M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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cofi inform us, the Bifhop was excommunicated a little r " 3+1 "
before his Death, and, without regarding the Cenfure,
appealed to the Court of Heaven. This is farther confirmed
by the Report of feveral Hiftorians, who fay, that Innocent
moved in the Conclave, that the Body of Grojlejl fhould
be taken up and buried in the High-way, but that the Car-
dinals consented not to it. Be this as it will, if he was
excommunicated, he minded it not, but continued to dif-
charge his Functions ; neither were the Clergy of his Dio-
cefe more fcrupulous than their Bifhop, and obeved him
till the Day of his Death. The Bifhops his Brethren,
and the Monks themfelves, though great Sticklers to the
Pope, were not more apt to believe this Excommunication
had produced any great Effect. Some, who were prefent M- P"ii.
at his Death, affirmed, they were entertained with divine ? ' '"'
Mufick in the Air over the Houfe where he died. We
find likewife that in the Pontificate of Clement V, the
Dean and Chapter of St. Paul petitioned very earneftly
for the Canonization of Grojlejl, on account of feveral Mi-
racles wrought by him after his Death. But as he was not of Ar ;'
that fort of Saints wherewith the Court of Rome filled the ''-"i J 43 '
Calendar, their Petition was rejected. An inftanceofa Bifhop
dying under the Sentence of Excommunication, and yet pal-
ling for a Saint in the Country where he lived, is a Difficulty
which muft be left to be cleared by thofe whom it con-
cerns. I fhall onJy relate one circumftance more, which,
if not true, is, at leaft, a Proof of the great Opinion of



(1) Mattbpw Paris mentions not the Contents of the Brief, but only takes notice in general that the Eiihop looked upon the Inirructons the Pope had
fent him, tjo be unrealbnable as they ufualiy were, fays our Author, p. S70.
(i) By which are meant the Pope's Orders.

(3) Meaning the Pope's Brief.

(4) " For, continues the Pcpe, is not his Sovereign the King of Eng'.jrd our Vaffil ? Nay, is he not our Slave ? It is but therefore fignifying our
" Plealure to the Englijh Court, and this antiquated Prelate will be immediately impriioned, and put to what further Difjrace we mall think fit."
M, Pawi, p. 871,



th'n



35 6



lie HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



M. Paris,
p. S97.



this Prelate's Sanctity. An Hiftorian reports, that Grojlejl,
a little after his Death, appeared in his Robes to Inno-
cent IV, and ftriking him on the Side with his Crofter,
gave him a fevere Reprimand. He adds, that the Pope
was fo frightened at this Apparition, that he continued two
days without eating. I have nothing to fay concerning
the Truth of this Relation, but draw this Inference from
it, that though the Bifhop died excommunicated by the
Pope, and in Sentiments very oppoftte to thofe of the
Court of Rome, the Hiftorian for all that teftiried by this



Circumftance, that he believed him glorified in Heaven.
Grojlejl ( 1 ) wrote feveral Trafts. Amongft other Per-
formances he translated from the Greek into Latin, The
Tejlament of the twelve Patriarchs, a Copy of which one M - p * r!s -
John de Bafmgjloke, who met with it at Athens, put into F ' 597, 5 "
his hands. As to the time when the Original was writ-
ten, it is uncertain. Dr. Cave afllgns it to the latter end
of the fecond Century. Dodwell places it in the firft, and Gratx.
fome others believe it was compofed by fome Jew before
our Saviour's Death (2).



(1) He was bom at Stodbrooke in Suffolk j and died Olhher 8, 1153 M. Pans, p. 876.

(2) As to the Hiftonans who lived in thefe four Reigns, the mi.lt noted are:

Simeon of Durham, a Monk and Precentor of the Church of Durham, in the Year 1 164, one of the mod learned Men of his Age. He wrote,
befides other things, two Books, de Cefln Regum, which are not his Mafter. pieces, being only a few indigefted Collections, chiefly out of Florence of ' Worcejicr ,
whole verv Words he frequently copies. He begins where Bede left off, and goes as far as the 29th of Htnry I, 1 129. He is one of the X Scrip/ores, pub-
Iilhcd 1652, at London.

Henry Archdeacon of Huntingdon, flourifhed about the fame time ; whofe eight Books, concluding with the Reign ot King Stephen, were pub-
lished by Sir Henry Savil. He is a Follower of Bede, and has borrowed a great many Lies from Jeofjrey of Monmouth. He writes confuiedly, and reduces
the Tranfactions of the Heptarchy to the feveral Reigns of the Wejl-Saxon Kings, but has not adjufted them fo well as he ought to have done.

William of Newburoh, fo called from a Monaftery in TorkJSirc, whereof he was Member. His Hiftory begins at the Conjutjl, and ends at
the Year irg.7- He was a violent Perfecutor of Jeoffrey of Monmouth. His Latin Stile is preferred to that of Matt. Paris, and equalled with thofe of
Eadmer and Malm/bury by Dr. Watt*

Gervase, a Monk of Canterbury, wrote a Chronicle of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I, with Judgment enough, fays Bilhop Nicolfett.
It was published among the X Scriptores. Loud. 16 c2.

R-ctcer de Hoveden, Chaplain fome time to Henry II. He is charged with borrowing from Simeon of Durham, without acknowieging it, but,
as Biihop Ntcolfon cbferves, if he did, he has improved his Story, adding Years to many things confufedly related in that Author- There are in his Book
many Letters, Speeches, &c. relating to Ecckfiaftical Matters. He was Cotemporary with Gervafe, 1201. His Hiftory was puMilhtd by Sir Hi nry
Savil. Franef 1 60 1. ......

Ralph de Diceto Dean of London. He wrote about the Year 1210. His Abbreviations Chromeorum contain an Abftract of our Hiftory down
to the Conqueft ; and his Imagines Hifioriarum give the Portraitures of fome of our Kings more at length, ending with the firft Years of King John's Reign.
Mr. Selden praifes this Author and his Works, tho' Bilhop Nicolpn fays, he ufually copied ■verbatim out of other Writers. He is among the X Scriptures.

Walter, a Mnnk of Coventry, a clear and faithful Writer. He lived in Coventry in 12 17. He has fome few things of Note not to be met with
in Jeffrey of Monmouth, Hoveden, and Huntingdon, in his three Books of Chronicles, which are chiefly Collections from the laid Authors.

Matthew Paris, a Monk of St. Albans, one of the moft renowned Hiftcrians of this Kingdom. His Hijloria Major contains the Annals at large
of eight of our Kin"s, from William the Conqueror to Henry III. It was firft published at London 1571, and reprinted with Additions of various Readings,
&c. by Dr. Wats, London 1640, and fince 168c. From the Year 1259, wherein Matt. Pans died, to Henry Ill's Death, it was continued by William
Rijhanger, a Monk of the fame Fraternity. The whole Work manifefts a great deal of Candour and Exactnefs in the Author, who tells us fo particu-
larly of the brave Repulfes given by many of our Princes to the Uiurpations of the Roman See, that it is a Wonder how fuch an Heretical Hiftory came to
furvive thus long. A fair Copy of this Hiftory, fuppofed to be written by the Author's own Hand, is in the King's Library at S. James's. He wrote an
Abftracl of his Hiftory, which Lambard ftiles his Hijloria Minor, having in it feveral Particulars of Note omitted in his Hijloria Major. It is pretended,
that Paris had but a fmall Hand in the whole Hiftory, having begun only at the Year 1 13 5. the reft being done to his Hand by one Roger de Windltfhore,
or Wind/or, 'atdtWmdmtt Prior de Bealvair, as it is in the MS Copy in Cottons Library) one of his Predeceffors in the fame Monaftery.




THE






£€wj6




THE

HISTORY of ENGLAND.

BOOK IX.

The Reigns of Edward I. and Edward II; Containing the Space of Fifty Five

Tears.



9. E D W A R D I. (1) Simamed Long-
Shanks.




Ibe Burins
fame Feal
to Edward)

though abjtn

M. Weft.
An. W:

Walling



H E Death of Henry III, happen-
ing during the Abfence of his Son
Edward, who was to fucceed him,
feemed to offer the Male -contents a
favorable Opportunity to raife new
Troubles. However, it w*s not
attended with any ill Confequence.
Leice/ler's Party was fo humbled,
that they were no longer able to
look up. And though fome reftlefs Perfons had made ufe
of this juncture, to diflurb the Peace of the Kingdom,
the Nation's good Opinion of Edward, would have ren-
dered their Projects impracticable. This Prince fhined
with great Luftre, during the latter Part of his Fa-
ther's Reign. The Victory of Eveflxim, the Reduction
of the Ely Rebels, and his Clemency to them when re-
duced, were (till frefli in the Memory of the Eitglijh, and
filled them with Efteem and Admiration for his rare
Qualities. They did not doubt but he would employ all
his Talents, to reftore the Peace and Tranquillity of the
Kingdom, which had received fuch violent Shocks in the
two foregoing Reigns, fo that, far from being inclined
to favour the Malecontents, they fhewed an extreme Im-
patience to fee their new Sovereign, building on him
alone all the hopes of their future Happincfs. Though
,y Edivard was abient, and not even heard of, all the Ba-
rons with one accord fwore Fealty to him (z). At the



fame time they writ him a very refpectful and fubmiffive 1272^
Letter, inviting him to come with all fpeed, and take
pofleffion of tfie Throne of his Anceflors. Mean while,
they affembled at London (3), to commit the Regency of
the Kingdom to fuch as fhould be deemed the moft ca-
pable. Their Choice falling upon the Archbifhop of
York, and the Earls of Cornwall and Chejler (\), the Par-
liament, which met quickly after (;), confirmed all the
meafures taken for the Prefervation of the Peace of the
Kingdom (6).

This Parliament was compofed not only of the Lords An , Waverl*
Spiritual and Temporal, but alfo of the Knights of the
Shires, and Reprefentatives of the principal Cities and
Burroughs (7). The fame thing was practifed under the
Government of the Earl of Leuejler, during the late
King's Captivity. But thefe Aflemblies were not con-
vened by a lawful Authority. I Ihall not flay to examine
whether, before the Time I am now fpeaking of, the
Commons had a Right to fend Reprefentatives to Parlia-
ment. This is a Point full of Difficulties, and not yet
thoroughly cleared. I Ihall only fay, it can't be denied,
that they enjoyed this Privilege in the Reign of Edward I,
and from thence forward to this day, have preferved it
without Interruption.

Edward purfuing his Voyage, without knowing what Edward or.
palled in England, fafely arrived in Sicily; where he WSSriva ra
received by Charles of Anjou with all the Rcfpect due to Jjp



Weft.
Waiting.



fpearVng cf
stint Ad-



1. (1) This was in reality the fourth King of his Name, there having been three Edivardl in the time of the Saxons. For this Reafcn, i
this, and the two following Edwards, by the Name of Edward 1, II, III, it was ulual to add Pc/1 Con^utjlum, after tbt Cmauejl, but by dcgi
dition was emitted. Rapin.

(a) As linn is Henry was buried at Wcftmhfirr, Jabn Earl tif Pfarren, Gilbert Earl of Gloeefter, with the Clergy and Laity, Kent up to the High- Altar,
and fwore Fealty to his Son Edivard, Ncnjcmbtr ;o, M. tVtpm. p. 40I.

ordered a. new Seal to be made, M. iVejl. ibid. Ifalfingbam, p. 4.3.

tntagtnei, Earl of Ccrfiival, Son to Richard, Brother to chelate King Henry ITT j and Gilbert de Clare,
Earlof Glxtfler. M.Wefl. p. + ii.

(;) About the middle of January. Ann. Waverl. p. 1x6.
(6) They appointed Walter de Merton Chancellor. Am. If inter.', p. 4x7,

{-,', According to the AmiaU of {Poverty, this Parliament confifted of the Archbilhcps, Bifliops, Earls, and Barons, Abbots, and Pricrs, four Knights from
ever} ^hire, and four Reprefentatives from e~ch City, p. £27.

No. 18. Vol. I. X xxx .hi>



(;) The Nobility aiTcmbled at the New-Temple, and 01
(4) Walter Gijjord, Archbifhop of Tark 3 Edmund P tern



358



n& HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



1272-



his Rank and Merit. At MeJJina it was that he heard of
his Father's Death, for whom he appeared more concern-
ed than for hiseldeft Son Jo/m, the News of whofe Death
T. Wikcs. was brought at the fame time. From Sicil/be went to
Rome where he ftaid fome days, to vifit the new Pope,
who was his particular Friend, and had accompanied him
to Pale/line, in quality of Legate (r). After this, he took
tkhfr,/"" the road to France, and palled through Burgurdy (z).
at a Tmr- j± s fa had the Reputation of being a Prince of great Va-
mmat <" , our an( j Bravery, the Earl of Chalon, who valued him-
M.'weft. felf upon the fame Qualities, defired his prefence at a
Wailing Tournament which was to be in his Country, and even
Hemingford. fent him & fort of a Challenge. Though a King of Eng-
land might honourably decline entring the Lilts with an
Earl of Chahn, Edward accepted his Challenge without
hefitation. He was apptehenfive, no doubt, of injuring
his Reputation, in cafe he refufed. Neither could the
Pope's Letter, which his Holinefs fent him to divert him
from his purpofe, prevail with him. Some Hiftorians
pretend the Burgundians did not ufe all the fair Play re-
quifite on fuch Occafions. They tell us the Tournament
was turned into a real Fight, wheiein the Englijh had the
Advantage, and which was called, the little Battle of
Chahn.
He tilfiu the As Edward paffed through France, he thought he could
King of not difpenfe -with taking a turn to Paris, to pay a vifit
fromlbJc: t0 King Philip, who gave him a very honourable and civil
goes 10 Reception, and received his Homage for Guienne (3).
Gmenne. A f ter (j^ Edward cam e to Bourdeaux, where the Vaf-
Meztrai. fa's of that Duchy did him Homage. Some fay, that
Walfing Gajlon de Moncade, Vifcount of Beam, refilling to do Ho-
mage, was taken into Cuftody at Bourdeaux, where he
was come to meet the King. But though it be true, that
the Vifcount promifed not to leave the Court of Edward
without his Confent, it is certain, however, that this Dif-
ference with the King concerned not the Homage of Beam.
Aft. Pub. The Collection of the Publick Acls evidently fhews that the
U. p. 132. Difputewas about quite another Affair. It was decided at
Limoges by Accurjius a famous Civilian then in the Service
of the King (4).
T274. As foon as Edward had fettled his Affairs in Guienne,

He ami n in he came into England, where he was received with all
England, poilible Demon ftrations of Affection and Refpect, as having
craiumd. acquired frefh Merit by his late Expedition to Pale/line.
M. Weft. A few days after his Arrival (5) he was crowned, with
An Waverl P^ ancr n ' s Queen, in Prefence of Alexander III, King
Walung- of Scotland, the Duke of Bretagne, and all the Peers of
the Realm. Hiftorians tell us, that on occafion of this
Solemnity, five hundred Horfes were let loofe about the
Field, which were liberally given to fuch as could catch
them.
He finds The new King's firft care, after his Coronation, was

Cmmjffimtn to make ftrict Inquiry into the Affairs of the Kingdom (6).
Counties''* To that purpofe, he appointed Commiflioners to go
Pat. 2. through the feveral Counties, and take exact Informa •
Id. 1. M. 6. tj on concerning the Fees held of the Crown, and the
State they were in. They were likewife ordered to ex-
amine into, and punifh the Mifdemeanours of the Ma-
giftrates, who for fome time had but too much abufed
their Authority in oppreffing the Subjects. This firft
Step produced a wonderful Effect among the People. It
was plain, the King intended to govern in a very dif-
ferent manner from his Father and Grandfather, and
every one expected with Affurance the happy Fruits of
the Maxims he was following, to procure himfelf a peace-
able Reign. It was abfolutely neceffary for Edward, to
make himfelf efteemed and feared by his Subjects, that
no inteftine Troubles might obftruct the grand Defigns
tie def.gns to he was meditating. The firft, and that which chiefly
(bajtifi the poffeffed his Thoughts, was the chaftifing Lewellyn Prince
Wal» °f Wolti. This Prince had plainly difcovered, during
the late Troubles in England, how dangerous a Neigh-
bour he was, fince he was ever ready to countenance the
Englijh Malecontents. Had it not been for him, the Earl
of Leicejler would never have rifen to that heighth of



Power; neither would the Earl t&Giece/ler have-become 1 - 74.
fo formidable, without Leweifyn's AfSfcance, The Con-
duct of this Prince on thefe and feveral other occai
caufed Edward xo refolve, to put it out of his Enemy's
:i to hurt him. But the then Circumftances of the
Times and his Voyage to the Holy-Land, obliged him to
defer the Execution of his Project. Lewellyn was not ig-
norant of it. He confidered Edward as his ercateft Fee.
But his Precautions to fcreen himfelf from his Refentment,
had a quite contrary Effect, as they furnifhed the King
with a Pretence to attack him.

i have before obferved, that old Lewellyn, Grandfather ' 2 7J-
to this Prince, was become Vaffal and Tributary to '.-','/,''!; J
/ ; III, and that his Succeffor did Homage to the fame -.dtb v.'aks.
King for all Wales. Though the JVclfi) afterwards made
fome Struggles to throw off this Yoke, even to the of-
lering to fubmit to the Pope, they were never able to
fucceed. In fpite of the Troubles in England during the
late Reign, the Crown continued to reckon, among her
Vaffals, the Prince of Wales. Immediately after the Afl - pub -
Death of Henry III, and before the Return of Edward, B„ d p v - S a p .
Lewellyn was fummoned to appear and do Homage to No. 2.
the abfent King (7), but he regarded rot the Summons.
His Refufal was the Caufe that the new King, prefently
after his Arrival, ordered him to be fummoned a fecond
time, to do him Homage, and affift at his Coronation
as Vaffal. Lewellyn found Rcafons to be excufed. He
pretended, the Englijl) had not kept the late Treaty of
Peace, and had committed on his Frontiers feveral Out-
rages, for which he demanded Satisfaction. To remove
this Pretence, the King nominated Commiflioners to ad-
juft all things, and withal fummoned him again to ap-
pear and do Homage. This third Summons was no more
regarded than the former. Mean while, Lewellyn, being
informed, the Archbifhop of Canterbury was going to
excommunicate him and put his Tenitories under an
Interdict, writ to the Pope, to try to divert this Blow.
The means he ufed to gain the Court of Rome, were
fo effectual, that the Pope forbid the Archbifhop to act
againft him, as long as he offered to do Homage in his
own Country. Edward not being faticfied with thefe
Cavils, fent him a peremptory Summons, which the IVelJh
Prince thought fit to obey. He ftill infilled however upon T. Wik«.
the Place, pretending, he was obliged to do Homager- 10t -
only to the King in Perfon, and on the Borders of the
two Kingdoms. Edward readily confented to this. But
a fudden Illnefs feizing him as he was going to Shrews-
bury, caufed the Homage to be deferred to another time.
Afterwards Lewellyn repented of the Advances he had.
made. And from thenceforward nothing could prevail
with him to truft himfelf in the hands of a Monarch,
whom he looked upon as his fworn Enemy. After feveral
fruitlefs Summons, the King found at length, that a
more effectual Method mull be taken. However, as he
was willing to fettle the Affairs of the Kingdom, before
he made War upon his Neighbours, he was contented
with citing Lewellyn before the Parliament (8), which
was to meet the beginning of the next Year. The IVelJh
Prince appeared not. He alledged in excufe for his refu- Aft. Pub.
fal, that the King having fhewn on feveral occafions an ILfj,, 68 "
extreme Animofity to him, he could not truft his Perfon
with his declared Enemy. Neverthelefs he protefted, he
was ready to do him Homage in his own Country, if
the King would fend Commiflioners thither to receive it,
or elfe in fome third Place, where he might be without
Danger. He offered moreover to come into the King's
Territories, provided he would give him the Prince his
eldeft Son in Hoftage, the Earl of Glocejler, and
the High- Chancellor. So arrogant an Anfwer ferved
only to confirm Edward in his Refolution. He diflern-
bled however, that he might not interrupt the Seflions of
the Parliament, which was employed in affairs of great
Importance ; namely, in enacting excellent Laws, for
fecuring the Peace and Liberties of the People, as well as
the Immunities of the Church, and Privileges of the



(1) The Pop? granted Edward, for three Years, the Tenths of all the Clergy's Revenues in England, t. tVikes, p. 99. Ann. Wa-oerl p. 227.
(a) Where fome Englifn BinSops, Abbots, Earls, and Barons met him- M. Wcftm, p. 402. Walfittgb. p. 44-

(3) The Form of the Homage, according to .1/. Weft, was thus, " My Lord King, I do you Homage for all rhe Lands which I ought to hold of you."
p. 402.

(4) Whilft King Edward was in Guienne, fome Perfons in the North of England gathered together, to the Number of three hundred, and fpread a Report
about, That Edivard would never return to England ^ but Edmund the King's Brother, and Roger de Mortimer, all'emblcd fome Forces, and diiperfed them.
M. U'sftm. p. 403.

(5) He and his Queen landed in England, Juh 15, and were crowned Auguft 19. M. Wcftm. p. 407 T. Wikcs, p. 101. and Am. H r anjtr!. p. 229.

affirm, he landed in England, Auguft 2.

(6) He iffued out Writs of Enquiry by the Oaths of twelve legal Men, to two Commiflioners in every County to enquire, what his Royalties, and the
Liberties and Prerogatives of his Crown were, who were his Tenants in Capite, and military Service, and how many, and what Fees they held of him,
Of his Tenants in ancient Demefne, how they had behaved themielves, and in what Condition their Farms were: Of Sheriffs, Coroners, Efcheator?, Bailiifs
and their Clerks, whether they had extorted Money from any Man, by reafon of their Office, had wronged any ono, cr received Bribes for neglecting or being
'errriw in their Offices, Sfc. The whole Enquiry contained thirty four Articles. Patent 2. Edto. I. M- 6.

(7) A writ was directed, November 29. 1272, by IValter di Merton, thou Chancellor, to the Abbots of Dore and Hager.bam, to receive Lnuiltyn's Oa'h af
fealty. See Brady's Appendix, N. 2.

(*) Which was held at Wtftn-.inftsr , in the beginning of Afayt



Clergy.



Book IX.



9. EDWARD l.



127?- .
Sut'tei of
Weftmin-
(ter.

1276.
Jidwud
RfurAj tbe

!•<•»« /

Vain
Walling.

An. Wavei



Clergy. They Were Called, The Statutes of Wejlmin-

Jler(i).

When the Parliament hroke up, the King fenoufly
thought of the War, which he was refolvcil to carry in-
to Wales, to punifh the Difobedicnce of Lcwellyn. Whilft
he was making Preparations, fome Brijlol Men happened
to take a Vellel, in which was one of the Daughters of
the late Earl of Lcieeflcr, who was going to Leivellyn, to

■ whom flie was contra&cd. The Prince demanded his
Wife, and the King refufing to fend her, he perceived he
was to expert a War, and indeed as foon as Edward had
taken all his meafures, he convened the Peers of the
Realm (2), who pafled Judgment upon Lcwellyn, declaring
him guilty of Felony ; upon which the War was pro-
claimed (3). Lcwellyn was then forry he had pufhed mat-
ters fo far. To divert the impending Storm, lie humbly
fued for Peace, and withal entreated the King to reftore
him his Wife. Both his Requelts were denied, unlcfs



359



1 Z79.



to be feized in one day (7), that the Guilty might not
efcapc. Then, after a' ftrict Examina^pn, two hundred
and eighty (8), convicted of clipping and coining, or put-
ting oft" talfc Money, received Sentence of Death, and
were executed without mercy.

An Affair of another nature, but of no lefs Importance-"' 1 "' <f
to the Publick, furniihed the King with a frefh Oppor- %%%£jL
tunity to fhew his Refolution, to leform the Abufes intro- M.
duced into the Kingdom. The prodigious increafc of the ' ■ v -
Riches of the Clergy and Monaflerics, had been long a Kn: £ hton -
fubject of Complaint, without any one being able hi-
therto to find an effectual Remedy, to put a° fiop to a
thing fo prejudicial to the State. The Barons, who had
exacted from King John the Charter fo often mentioned,
had taken care to infert a Claufe, exprelly forbidding all
Perfons to alienate their Lands to the Church. But this
Prohibition, as well as feveral others, had not been well
oblerved. The Complaints upon this head were renew-



he would bind himfelf, to repair all the Damages done cd in the beginning of this Reign, wherein every one
to the Borders of England, during the late Wars ; a Con- thought he had rcafon to hope all Grievances would be



1277.

Edwnd

frejei

Lcwellyn



redreffed. It was demonftrated to the King, that 11



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