M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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fpe£l both before and after this Council, which had not
the Effect the Hcreticks promifed themfelves.

The Britijh Church was much more juftly accufed of
P elagianifm. Certain it is, feveral Bifhops were feduced,
not by Pelagius himfelf, who, though a Native of Britain,
never returned to propagate his Errors, but by Agricola one
of his Difciples. The Orthodox Bifhops perceiving the In-
fection to fpread, fent to delire their Brethren in Gaul to
affift them in confuting this Herejy. The Gaulijh Prelates
touch'd with the Danger of the Britijh Church, met in
Council, and deputed Germanus Bifhop of Auxerre, and
Lupus Bifhop ofTroye to go and affift their Brethren in Bri-
tain. At Verulam, in a Conference with the Pelagians,
they defended the Truth with fuch Strength and Evidence,
that they turned many from their Errors. But after their
Departure, the Heretic ks gaining Ground again, Germanus
Was defired once more to come over. Though he was now

wry old, he undertook a fecond Voyage into Britain, in
Company with Severus Bifhop of Troyc. Germanus de-
fpairing to convince the Hcreticks by Arguments, becaufe
of their Obftinacy, caufed the Edicl ofValcnlinicn III, that
condemns all Hcreticks to Banifhment, to be put in Exe-
cution againft them. Before he left Britain, he erected
Schools, which produced afterwards many Bifhops famous
for their Learning and Piety.

Frem this time to the Arrival of the Saxons we know Corruption
but little of the Affairs of the Britijh Church. No doubt ^"'^ Bli_
the frequent Wars with the Picls and Setts, by deftroying cTJfl/a,^
their Churches, and what is worfe, by introducing a Cor- Mijina.
ruption of Manners among the Clergy as well as Laity, were
very prejudicial to the Chriftians. However, if we : may cildas.n.ig;
believe Gildas and Bede, it was not fo much the Wars as the Bed /i '" '"
exceffive Plenty immediately after the Famine, that cor-
rupted the Manners of the Britons. The People, fay thefe
Hiftorians, from a State of extreme Want, bem* on ia hid-
den furrounded with Plenty, abandoned themfeives to all
manner of Wickednefs. The quiet they enjoyed by their
Peace with the northern Nations, was fpent only in finking
deeper into Excefs and Debauchery, The Clergy out-
doing even the Laity, became exceeding vicious. Glut-
tony, Drunkennefs, Avarice, Luxury, reigning among
the Ecclefiajlicks, they no longer preached to their Flocks
the Precepts of the Gofpel, wlijch they themfelves fo little
regarded. To this general Corruption, according to thefe
two Hiftorians, are to be afcribed the Calamities which fell
upon the Britijh Nation, and which are the Subject of the
following Book.

c. 14,

(1) The Council of Aries was in 314, about twelve Years before the Council of Nice. The three Bifhops are fuppofed to be Thofe of London, Tori, and
probably Caerleon. They had with them a Prieft and a Deacon.

(2) Du Pin fays, the Bifhops of France and Britain chofe rather to bear their own Expenccs than accept of the Emperor's Allowance, which they thought
was beneath them. But it is more likely they accepted of the Emperor's Allowance, fince they were but poorly endow'd under the Rowan Emperors. And
this perhaps may be the Reafon why we find lb few of them at any of thofe Councils that were held beyond the Seas.

N° 2. Vol.1.



Jlss* /




From the Arrival of the Saxons to the Retreat of the Britons into Wales.
about the Space of a Hundred and Thirty Tears.


N a defperate Difeafe, a defperate
Remedy is us'd without fcruple, be-
caufe the Benefit only is confid'er'd
that may be receiv'd by it. The
Britons, tho' frequent Sufferers by
the Incurfions of the Saxons, fix'd
their Thoughts folely on the Valour
of that Nation, believing them alone
capable of freeing them from their
prefent Calamities. Had there been a Choice to make,
perhaps they would have weigh'd the Inconveniences as
well as Conveniences of calling in the Saxons to their Aid.
But as they had no other Courfe to take, they never at-
tended to what a juft Fear might have fuggefted to them.
Befides, Vortigcrn (trove to divert them from the Confide-
rations that might have induc'd them to alter their Refo-
lution, by carefully difplaying the Advantages that would
' by the Affiltance of the Saxons. By feeding

" your felves, or better able to protect us. Grant but
" our Requeft, and in return we offer all that a rich
" and fertile Country, fuch as ours is, can afford. Put
" what Price you pleafe on our Protection: We (hall
" fubmit to what Terms you yourfelves fhall judge rea-
" fonable, provided by your Aid we are enabled to drive
" the Enemy out of our Country." ( i )

The Britons having thus declared the Caufe of their
coming, the Saxon General return'd this (hort Anfwer ;
" Be affured the Saxons will (tand by you in your preffing
" Neceffities." So favorable an Anfwer infpiring theN enn .
Ambaffadors with hopes of Succefs in their Negotiation, Malm. 1. u
they us'd their utmoft Endeavours to bring it to a fpeedy ^ Re £*
Conclufion. At laft they had the Satisfaction to obtain anjjede, i.'i."
Aid of nine thoufand Men, on certain Terms, the prin- c. 15.
cipal whereof was, That the Saxons (hould be put in
Pofleflion of the Ifle of Thanct, adjacent to Kent, where
they were to land, and their Troops paid, and muintain'd

be procur'd

their Hopes with his flattering Speeches, he prevented

them from maturely reflecting on the Confequences of by the Britons.
VhtAvM- their Proceedings. Every Man therefore being wholly Britain was not unknown to the Saxons. They had 7T.Sarci»

jMp an intent upon freeing himfelf from the prefent Evils, the long before begun to render themfelves formidable to thef ™%J^

Ambaffadors were fent away in all hafte, and the Nego- Eaftern Coafts of the Bland, where they had even made£ B ri4in" !S

jcTit ewjy.

V/ : ; id
tj ijat Saxons.

tiation (trongly recommended to their Care, on the Succefs
whereof entirely depended, as they imagin'd, the Safety of
their Country. The Dominion of the Saxons reach'd then
to the German Ocean, and their Conquefts had been car-
ried even into Zealand. Upon the Arrival of the Britilh
Ambaffadors, Witigifil, General of the Saxons, having cal-
led an Affembly to hear what they had to propofe, the
Head of the Ambaffy made the following Speech :

" Illuflrious and Generous Saxons, the Britons, harrafs'd
" and opprefs'd by the continual Inroads of the Pifis and
" Scots, their Neighbours and Enemies, fent us to you to
" implore your Affiltance. The Fame of your Victories
" has reach'd our Ears. We arefenfible your Arms are
" irrefiftible, and therefore are come te fue for your Pro-
" tedtion. Britain for many Years made a confiderable
" Part of the Roman Empire ; but our Matters having
" abandon 'd us, we know no Nation more powerful than

(1) Witubind, a Saxon Hiitorian, puts thelc Words in the Mouth of the Bt j
the deplorable Condition of the Brians. Bafin. Wittcbini hv'd in the IXth Century. The ablblute Subjection in this Speech is thought to be more th
Br-.t n: promVd, it not icing mention'd by Btdt or Etbrlmerd, both Saxms. Thc:r quarrelling with the£nr»ri afterwards about their Pay, as Cr/i,-: ex-
preily lays, fliews they came over as Mercenary Soldiers. See Note below from Geoffrey of Monmouth, p. irj.

(2) Hagljt fcnitus a Sune-Htrfe, and Ikrfi a Hwfi. It was ufbal with theSaxons to give their Children the Names of Animals. Bafin, Hence ameng
us a: this Day, the Names hmb, Bear, Fix, Buck, &c. The Riirmu had the fame Cuftora, wioi.i. Cmulm, Afcr, &<■

feveral Defcents. If they had not yet attempted any cieotf. Men.
Conquefts there, it was becaufe Thole they had under- M « lnl -
taken on the Continent were thought to be of more Im-
portance. It may be too, as they were hitherto ignorant
of the Weaknefs of the Britons, they were afraid of in-
gaging in any great Enterprize. However this be, the
prefent Ambaffy, at fuch a Juncture, was extremely pro-
per to raife a Defire to fettle in their Country. The
Britons were themfelves the Difcoverers of their Weak-
nefs. On the other Hand, the Saxons were now feated
alono- the Coafts of the German Ocean, from whence they
mioht always have an Eye to what pafs'd in Britain. It
is no wonder therefore, if without much Deliberation, they
promis'd their Affiltance to the Britons, fince they intended
to improve fo fair an Oportunity of fettling in the If-
land. Hengijl and Horfa (z), both Sons of Witigifil, Hoigji
were appointed to command the Troops defigned for the
Aid of the Britons.

. 7 . >< .

■tijb AmbafTadors, and it can't be denied that they arc very natural, cor.!

Book II.




Hengift was about thirty Years old. He firft bore Arms
under his Father Wttigtfli after which, for his Improve-
ment in the Art of War, he went and ferved in the Roman
Armies, where the Emperors generally kept fome Saxon
Troops in their Pay. This young Warrior was endow'd
with all the neceffary Qualifications for accomplifhing the
Undertaking committed to his Management. His Valour
and Experience, the Solidity of his Judgment, his Addrefs,
his eafy and engaging Behaviour, warranted in fome Meafure
his Succefs. All thefe excellent Qualities determined the
Saxon General to procure for his Son fo fair an occafion to
difplay his Talents. As for his Brother Horfa, nothing
particular is faid of him.

The Saxons, notwithftanding their Promifc, did not
think proper to fend over at once fo confiderable a Body
of Forces as nine Thoufand Men, into a Country but im-
pel feitly known to them. Wherefore, pretending the reft
were not ready by reafon of their great Diftance from the
Place of Imbarkation, they caufed only a Part to be put
on board three Veflels ( 1 ). The very Name of thefe Vef-
fels plainly enough demonftrates they could hold but a very
inconfiderable Number (2). The Hiftorians have not ex-
prefly marked the Place of this firft Imbarkation. It may
very probably be conjectured to have been in Zealand, as
. that Country was then in the Poffeffion of the Saxons. Be-

Chron Zel. ^ es lt would have been difficult to chufe a more conve-
nient Place, or one nearer the Ifle of Tbanet, where thefe
Forces were to land.

Vortigern, having his own, much more than the Nati-
on's Intereft at Heart, was highly delighted with the Suc-
cefs of his AmbafTy. He was not ignorant how his Sub-
jects flood affected towards him. And this no lefs than
the Delireof repulfing the common Enemy had moved him
to (ue for the Affiftance of the Saxons, flattering himfelf
that he fhould eafily engage thefe Foreigners to grant him
a particular Protection. With this View and Expectation
he goes to the Sea-fide, and waits their coming, to pre-
poffefs them in his Favour, by his Civility and Refpect.
449> Mean while Hengift and Horfa fetting fail, arrive at

^T" E bht ' s fl eet in the Ifle of Tbanet. Thefe firft Saxon Troops
Britain. arc faid by moft Hiftorians to land in the Year 449, though
Sax. Ann. by fome this Event is placed a few Years fooner or later.
Huntingd. y or f\g ern receives his new Friends with extraordinary Ca-
refles, putting them immediately in poffeffion of the Ifle
according to Agreement. When they had refrefhed them-
felves a little, he led them againft the Picls and Scots that
Titfi Baitk were advanced as far as Stamford in Lincoln/hire. In the
iitzuten the £ r ft B a ttle, the Iflanders according to Cuftom, began with
mrrAtm " throwing their Darts, which made but little Impreflion on
Faftc. warlike Troops that defpifed that way of fighting. The
Saxons having ftood this firft Charge without the leaft Mo-
tion, advanced in good Order, and coming to clofe fight,
quickly routed Enemies already terrified by their very
Looks. The northern Men flighted at the Sight of thefe
Foreigners, and fore'd to engage in a different Manner from
what they were ufed to, made but a faint Refiftance, and
foon left their new Enemies in poffeffion of the Field of
Battle. Their future Attempts had no better Succefs, and
in all their Encounters with the Saxons, they were continu-
Malm. I. i. a "y worfted. Being quite difcouraged by thefe frequent
Defeats, they abandon their Conquefts by degrees, and
retire into their own Country, dreading nothing fo much as
engaging with the Saxons.
Vortigern. Vortigern was overjoyed to fee his Projects fucceed thus
^uTfoi! f ar *° happily. But his main Point, the winning the Sax-
Landi near ons to his particular Intereft, was yet unexecuted. To
Lincoln. that end, he prefents the two Saxon Brothers with fome
cm',. Lands in Lincoln/hire, where they gave the Enemies the
1. 3. c.2. firft repulfe (3). But if Vorligern was purfuing his Ends,
Lan E h, Hengijl was no lefs mindful of his own Intereft. The Mo-
ment he perceives the Weaknefs of the Britons, he enter-
tains Hopes of procuring a Settlement in Britain, and be-
gins to lay his Meafures accordingly. But he muft pro-
ceed by degrees, and find means to execute his Defign,
without difcovering his Intentions. The Lands given him
by Vartigern, furnifh him with an Opportunity to caufe the
Britons to fall into the Snare he intends to lay for them.
He reprefents to the King, that the Service he was doing
the Britons in the North, keeping him at a Diftance from
the Ifle of Tbanet, he had no place to fecure the Booty taken
from the Enemies, and therefore had reafon to fear that

Chron. Reg.

whilft he was employed in the northern Wars, he might
be deprived of the Fruits of his Labours. For this Caufe,
he defires leave to build a little Fort fomewhere on the
Lands lately given him. Vortigern, who fought all Occa-
fions to pleafe him, readily complies with his Requeft. If Hengift
moft of the Hiftorians may be credited, he only defired to k "' U:
wall in as much Land as an Ox-hide could furround, JX"u'
which being granted, he cut the Hide into fmall Thongs,
and encloling with them a Space large enough for his pur-
pofe, haftily ran up a Fort, before the Britons had time to
oppofe it. This Circumftance feems to be confirmed by
the Name of the Fort it felf, Tbong-cafter (4), that is, the
Caftle of Thongs (;). It may indeed be objected, that the
Name of this Caftle gave occafion to apply it to the Story
Jttjiin relates of Dido when going to build Carthage. But Jufii 1. 18.
on the other hand, Hengijl whilft he ferved in the Roman
Armies, might, very poffibly, be informed of this Artifice
of Dido's, and practife it in Britain.

The Britons feeing a Caftle built in the Heart of their rhe Britons
Country, begin to murmur againft their King, and fu- ' mfhi " "■?
fpect him of fecretly favoring the Saxons. Thefe Mur- V ' Jrt ' £an,
mure gave Hengijl Opportunity, who had now div'd
into Vortigern's private Intentions, to make an Advantage
of that Prince's Circumftances. He reprefents to him,
" That the Britons are grown fo infolent fince their Deli- Hengift tf-
" verance from their Enemies, that they only wait an Op - ^' 1 h "" A $'
" portunity to rob him of his Crown, and give it to a^NnT'c 37.
" other. That this Intimation, coming from good Hands,
" ought to make him fenfible that the Rebellion of his
" Subjects is no lefs to be feared, than the Invafion of the
•' Bids and Scots ; and therefore advifes him to fecure him-
" felf from the approaching Storm, by fending for more
u Saxons, and ftrengthning himfelf with their Aid againft
" the ill Practices of his Subjeds. The reft of the Saxons,
" (continues he,) defign'd for the Affiftance of Britain, are
" all ready, and only wait your Orders." Vortigern glad- Vortigern.
ly embraces this Advice, which fuits fo well with his Pro- <""?" '''
jects. Inftead of railing Objections, he himfelf preffes the
Saxon General to execute a Defign which to him feems fo
advantagious. Hengijl having thus obtain'd Vortigern's Hengift m-
Confent, defires his Father IVitigifd to fend over the reft/" /A " D '-
of the Forces out of Hand. He acquaints him with thei^f/'
Fruitfulnefs of the Country, and Effeminacy of the W&-JtttU I B.i-
bitants, affuring him, if the Saxons wifely improved this "'"•
Opportunity, they might hope for a Settlement in Britain, Milm - U l '
no lefs advantagious and glorious than what they enjoy'd
in Germany. IVitigiftl, who had great Expectations from Amvl**
his bon s Expedition, fends the defired Supplies without/^ Body of
Delay. He equips fixteen large Veflels to tranfport t h e Saxons > ,J "' ,A
Forces, and with them (ends Ef us and Rowena, eldeft Son R^erT'
and Niece (6) of Hengijl. This fecond Body of Saxont 450.
arnv'd in Britain in 450, about a Year after the firft. Malm.

As foon as the Britijh Monarch and the Saxon General ' v '- c - r "
faw themfelves thus ftrengthen'd, they behav'd in a very Wrfengift
different Manner to the Britons from what thev had done 4rf,aw
before. Vortigern grown more powerful, renders himfelf £*<&?
more abfolute. He treats his Subjeas with great Hauoh- m"'
tinefs, and thereby more ftrongly confirms their Sufpicions
of him. He even makes no fcruple to affign Habita-
tions for the New-comers, without ever advifing with bis
Subjects. From that time a ftrifl Union is form'd be-
tween Vortigern and Hengijl. They had need of each o-
ther for their mutual Defence againft the Britons, who pub-
lickly exprels'd their Difcontent.

Mean while, Hengift forgqt nothing that could promote Hengift ft*
hisDehgns. Above all, he ftudies to know the Humor 'Slr.fir
and Character of Vortigern, and eafilv perceives Love and Y.™ %""'
Pleafure to be his predominant Paffion. Accordingly he
lays a Snare, which he thinks, the Monarch can hardly
efcape falling into. Having expj-ef.'d on feveral Occafions, He ,W*»
his Acknowledgments for the many Favors received at his*'™ <°
Hands, lie intreats him to honour him with his Company Thons *
atTbong-caJler, where he earneftly defires to entertain him
and fhew him fome Marks of his RefpeCt and Gratitude.'
Vortigern readily accepts of this Invitation, confidering it Vortigern
as a frefh Means to ftrengthen the Friendfhip comraded "» rm " "'
with the Heads of the Saxons, and which is fo expedient
for him. Hengijl receives him with all the Refpect due to
a great King, his Friend and Benefactor. A fplendid and
exquifite Entertainment is prepared for him, but nothing
pleafes the Royal Gueft fo much as the young Rowerui, the

(I) Gttfrey f Mor.moutb C, ys , thefe three Ships, full of armed Men, happened to come to Kent by chance, and that the Generals Hengift and Horfa belne
brought betorc Vortigern, he retained them and then Troops in his Service 1.6 c 10 "«"S

ft] Th 7 "5 "''/! h ' thc H, ?°7 ns ' m t'i' auU - '' '■" Dm f ' Uh ! ' in E "ZW- Kah - Ra t in - h is 6id in C «"**. P- exxii. that KM* was a gene-
ral Name tor their Sh^,— — C>/«, tiojtra l„: gIla , !«,£„ nayibu, CM. p. 7 . Malm. p. 8. Bede, 1. ,. e . t-. It' mult be noted, that ce, fi f„

itaxon, js pronounc u like ke f ki. j > > «■', iu

(3) Some/* thefe Lands were in Ker.t. B„t G^tfMmmutbtBrttm, they were in LtJidefi* Regim, or rather Undtfii in Li.dfe,. L„;et, m i s
Latin for Litmln, Guff. Mm. 1, 6. c. ii. Re$m by miftalce quotes Nermiu:. J -nnuau a

(4.) Aectpitcjue folum faCti de nomine Thongum
,,„, ,. „ Taurmoquantumpoteratcircundaretergo. Epit.nf the Sift. fEng.in Latin Pirfi. Rapin.

mp***g.ujhr, m Wdjb Caer-Egarry, both Unifying the fame Thing,) lies about fix Mifc from Grimjiy in UnciMbir,

"he was W^i/f's Niece. See tyW p. »8 3 . But MttfrJhurJ, p. 9 , Mat- IVelh,, ».,,«. Hunting,
was Hatpjt s Daughter, J r > £«


(Gj Ulitarpius, it feems, is the only one who affirms fli
p. 310. Gc'jf. Mum, 1. 6, c, iz, all .igtce in faying Ski



Vol. I.

greateft Beauty of her time. Hengiji her Uncle, under
colour of doing Honor to Vortigern, but in reality that he
might, during; the Feaft, feed his Eyeis with fo lovely an
Object, ordered her to place herfelf juft before the King.
'alls in qr-jjg Contrivance fucceeded as Hengiji expected. Vortigern

and fa

b keeps his Eyes continually fix'd on Rowena, who by her


Looks gives him to underftand, fhe is not infenfible of the
Honor he does her. Hengiji perceiving with Joy the fud-
den Effect of Rowena's Charms on the King, is unwilling
to cive his growing Paffion time to cool. He makes a
Sign to his "Niece, who immediately going to the Side-
Board, fills a Gold Cup with Wine, and prefents it on
Geoff. Mon. her Knees to the King, faving in her Language, Liever
I16. c. i%. gy n fcg^ iva j s lj e \l t that is, Lord King, your Health. Vor-
tigern agreeably furprized, turns to his Interpreter and asks
what fhe faid, and how he muft anfwer her after the Saxon
manner. Being informed, he looks very amoroufly on
Rowena, and anfwers in Saxon, Drinck Heil, that is, Do
you your felf drink the Health. Whereupon, Rowena juft
putting the Cup to her Lips, prefents it to the King, who
taking it, rifes up immediately and gives her a Salute.
Rowena receives it in a very refpectful manner, as feniible
of the great Honour done her, and making a profound
Reverence, withdraws, leaving the Monarch full of Love
and Defire. This may be called a very fatal Moment for
Britain, as will be feen hereafter. So true it is, the greateft
Events fpring fometimes from Things that appear at firft
of very little Confequence.
tie demands From that time Vortigern's Thoughts are wholly em-
hcr in Mar- p{ y e d how to fccure the Poffeffion of Rowena. Tho' he
r '" s '' has a Wife, his Paffion caufing him to overlook all Obfta-

Hengift _ cles, he demands her in Marriage. But Hengiji, willing
JljrttDijp- by Difficulties to inflame the King's Defires, anfwers, he
cannot, contrary to the Cuftom of the Saxons, give his
Niece to a Prince already married, adding, Rowena was
not entirely in his difpofal ; and the Princes of his Nation,
and particularly his Father, would not perhaps ever confent
fhe ihould be married to a Chriftian Prince, how honora-
Vortigem D ] e foever the Alliance might be. But the amorous Vor-
fnji mcani t ;„. nl W | M burns with exceffive Defire to enjoy Rowena,

fo retrieve o ' J J *

them til, finds Expedients to overcome all thefe Difficulties. He
begins with divorcing his Wife, by whom he had feveral
Children. Then he promifes Rnvena the free Exercife
of her Religion, and to flop the Mouths of the Saxon Prin-
ces, whole Reproaches Hengiji fecms to fear, devifes an
He prmija Expedient, (or perhaps it is fuggefted to him) by which ,
Hengift tte as |^ e imaging he may reconcile Love and Policy. And
Kent. tn ' s was t0 'nveft Hengiji and Horfa with the Sovereignty

of Kent, and give them leave to people it with Saxons. The
Moment he came to this Refolution, all Obftacles began
to vanifh, and the politick Saxon, who had feem'd back-
ward only to make the better Bargain, thought it time to
Wbtnuftm give his Confent. He delivers therefore his Niece to the
tb,Marri.igt amorous Monarch, and takes Pofieflion of Kent, magnify-
«J"hS ing this Proof of his Retped and Gratitude, as if the King
takes Pcjef- were highly obliged to him. Vortigern was fo blinded by
>"'"• his Paffion, that he thought himfelf a great Gainer by the

Geoff! Mon. Exchange (i). This Agreement was made fo privately,
1.3. c. 1. that Gorongus (2), Prince or Governor of Kent, was dif-
pofleffed before he could take any Meafures to oppofe it.
So impatient was Vortigern to conclude this fatal Bargain !
The Britons In vain did the Britons murmur againft this Marriage,
""""'"' and complain of the King's Bounty. Hengiji, regardlefs
Vortigern. °f their Murmurs, ftrengthened himfelf as much as poffible
in his new Sovereignty, confidering withal of frefh means
Hengift to aggrandize himfelf. But before he difcovered his Inten-
/"'"" " m tion, he wanted to be out of danger from the Britons, who
G.Mcii. 1.4. plainly fhewed how they flood affected towards him. Ever
Malm. lince it was known he intended to fettle in the Ifland they
could no longer rely on him, or rather, look'd upon him
as a profeffed Enemy.

Whilft the Britons were venting their fruitlefs Com-
plaints againft their Monarch and the Saxons, Hengiji was
ferioufly thinking of his Concerns. Tho' he had a good
Body of Troops under his Command, that was not fuf-
ficient to enable him to execute his vaft Projects. He
thought it properer therefore to conceal them till he was
in condition to declare his Intentions. The Siruation
Vortigern was in, made him hope it was not impoffible to

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