M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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the Holy Scriptures, for be had jujl married a Wife. We
fee alfo in Baronius's Annals, that a Legate fent by Pope
Innocent III, into Poland to eftablifh the Celibacy of the
Clergy, did at laft carry his Point ; but attempting to
do the fame thing in Bohemia, was in danger of his
Life. .

There was another Article, .of no lefs Importance to
the Popes, and which they pufhed as vigoroufly as that
of Celibacy. This was to give to their Ordinances or
Decretals, the fame Authority as to the Canons of the
Councils. In 1150, one Gratian publifhed a Collection
of Decretals, containing all the Ordinances made by the
Popes to that Time, that it might ferve for a Rule in the
Adminiftration of Ecclefiaftical Juftice. To this Col-
lection were added, in time, feveral Decrees made after-
wards, in order to compofe a complete Body of the Cr-
non-Law. Raymond dc Pegnoford, Penitentiary to Gre-
gory IX, was ordered to make this Collection, intitled,
The fecond Part of the Canon- Law, and publifhed in 1230.
He annexed to it* fome Conftitutions of the Councils, and
Refolutions of the Doctors, fince the Year 1250, where
the fecond Part began. This laft Collection was not only
a Supplement to the old Canon-Law, but even altered it
in feveral Articles. For Inftance, it is determined, that
Baftards fhould not be capable of Ecclefiaftical Prefer-
ments, without the Pope's Difpenfation. By this Addi-
tion, without the Pope's Difpenfation, the Court of Rome
afl'umcd indirectly, the Power of favouring Baftards,
when fhe thought proper, contrary to the ancient Con-
ftitutions of the Councils. That Court could never have
a better opportunity to publifh the Decretals, fince her
Power was now at the utmoft height. There was nei-



ther Subjea nor Prince that dared to oppofe the Will of
the Popes, when they fpoke with an abfolute Tone. And
therefore, without finding much Rc-fiftance, they enaded
as a Law, whatever they were plcafed to decree, even
though direftly contrary to the Laws, which till then were
in force. For example, as to the cafe of Baftards the
Laws of England reckoned, as illegitimate, Children born
before Marriage, notwithstanding their Fathers and Mo-
thers were afterwards married ; but the Canon-Law decreed
the contrary ; on which there were great Contcfts in the
Parliament of Merton in 1236(1).

The Roman Pontiffs were no fooner become almoft ah- ftd. -
folute Monarchs in the Church, but great numbers of" '
Religious Orders fprang up, which were as a Standing
Army, to fupport the Grandeur and Power of the Popes.
Fhe Council of Latcran endeavoured to prevent this
Abufe, by exprefly forbidding the Inftitution of any new
Order of Monks. But this did not hinder Dominic deV™;
Guzman a Spaniard, who long preached againft the Albi- " '
genfes, from forming the Project of a new Order, under 1
the Name of Predicant Fryers, of which he petitioned for
Pope Innocent's Confirmation. The Pope, on account of
the Prohibition of the Latcran Council, made fome Scru-
ple at firft to confent to this Kftablifhment : But if we may
believe the Hiftorians of this Order, he was told, by a
heavenly Vifion, that he could do nothing more fervice-
able to the Church. However, it was Honorius his Suc-
ceffbr, that confirmed this new Order, by the Name of
Predicant Fryers, becaufe the Defign of their Inftitution,
was to preach againft Heretick^. They were likewife
called Dominicans, from their Founder, and in France,
Jacobins, from their firft Settlement in St. James's Street
in Paris. The Court of the Inquifition was committed to
the Dominicans, which made them famous for their Cruel-
ties upon the pretended Hereticks, of whom that Court is
Judge. They fettled in England in 1 3 17, fhortly after
their Inftitution.

The Order of Francifcans, founded by Francis de F>ar.
Afjifi, quickly followed that of the Dominicans. Innocent
III, approved of it in 121 5, but did not authentickly
confirm it. It was Honorius III, that eftablifhed it by a
Bull in 1223, and the next Year this Order fettled in
England. The Religious, who embraced this Rule, took,
out of Modefty, the Name of Minors, or Minorites, and
though, in time, they were divided into feveral Societies,
they all acknowledged Francis cTAj/ifi for their Head and
Founder. By their Rule, they were not to preach, or
take ConfeiTions in any Diocefe, without exprefs leave from
the Bifhop. But this Article was not long obferved by
them. They reprefented to the Pope, that Chriftians were
afhamed to confefs themfelves to their own Paftors.
That many fcrupled to do it, becaufe the Parifh- Priefts
themfelves were guilty of the Sins confefied to them.
In fine, that they had not the Difcretion to be fecret.
Upon this Foundation, they petitioned, for this part of
their Rule, a Difpenfation, which was readily granted

Thefe two Orders of Dominicans and Francifcans, Prtgrrfi <-/
acquired fo great a Character for Holinefs among the' fc ^ ""■
People, that there were but few Perfons, that had not °'
one of thefe Fryers for Director. Confequently, the
Alms they received were very confiderable. They had
moreover another Advantage, in that, for a long Space,
almoft all the Popes were chofen out of one or other of
thefe Orders. So that, by their credit at the Court of
Rome, they obtained very often Grants of what belonged
to other Orders, under colour that it was neceffary for
their Subfiftence. On the other hand, they heaped up
immenfe Riches, as well by the voluntary Gifts of the
Living, as by the Legacies and Grants extorted from the
Dying, by making them believe, nothing could contribute
more to their eternal Salvation. Mean time, as thefe two R u p ;cT! }..
Orders laboured with equal Ardour to ingrofs the Bene- i^ur.ibm.
factions of the Devout, and thereby became Rivals to one
another, a Jealoufy arofe between them, which was foon
followed by a molt fcandalous Quarrel, that was not eafily

In a Council at Rochejler, in 1244, a new Order off ■ -1 btar-
Fryers, called Crofs-Bearers, appeared and demanded leave mftxtaa
to fettle in England. Thefe produced a Bull from the '■ En 6' anii '
Pope, forbidding all Perfons to reproach them, and em-
powering them to excommunicate thofe, that ihould dare
to violate this Privilege. The Synod not thinking proper
to grant their Petition, they were fent away, on pretence,
that the licenfing them was a direct Breach upon the Ca-
nons of the late Council of Latcran.

(1) In the Statute of Merton, chap. IX. it is declared, that whoever is bom before Marriage is a Baftard. Upon this the B nVps replied, That it
was contrary to the Canons of the Church, and were very urgent with the Barons, to confent that fuch as were b rn before, Ihould be Legitimate as well
as thole bom after Marriage, the Church havine decreed it fo. But the Barons with one Voice amwered, That they wculd not confent that the Lams .f
tie Reaim Jhmld te changed.

No, 18. Vol. I.


I fhali



Vol. I.

John de


p. 1434-

Baldwin 'f






Hugh of

c. 1235.
p. 712.



AI. Wert.

iS, 229,

Walter of

Edmund of
M. Paris.

f. 3S6, 5 2 7

I fhall clofe this Abftract of the State of the Church,
With fome Remarks, on the celebrated Ecclefiafticks of
thofe days.

Johannes Sarisburienfis Native, and not Bifhop of
Salisbury, as fome have affirmed, was one of the Orna-
ments of the Church of England, for Learning, Polite-
nefs, and Regularity of Life. He was very intimate with
jidrianlV, who ufed to complain to him of the Weight
of the Papal Crown. However, the Bull which this
Pope gratified Henry II with, on account of the Conqueft
of Ireland, feems to fhew, he was not the moil: fcrupu-
Ious. 'John de Salisbury, who adhered to Thomas Becket,
and followed him into France, procured by his means
the Bifhoprick of Chartres. He wrote the Polycraticon,
or de Nugis Curialium ; a Collection of Letters ; and
feveral other inconfiderable Tracts. He died in 11 Si,
or 1 182.

I mail fay nothing hereof Thomas Becket, or of Stephen
Langton, Archbifhops of Canterbury, having fufficiently
fpoken of them elfewhere ( 1 ).

Balchvin Archbifhop of Canterbury, who attended Ri-
chard to the Holy-Land, where he died, palled for a good
Divine. Some of his Works, (till extant, fhew this Re-
putation not to be groundlefs. His great Conteft with the
Monks of St. Augujlin, who were grown very infolenr,
put him upon founding a Society of Regular Canons (2),
near Canterbury (■$), with defign to transfer to them by de-
grees the Privileges of the Monaftery of St. Augujlin. But
the Monks, having early knowledge of his Intent, made
fuch anlntereft at the Court of Rome, that the Archbifhop
was forced to delift from his Project.

Hugh Bifhop of Lincoln, a Native of Grenoble, was
one of the moil Pluftrious Prelates of the Church of Eng-
land, in the Reigns of Richard I, and King John. His
Virtue gained him great Reverence from the People of his
Diocefe, who were terribly afraid of being excommuni-
cated by him, becaufe they obferved, as they imagined,
that thofe who lay under his Cenfures, feldom failed of
being vifited with fome worldly Calamity. It is related,
as an Inftance of his Zeal and Refolution, that by his
own Authority, he ordered to be removed out of the
Church of Godjlnv in Oxfordjhire, the Tomb of Rofa-
mond, Miltrefs to Henry II, which flood in the middle
of the Quire (4), hung with black Velvet, and Wax
Tapers about it. Though he was told, the Tomb was
placed there by the King's Order, he thought it ought
not to be fuffered, faying, it was a fhameful thing, that
the Tomb of fuch a Woman fhould ftand in fo honorable
a Place. This Bifhop dying with the Reputation of a
Saint, was canonized by Honorius III, in 1221.

In the midft of King John's Conteft with the Pope,
one Alexander Cement arius a Clergyman, who had been
Profeflbr of Divinity at the Univerlity of Paris, publick-
ly preached, that the Pope had not Power to deprive
Kings of their Crown. This Freedom drew on him
the Indignation of the Court of Rome, who reduced him
at length to the Neceffity of begging his Bread from
door to door. Matthew Paris ftoutly inveighs againft
the Errors of this Doctor, though no one feemed more
convinced than this Hiftorian of the Pope's Abufe of
his Power, as he has plainly demonftrated in his Hif-

Walter de Gray, Archbifhop of York, was more famous
as a Statefman, than as a Bifhop. His Succeffors were
inriched by his Bounty in purchafing the Manor of
Thorp, and annexing it to his See. He built likewife at
London, a ftately Palace, which went by the Name of
Tori-Place; but was afterwards called IFhite-Hall(^).
Unfortunately, this Houfe which was for many Years a
Palace-Royal, was fome time fince burnt down to the

Edmund, who, from a Canon of Salisbury, was pro-
moted to the Archiepifcopal See of Canterbury, after the
Pope had annulled three Elections to make room for
him, was very commendable for his Moderation and re-
gular Life (6). He would have been glad to fee the Pope's
Power, which was then at the higheft, reduced within
due Bounds. But perceiving, as matters flood, fuch an

Attempt mud have proved unfuccefsful, he chofe rather
to give way to the Torrent, than withftand fo formidable
a Power, fupported moreover by the King's Authority.
However, to avoid the Blame of a bafe Compliance, he
retired into France, to the Monaftery of Pontigny, where
his Aufterities fhortened his days. He was canonized by
Pope Innocent IV, in 1216.

Richard Poor, Bifhop of Salisbury (7), and afterwards R!char<1
of Durham, is remarkable upon two accounts. Whilft Durham,
he was Bifhop of Sarum, he perfuaded the Inhabitants M. Paris.
to remove to a more advantagious Situation, where Sails- P- 43 3 *
bury now ftands. Here he laid the Foundation of a ftate-
ly Church, which was not finifhed till thirty Years af-
ter, and remains to this day. The fecond thing which
rendered this Prelate famous, was his Synodical Confti-
tutions for the ufe of the Church of Salisbury. They
are in all eighty feven, of which I fhall mention only
the XVth, which forbids the Priefts to take Money
for faying Mafs, and the XXXIVth, whereby it plainly
appears, that the Laity communicated at that time in both

Alexander Hales, born in GloceJlerJhire, a great Canonift, Alexander
and ftiled the Irrefragable Doilor, was Profellbr of Divi- Ha " :s •
nity in the Univerfity of Paris. Among his other Works,
he compofed fhort Notes on the whole Bible, and a Com-
mentary [in four Books] upon the Majlcr of the Sentences;
where, as the learned Du Pin obferves, he difcovers more
Skill in Logrck and Metaphyficks than in the Antiquities of
the Church.

Seuiald, Archbifhop of York, was an able Divine, and Cewa l» 1 "f
of an unblameable Life. He took Pattern by Edmund m™ Paris.
Archbifhop of Canterbury, his Mafter. He was fo angry p. 919, 956,
at the frequent Exactions of the Court of Rome, that he 9 6 9"
could not forbear writing a fharp Remonftrance to Pope
Alexander IV upon that Subject. Amongft other things
he told him, when Jefus Chri/l commiffioned St. Peter to
feed his Sheep, he did not give him Authority to flea them.
This Freedom, with his Refufal to admit certain Italians,
who came with Provifions from the Court of Rome, drew
on him the Difpleafure of Alexander, who at length ex-
communicated him. The Archbifhop upon his Death-bed,
complained bitterly of the Pope's Injuftice, appealing to
Heaven. Matthew Paris doubtlefs did not believe, this
Excommunication deprived Scwald of eternal Salvation,
fince he affirms, this Prelate wrought a Miracle in his
laft Sicknefs.

Robert Kilwarby, Archbifhop of Canterbury, was a very Kftwarby of
learned Prelate, for the Age he lived in. His Merit raifing w.Tift 1 ?'
him to the Dignity of Cardinal, he refigned his Archbi- p . i OQ s.'
fhoprick to live at Rome.

I fhall conclude what I have to fay, concerning the mod C r "ftefl of
noted Ecclefiafticks of thofe Days, with an Account of M? C par'is.
one of the moft eminent, I mean, Grojlejl Bifhop of Lin- p. 4-09.
coin. As there are feveral curious Particulars about him,
I fhall fpeak more fully of him, than of the reft.

Grojlejl was a Prelate of Refolution and Courage, nei-
ther to be gained by Court-Favours, nor frightned by the
Pope's Menaces ; Rocks which few Ecclefiafticks, in thofe
Days, knew how to avoid. He, being wholly intent upon
following, what appeared to him reafonable and juft,
without being fwayed by any confideration, little regarded
the Circumftances of the Time*, or the Quality of Per-
fons; and oppofed equally, the King's Will, and the Pope's
Pleafure, according as it happened. By this Steddinefs he
acquired a great Reputation among the People, long accuf-
tomed to fee the Bifhops ftoop to the King or the Pope.
It chanced one day, that he excommunicated the Sheriff,
for refufing to imprifon an excommunicated Perfon (8) AT. Paris.]
who contemned the Church's Cenfures. Henry III, very P - 777-
angry with the Bifhop, for not applying to him, to oblige
the Sheriff to execute the Canons, addreffed the Pope,
to fecure his Authority , a Remedy worfe than the Dif-

This Affair obliged Grojlejl to take a Journey to Rome, p- 779. *° ! -
where he was confirmed in his ill Opinion of the Court
of Rome. He could not fee without Indignation and
Concern, the belt Preferments in the Kingdom beftowed
on Italians, who neither relided on their Benefices, nor

(1) It was Beeiet that appointed Trinity-Sunday. Gtrvas. p. 13SS.

(2) Hoveden fays, Prebendaries, p. 637.

(3) At Hackingun, about half a IvMe from Canterbury. He had proceeded fo far as to build a magnificent Church, but was forced to demolilh it. This
Foundation was to be in Honour of Becket, and the Tenet Project was, to draw the Election of the Archbifhop from St. Augujlins to this new Convent.
Matter-, were adjufted, between him and the Pnoiy of St. Augujlin, in November 11S9. But he built a Church at Lambeth, and therein placed the Preben-
daries, he intended for his Monaftery at tlaekington. Hvutd. p. 637, 661, 062.

(4) Deforctfie High-Altar. Hwed. p. 712.

(5) This Houfe is faid to be firft built by Hugi de Burgh, Earl of Kent, and jiven to the Daninicans, of whom the Archbifhop bought it. When Cardinal
JVolfry fell, Henry VIII. feized and made a Palace-Royal of it.

(6) He was born at Abington in Bcrkjhire. His Father's Name was few'/ h Rid, and his Mother Mabel was reputed a Saint. He founded a School
in Oxford, and bred up under him many great Scholars. Uift. & Ar.tiq. of Qxf. 1. 2. p, q.

(7) He was firft Biflrop aiCbiebejier, then of Sahfbury. and at laft of Durham. M. Vara, p. 438.

(8) One Ralph a Clergyman, whom he had deprived for Incontinence, and aftenvaids excommunicated, for refufing to fubmit to the Sentence. The Sheriff
was Ralph's Friend.

und erflood

Book VIII.

77je Slate bf the Church.


underftood a Word of Englijh. His Grief to behold the
p. Si6. Church's Revenues devoured by thefe Harpies, caufing
him to refufe to inftitutc an Italian to one of the belt
Livings of his Diocefe, he was prefently after fufpended.
But, regardlefs of this Cenfure, he continued his Epifco-
pal Functions, his Flock being no more fcrupulous than
himfelf. He even refufed, at that very time, to admit of
new Provifions from the Pope in favour of other Italians.
He declared, that to entruft the Cure of Souls to fuch Pa-
ftors, was to act in the Name of the Devil rather than by
the Authority of God.

The Court of Rom< was unwilling then to make any
Noife, for fear of turning againft her the whole Clergy
of England, from whom (he reaped a plentiful Harveft.
For this rcafon, the Pope thought it beft to connive at the
Disobedience of this Prelate, who was of known Refolu-
M. Paris- tion, and in great Repute with the People. He chofe
t" 8i 5- rather to try to win him by fair means, in giving him
a Teftimony of his Efteem, by a Commiflion to reform
Id. p. 259. certain Abufes crept into the Monafteiies. Notwithstand-
ing this, Grofiejl foon after touched the Pope in a very
fenfible manner, by computing the yearly Sums drawn by
the beneficed Italians out of England, as was faid in an-
other Place. Innocent IV fat then in the Papal Chair. He
had beeen fo ufed to treat the Englijh with Haughtinefs,
that he could not hear of the Bifhop's Proceedings with-
out being extremely provoked. But as he durft not at-
tack him upon that account, becaufe what he had done
was univerlally approved, he fell upon him for refufing to
admit his Provifions, and fent him a menacing Letter,
which would have frightened any but him. Grojlejl re-
turned the Perfon, that was ordered to fend him the Let-
ter with certain Inftructions ( 1 ), a very bold Anfwer, of
which the Reader will not be difpleafed to fee the follow-
ing Extract.

M- Paris.

> 870.

" I defire your Prudence to take notice, that I am
" always ready to obey the Apoftolical Inftrudtions, and
" declare my felt an Enemy to whatever is repugnant
" thereto. For to both thefe things, I am bound by the
" Command of God. To apply this : The Apoftolical
" Inftruction (2) muft of neceffity be agreeable to the
" Doctrine of the Apoltles, and of our Saviour 'J ejus
" Chrijl, who is principally reprefented by the Pope.
" Since Jejus Chrijl has declared, he that is not with me
" is again/l me, the Sanctity of the Apoftolick See is
" fuch, that it can never appear in oppofition to our
" Lord. From hence it plainly follows, that the Letter
" in Queftion (3), is directly oppofite to an Apoftolical
" Character. Firft, becaufe of the Claufe Non-objlante,
" fo frequently made ufe of now-a-days, which has no-
" thing of natural Equity in it. On the contrary, it
" is certain, it introduces a Deluge of Mifchief, as it
" gives occafion to a great deal of Inconftancy and Breach
" of Faith. It fhakes the Foundations of mutual
" Truft, and makes Language and Writings of no Force
" or Significancy. In fine, it cannot be, but that the
'.' Purity of Religion, and the Peace of Society, muft
'' fufFer extremely, by fuch a ftretch of Apoftolical Au-
'* thority. In the fecond Place, next to the Sins of Lu-
'* cifer and Antichrift, there cannot be a greater Defec-
*' tion, or which carries with it a more direct oppofition
<c to the Doctrine of our Saviour and his Apoftles, than
*' to deftroy Souls, by depriving them of the paftoral
" Office. And yet it is evident, that thofe are guilty
c ' of this Sin, who undertake the facerdotal Function,
" and receive the Profits, without difcharging the Duty.
" For in the Scripture- Account, the Paftor who neg-
" lects his Flock, is a downright Murderer of the Shee,}.
" Can one help therefore conlidering as a moft flagrant
" Crime, a Conduct, which tends fo ftrongly to th?
" Deftruction of Truth and Virtue, and the Happinefs
" of Mankind ? If in moral Productions, the Caufe of
" Good is better than the Effect, it is juft the contrary
** in the Propagation of Vice, the Source and Original
" whereof are worfe than the Diforder, that flows from
" them. It is manifeft therefore, that thofe, who bring
" fuch unqualified Perfons into the Church, and by that
" means deftroy the Hierarchy, are moft to blame ;
" and their Crime rifes, in proportion to the Height of
" their Station. From hence I conclude, that the
" Apoftolical See, which has received i'o full an Autho-
" rity from our Saviour, for Edification, and not for

" Dejlruflion, ought not to countenance, much kU to
" command, fo horrid and pernicious a Prevarica
" To attempt any thing of this kind v
" torious Abufe, if not a Forfeiture of her Autl.
" It would be in effect, to ftray at a vaft Diftancc I
" the Throne of Glory, and to reprefent in a very iil man-
" ner the Perfon of our Saviour. Such Perfons m.
" faid rather to be placed in the Chaii jnce,

" and to fit upon the Bench, with the IX". il and A:i-
" tichrift. Neither can any Chriftian, w cs to

" continue in the Communion of the Church, and pays
" a due Regard to the Apoftolick Sec, com-

" mandsof this kind, though impofed by an Angel from
" Heaven. On the contrary, be ought to rebel, if I may
" call it fo, againft the Order, and oppofe it to the: ut-
*' moft of his Power. For tin's rcafon, fincc the In-
" ftrudtions above-mentioned are fo plain a Contradic-
" tion to the Catholick Faith, and the Sanctity of the
" Apoftolick See, my Duty obliges me to refufe them,
" and not to comply out of Dclerence to the Perfon,
" by whom they are fent. Neither can your Prudence
" juftly put any hardfhip upon me, becaufe, properly
" fpeaking, my Refufal ought not to be looked upon 33
" a Contumacy, but rather as a filial Refpect. For, to
" fum up all in a word, the Apoftolical Sec has it.
" Commiffion only for Edification, and not for Deftruc-
" tion, and the Plenitude of its Power ought not .to
" extend beyond what relates to Edification. But thefe
" Provifions, as they are called, have a manifeft Tcn-
" dency to Deftruction. Therefore, the Holy See can
" by no means allow fuch a Liberty : For, to conclude,
" thefe Practices are revealed by Flejli and Blood, which
" cannot inherit the Kingdom of Heaven, and not by the
" Father of our Lord J ejus Chrijl."

This Letter put Innocent into a terrible Rap-e. What ' IJ t" *1 U
fays he, has this old Dotard the Confidence to cenfure my
ConducJ ! By St. Peter and St. Paul, / will make him
fuch an Example, that the IVorld Jhall Jland amazed at
hisPuniJhment{±). His Paffion, however, was fomewhat
moderated by the Cardinals, who reprefented to him, the
ill Confequences of too great a Severity. That the Noife
he ftiould make on this occafion, would be prejudicial to
the Holy See, fince it would infallibly caufe the Englijh to
examine the Motives. That there was danger, that, as
they ftood affected to the Holy See, and to the Bifllop of
Lincoln, they would think it very ftrange, that a Prelate
of fo eftablifhed a Reputation, fhould be treated with
fuch Rigour. That, on the contrary, there was a Ne-
ceflity of carefully avoiding the giving occafion to enter
into the Examination of what he alledged to juftify his
Non-compliance ; and therefore, upon all thefe accounts,
it was moft advifable to take no notice at all of this in-
folent Letter. Though thefe Remonftrances moderated
the Effects of the Pope's Fury, they were not however
fufficient to appeafe him entirely. The Annals of Lancr- Al ?- ""'■■"'•

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