to hearken to his
Propofals. But, befides what he had offered, he was far-
ther obliged to deliver up certain Caftles, convenient for
the King (9).
gg The Peace of the Kingdom being thus reftored, the King
Edward ta'ka fummoned a Parliament ( 1 o), where Ottobon, the Pope's Le-
" gate was prefent. He informed the Affembly that the Pope
. was refolved to publifh a Crufade, in all the Chriftian
States, and took occafion from thence to exhort the Eng-
lill*, to contribute their Money and Perfons towards this
Expedition ; the fole end wheieof, was the Glory oi God


r . \el '-.'<
A«. Pub.

Ely Zik'k

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