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procefs of time, all the Lands would be in the hands of
the Clergy, if people were ffill fuffered to alienate their
Eftates to the Church. And indeed, the Church never



dition, which he would not accept. The War therefore
was begun, but was not very vigoroufly purfued the firft
Campaign (4).

In the beginning of the next Spring, Edward aflem-
bling a great number of Forces, put himfelf at the head dying, always acquiring and never alienating, it could not
of his Army, and marched into the Enemies Country, be but that her Riches fliould incrtafe immenfeJv'i anu " ' n
Au.w.n-cr!. n e cau f e( j there a very large way to be cut through a vaft the end all the Lands of the Kingdom would be in her
Foreft, opening by that means a Paffage to the very Cen- hands. Edward having maturely confidered this Affair,
ter of Wales. Before he proceeded, he built the Caftles of fummoned the Parliament (9), and propofed the making a
Flint and Rbudhlan (5), which fecuted him an Entrance Law to reform this Abufe. The Propofal was received
a Retreat in cafe of Neceflity



at all times, and a Retreat in cafe of Neceflity. As
the Welfi were not able to withftand him, he advanced
farther, and drove them to the Mountain of Snowdon,
their ufual Refuge, when purfued by the Englijh. At the
fame time his Fleet attacked the Ifle of Anglefey, which
made but a faint Refrftance.
W'ii fubmhi Lcwellyn finding himfelf unable to oppofe fo formidable
%tZt an Enemy, was obliged humbly to fue for Peace, which
Walling. was granted but on very hard Terms. He was forced
iui. Wjverl. to promife to pay fifty thoufand Pounds Sterling, for the
Expences of the War. Moreover, Edward reftoring to
him the Ifle of Anglefey, it was agreed, that, for the fu-
ture, he fhould hold it of the Crown of England, paying
yearly a thoufand Marks. He promifed likewife to give
entire Satisfaction to his Brother David, who had fled for
Refuge to the King, and delivered Hoftages for the Per-



with Joy, and a Statute was made, whereby all Perfons
were forbid to difpofe of their Eftates to Societies, which
never die, without the King's exprefs Confent. This
Statute was called the Statute of Mortmain, becaufe it was
intended to prevent Eftates from falling into dead Hands,
that is, Hands of no Service to the King and the
Publick, without hopes of their ever changing their
Owners.

The Parliament which met the next Year (10), being 12 So.
defirous to redrefs another Abufe, unadvifedly gave birth r :' ^ ' "
to a greater. During the Troubles of trie two late ^.'^
Reigns, feveral Perfons appropriated to themfelves Lar.ds, An. v
which belonged not to them. The Crown it felf was a Heming •
Sufferer by this diforder. To remedy this Evil, and give
every one his own, the Parliament pafled an Act, in it
felt very juft. It imported, that all who were in pof-



ub.



I27
Act. 1 J
JI p. 91.
Edward re-
jlorcs tbe
H'fa Z cs.
Ibid, p 95.
Walling.
T. Wlkcs.



1279



formance of his Word. The Haughtinefs of the Pi ince of feflion of the conteftcd Eftates, fliould be obliged to fhew

Wales, being tamed by fo mortifying a Treaty, Edward

was contented for once with the Honour of the Victory.

He generoufly reftored the Hoftages, and forgave him the

Sums he was bound to pay. However, hecaufed a Grant

of the Ifle of Anglefey to be made to him, which never -

thelefs he was not to enjoy, unlefs Lcwellyn died without

Heirs. Then he delivered up the betrothed Lady, and

did him the Honour to aflift at his Nuptials. He created

alfo David, Brother of Lc wellyn, Earl of Denbigh, and to

attach him to the Interefts of England, gave him to Wife

a rich Englifi Heirefs (6).

The happy Iflue of the War with Wales was immedi



Iht em Ucm ately followed by Edward's Acquifition in France, of the
Earldom of Ponthieu and Montrevil, fallen to his Queen,
by the Death of her Mother, Queen of Cajlile, who was
in poiTeflion. But to obtain of the King of France the
Inveftiture of that Fief, he was obliged to confirm the
King his Father's Treaty, made whilft a Captive to the
Earl of Leiee/ier, and to renounce, like him, all Claim to
Anjou and Normandy. He referved however the yearly Rent
of thirty Pounds out of the Revenues of Normandy, appa-
rently as an Acknowledgment that it once belonged to his
Anceftors.

This Affair being ended, Edward ferioufly fet about
rectifying the Coin, which was very much altered and
adulterated, during the Troubles of the late Reign. Up-
on Information that the Jews were the chief Authors of
this Mifchief,



oj Ponthieu
Jaf'li to hirr..
M. Weft.
Walling.



M. Weft.



v T£e Jew:
pttnijbed f:r
« tipping an.
CBrfJfJg.

M. Weft.
T. Wikes.
WalCng.



he caufed all that were in the Kingdom



how they acquired them, and produce their Title before
the Judges, in order to be examined. This Statute,
from the Englifi Word Warrant, was ftiled £hto War-
ranto, as much as to fay, an Act which ferves for Foun-
dation or Security of the Pofieffion (1 1 ). So that the ^ua
Warranto, is properly a Right to demand of any Perfon,
by what Warrant, or Title, he holds the Eftate in dif-
pute. This Regulation was juft and neceflary : But the 7 » ' **• '."
King milled by ill Advice , and a Defrre of amafflng "jH" •
Money, made ufe of it, contrary to the Defign of the
Parliament, to opprefs his Subjects. As he was fenfible,
that among the great Numbers, who held their Lands of
the Crown, it could not be but that many had Lift their
Titles, he was refolved to take advantage of their Mif-
fortune, under colour of putting the Statute of £hto War-
ranto in execution. To that end he publifhed a Pro-
clamation, enjoining all Perfons that held Lands of the
Crown, to lay their Titles before the Judges of the Realm.
This Proclamation was looked upon as the Source of a
very great Grievance. And indeed thofe that were firft
attacked, and could not produce their original Titles,
though they proved a long Pofleflron, were forced to pay
large Sums to the King, to preferve their Eftates. This B:! - i *'/•$>
Grievance would have gone much farther, had not a &-
Stop been put to it by the Courage of the Earl of War-
ren. The Earl appearing before the Judges, was requir-
ed to fhew the fundamental Title, by virtue whereof he
held his Lands. He anfwered, by drawing an old rufty



(1) See them in Cote's id Jnftitute. p. 156, &V. This fame Year, about OlJoier 6. another Parliament was held it H'ejlminjler, in which Statutes
were made tor rcftrainir.g the cxceflive Uiuiy exacted by the y«w ; and it was alio cnacited, That they ftVuld wear a Badge upon their Clothes, in the

Shape of the two Tibles of Mollis Law About the 18th of the fame Menth, another Parliament met, which granted the King a Fifteenth upon the

Laity, by the common Con' nt of the Archbifhops, Bifhops, Earls, and Barons. Ann. Waver!, p. 230, 231.

(2) Or rather a Parliament, rtlVcJIrr.infitr, 3tter Eajter ; in which the Kir.g gave Directions for levying the Fifteenth upon the Clergy and Laity ; and
alfo iffued out his Ordeis, fcr the exact obiervance of the Charter of Liberties, and the Charter of Forefts. Ann. IVaverl. p. 231.

(3) And Edtvard lent three hundred Men towards Brijlol, Montgomery, and Cbejler, to flop the Incurfions of the IVcijh. Ann. H'ai-erl. p. 232.

(4) A Parliament was held at JVincbcJlcr, this Year in January. And another at WejlminjUr after Miebaelmas, wherein the Statute de bigamis was
made. Am. Wigorn.

(5) Rapin by miftake fays Rutland, whereas it was the C?ftle of Rbudhlan in Fiir.tjhire. This Caftle was built by Robert dc Rbudblan, Nephew of
Hugb Earl of Cbefler. The Caftle therefore was not built, but repaired by Ediuard I. Can-Jen in Ftintjb.

(6) Eleanor Daughter of Robert de Ferrars, Earl of Derby. This Year, about the middle of Oelober, King Edtvard held a Parliament at rVeJIminfter ;
where the King of Scotland came, and did him Homage. Ar.n. Waver!, p. 233. Kntglton. For this War in Wale:, King Edward ebtained a Twentieth.
Walfingb. p. 48.

(7) November 12. T. Wiket, p. 107.

(S) Of both Sexes, were executed in London ; befides great Numbers in other Parts of the Kingdom. M. Well. p. 409.
(9) At Welhnmfler in the beginning of November. Statutes at large.

f 10) The beginning of November, at London. In this Parliament the Clergy granted the King a Fifteenth for two Ye.'rs. 7- Wiiet, p. 1 10.
(11) It mull be obferved, that ths Statute of Quo Warranto was not palled till 18 Eehr. I. Thele here were Wriu cf Enquiry lifted out by the' Kins
after the Parliament was dilT.lved.

,-z Sword



360

uSo.



Tie H I SrO RY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



S vord out of the Scabbard, and faying to the Judges,
This is the Inflrument, by xvbich my Anetjhrs veined their
Ejlate, and by this I will keep it as long as I live (1). So
bold an Anfwer feemed likely to involve the Earl in
Trouble, but it had a quite contrary Effect. The King
found by it, how difficult it would be to exact upon the
Nobility, on fo fiivolous a pretence, without falling into
great Inconveniences. He faw plainly, there were ft ill
anion? the Barons, Perfons as ready to hazard All in de-
fence of their Rights and Properties, as thofe in the time
oi John and Henry III. Bolides, he thereby knew how
unjuft his Pietenfions appeared to the People, as indeed
they were. Thefe Con iterations inducing him to revoke
his Proclamation, the People exprefled their Joy in fuch
a manner, as plainly fhewed how much they relented this
Oppreffion. On the other hand, the King's Moderation
turned more to his Advantage, than his Injuftice had done
to his Injury. His Subjects blamed the Miniftry for what-
ever was odious in his Conduct, and afcribed to him the
Honour oi ieforming what was amifs by his Prudence.
What Glory foever this Prince had acquired by his Vic-
tories, his Conqueft over himfelf on this occahon, gained
him more Honour than all his warlike Exploits. It is
infinitely lefs glorious for a Sovereign to fubdue Provinces
and Kingdoms, which belong not to him, than to defift
voluntarily from a Pretention, which he difcovers to be
unjuft.

Thefe domeftick Employments were interrupted by the
Revolt of Lewellyn. This Prince, bearing with extreme
Impatience the Yoke of the Englijh, made a frefh. At-
tempt to free himfelf from it, but it ferved only to hurle
him down into Deftruction. Three things efpecially en-
gaged him in his Enterprife. The firft was, the reft-
lefs Temper oi his Brother David. What Care foever
Edward had taken to gain his Affection by feveral Fa-
vours, this Prince never cealed to excite his Brother to
take Arms, in order to free himfelf from Subjection. He
thought it his own Concern, becaufe, as Lewellyn had
no Children, he was his preemptive Succeffor. The fe-
cund thing that inclined Lewellyn to War, was a certain
Prophecy of the tamous Merlin. The IVeljh fancied to
fee in this Prediction, that Lewellyn was deftin'd to wear
the Crown of Brutus the firft King, as it was pre-
tended, of the whole Ifland of Albion. This Notion had
taken fo deep toot in their minds, and even in Lew-
e!i;:'s himfelf, that they built upon it, as on a fure
foundation. The third and only thing alledged by
Lewellyn, were certain Grievances, a Lift whereof he
delivered to the Archbifhop of Qanterbury, who was come
to perfuade him to Peace. If thefe Grievances, of which
an Hiftorian (2) has given us the Subllance, were real,
this Prince had certainly great reafon, to endeavour to
deliver himfelf from the Yoke laid upon him. But Ed-
ward refufed to hearken to his Complaints. This hard
Ufage convinced Lewellyn, that a vigorous Defence was
the only means to free him from a Subjection deemed by
him a real Slavery. He took up Arms therefore to fhake
! oft* this galling Yoke, and fuipriling the Lord Clifford,
the King's General, on the Frontiers (3), flew feveral
of liis Men, and took him Prifoner. Then, penetrating
farther into the Englijh Territories, he committed great
Ravages, and defeated the Earls of Northumberland and
', who were fent into thofe Parts to flop his
Progi

It was a great mortification to Edward, that his Troops
fiioukl fuffer themselves to be beaten by the JFelflj. How-
ever, in hopes of being more fortunate himfelf, he drew
together a numerous Army to go once more and tame
the Fiercenefs of Lewellyn (5J. Whilft his Troops were
on the march towards the Borders of Wales, he paid a
Vifit to the Queen his Mother, who was retired to the
, ■ - . Nunnery of Ambresbury. This Princefs, prepoffefled in
favour of the late King her Husband, fhewed her Son a
" ; - Man, who pretended to receive his Sight at the Tomb,
s " and by the laterceflion, of Henry III. She imagined



1281.

IVar mil

Wa.CS.



Wa'fing.



M. Vert.



Walfing.

I'. \\ el's
Chron.
T. V».k«.



M. Weft.
An- V< avei
T. V .kit.
Walfti g.



Edward

, a . '
;', .'

Wclfh.
t. w;fc«.

M. Weft.

„.



vailing.
1282.



doubtlefs, the King would be pleafeJ with it; but was tcSt,
very much furprized to hear him fay, He was fo well
periiiaded of his Father's Juftice and Probity, that he did
not queftion but had it been in his Power, he would
rather have deprived the Impoftor of, than reftored him
to, his Sight (6).

Edward making but a fliort ftay with the Queen his
Mother, went and headed his Army. He entered Wales
without any oppofition, Lewellyn being retired to the
Mountain of Snuwdcn, in a Poft that could not be at-
tacked. Not difcouraged by this obftacle', Edward re-
folved to inveft his Enemy, by fecuring all the Avenues,
through which he might make his Efcape. Nothing
could more exprefs his great defire to fucceed in his Un-
dertaking, than a Project of this Nature, which none of
his Predeceffors had ever ventured to attempt. To that M. w*
purpofe, after fortifying all the Pofts, he caufed a Bridge Wal '»*
of Boats to be made over the River Alenay, oppofite to
Banger, in order to fend fome Troops likewife into the
Ifle of Angle fey. After that, forfeeing, the Blockade
would hold long, he left it to the management of Roger
Mortimer, and waited the Iffue in the Caftle of Rhudhlan
built during the late War. Polled as Lewellyn was, he
would doubtlefs have tired the Patience of his Enemies,
if an unexpected Accident had not induced him to de-
prive himfelf of that Advantage. Some of the Englijh T. Wikes.
that were in Anglcfey, patting the Bridge above-mention-
ed, in order to view the Country, were attacked by
the IFeljh, and fo clofely purfued, that the greateft part
were flain or drowned in endeavouring to regain the
Ifland (7). This fmall Advantage made Lewellyn ima-
gine Heaven began to declare in his favour, and Mer-
lin's Prophecy was going to be accomplished. Full of Lewellyn
this flattering Idea, he defcends into the Plain, to fight"'"'''?'"./*"*
the Englijh, not confidering the Inequality of his Forces. '^ ^^
But he quickly found how groundlefs his Expectations T. Wikes.
were, fince in the Battle wherein he ralhly engaged, he Walling,
was flain on the fpot (8), after feeing his Army intirely
routed. In his Pocket were found fome Letters in Cy- Aa . Pl]b>
pher, bv which it appeared, that he had great Friends in 11. P . 114.
England; but Edward did not thirffc fit to make a ftrict
Inquifition. However, to ftrike a Terror into thofe that Hl! ^ ca f
were engaged with this Prince, he commanded his Head,/;-: upon tin
crowned with Ivy, to be expofed to view on the Walls r " w ^' K
of the Tower of London. Hence might be gathered, ^^htooi
what Subjects were to expect from the King's Severity,
fince a Sovereign Prince was treated in that manner.

Such was the end of Lewellyn, defeended from Rhcde-
rick the Great, of whom I have fpoken elfewhere, and
from one of the moft antient Royal Families in Europe.
With him expired the Liberty of his Nation. The Edward be-
Wclfi, difcouraged by their Prince's Death and Defeat, ama'l/ifm
being no longer able to refift, Edward eafily became '^."wilcesT"
matter of their whole Country ; which he diftributed, Waiting,
for the moft part, among his Officers and Courtiers,
referving to himfelf only the Sovereignty and fortified
Places (9).

Some time after, David, Brother of Lewellyn, roving H< puts Di-
ftill up and down the Country, had the misfortune to be v;d >, Lewel-
taken by the Englijh, and fent to Rhudhlan, where the j""/ „""
King ftill remained. In vain did he earneftly beg the Death.
Favour of cafting himfelf at his Feet to implore his ^ 1 '.Y tfl '
Mercy. As he was the laft of his Family, Edward was Arfwaver".
willing to fecure his Conqueft by the Death of that Prince.
Purfuant to this Refolution, he ordered him to be con-
ducted to Shrewsbury, where by the Advice of the Par-
liament, called upon that occafion (ro), he was condemned
to die the Death of a Traytor. This rigorous Sentence was Aet. Pub.
executed, with all the Circumftances attending that infa- II. p. *74"
mous Punifhment. His Head was fixed near that of the
Prince his Brother, and his four Quarters were fent to York,
Brijhl, Northampton, and Wincbefter (it).

Edward's Severity to this Prince is related by all the
Hiftonans, without- any Cenfure. And yet it is an Acti-
on that can hardly be excufed. Suppofing the Rigour



His Anfwer was, " My Ancefton coming in with William the Ballard, won thefe Lands by the Swcrd, and by the Sword will I defend them
; Chat \*:il rake them away J for that King did not conquer for himfelf alone, neither did my Anceltors alhft him for that end." Tyrret,
, from ford, Chr. Abing.

(2) They are in Powe/fs Chronicle of Welti, p. 338 371. See a full Account of them in Tyrret, Vol. IV. p. 35, &c.

{",) Inthe Caftis of Hartvardeti. rValfmgb. p. 49.

-at this time no Earl of Nortbumberhnd. The Earl of Surry was Jsbn Plant agenct.
(5) He fummoned a Council of h.s Nobility, or a Parliament, to meet him 'June 24. at Wcreefier, and to be ready to attend h'm with their Horfes and
Arms Augvjl 29. And perceiving this War was like to continue long, that he might be nearer his Civil, as well as Military Affair;, he removed his Courts
of Juftice from Wcflmin/ier to Sbrnejbury. M. Wrjl. p. 411. Crtat Numbers of foreign Troops came out of Cafcogtte to his Affiftance, ibid. An.
.'."./,'. p. 233. T. Wikes, p. no.
(•) This Year th: Clergy and People granted the King a Fifteenth, and afterwards the thirtieth Part of their Gocds. Aim. tVaverl. p. 235.
(7) T. Wikes lays, that above three hundred Men at Arms, under the Conduct of the Lord William Latimer, and Lucas de Tbmy, Ccmmander of the
1 n , vculd needs pais over the Bridge, before it was quite finifhed, to fhtw their Valour: But as loon as the Tide came in. and h'.d Hewed
1. nd hat erd of the Bridge which was mar the Continent, the Weltb came ruftiing upon them. There were flain and drowned no lefs than fifteen
,' . thirty two a i; tires, and about a theuland common Soldiers. Th.s Defeat happened on the 6th of Scvembtr. Ann. It'i^ntn.
(Sj By one Stephen de FranSon, near Latidweyr in Buelt, Dcccmb- 11. CLron. Abm^don. Dr. Pew/el.
19) Hebiilt the Caftle af Abercmrtbiy, at the Foot of Smwdon-hi/l. M.Weft. p. 4.11. Ann. Waverl. p. 238.

:• %Wika, p. irr. Walfingb. p. 51. The Vv'r.ts of Summons are ftill e tant up, n Record; the firft of which is to the Lords,
el the King at Sbre-A-sbury, en Septembei 30. The fecond Writ is directed to the Sheriffs of every County in England, to caule to be cholcn two*
K 1 - '. t . 1: , the Commonalty vt' the fame County ; as alio a third Writ directed to feveral Cities and Boroughs j and a fourth Writ to the Juftices. ivW.
Wailirt. 1 Edw. I. M. 2 Dors.

(i ij This is the. hrit Example of thi.s manner of Execution done upon Traitors, which has been cemmenly continued,

7 of



Book IX.



9. E D W A R D I.



361



1*83.



of the law authorifed a fentcnCc of death, was it not very
barbarous to execute a Prince of a royal family, in a man-
ner tiil then unufuai with regard to perfons of diltinguilh-
ed birth? What would not thefe fame hiltorians have
(aid, if a King of Franc,-, after taking in fight a Brother
of tile King of England, had ordered him to be ignomi-
nioufly hung on a Gibbet? Or if, finding the body of the
King himfelf flain in battle, had caufed his head to be
placed on the walls of the Bajlile?
Wak-siwiV«i After thus fecuring the pofleflion of the principality of
■; England. ff g J eSt Edward fought means to prevent all accidents,
that might occafion its lots. The annexing that country



Willi.



to-bed of a Prince (4), called Edward, and firnamed of 1284

Caernarvon, the place of his birth. It is faid further,

that immediately after the Queen's delivery, he convened

the States of Ifr 'alts, and declared to them his refolution,

to give them a Prince born in their country, and who

could not fpeak a word of Englijh : Then he nominated

to them the Prince his Son, juft born at Caernarvon. But " ;'

other writers not Co credulous, confidering doubtlcfs thi . '

circumitance as a puerility, have thought fit to pafs it
over in filence (5). And indeed, it was only a poor equi-
vocation, little capable of fatisfying the ll'cljh, and not at
all agreeable to the character of Edward. Befldes, it i



vcrl-



to the crown of England, was what feemed niott proper certain, the young Prince was not inverted 'till the yea;



to that end. Accordingly, he fummoncd a parliament,
where it was refolved, that Wales mould be infeparably
united to the crown. Thus the Weljh, thofe fmall re-
mains of the ancient Britons, lolt at length their liberty,
after preferving it in that little corner of the Ifland, above
■ ■ight hundred years. Surely, they cannot, without inju-
11 ice, be denied the commendations due to the refolution,
wherewith they had hitherto defended their country. De-
ilitutcj of all fuccours, without foreign alliances, and with-
out a naval power, they had flood their ground againft
the Kings of England, Saxons and Normans, who had
almoft all attempted to i'ubdue them with forces vaftly fu-
pt-rior. It is true, they were often obliged to pay tribute
to the Englijh monarchs : But however, they remained
all along a dillimfl nation, governed by their own laws.
It was not by their valour alone that they preferved their
liberty, but alfo by their policy, in dexteroufly fomenting
the dillentions of their neighbours, 'till at laft, the time
appointed for their lofing that moft valuable bleiling, hap-



1301, with the Principality of Wales, being then feven-
teen years of age (6).

The conquelt of Wales, and the univerfal eftcem the
King was in among his fubjc<£ts, procuring England a
profound tranquillity, what palled in the kingdom 'till tile
war with Scotland, is of no great concern : And therefore,
I fha.ll /lightly pafs over the domeftick affairs, contenting
myfelf with briefly relating fome of the principal circum-
ftances (7).

We find in the year 1285, the King took away the 1:85V
charter of London, and turned out the Mayor, becaufe he - r ''-•<<-
fuftered himfelf to be bribed by the Bakers, and put in an- Gi "<""
other by his own authority (S). But quickly after, the
city found means to recover their charter, by making the
King a prefent.

This year the King called a parliament, which made M. Weft,
fome additions to the ancient Statutes, by the name of the T '



F2S 4 .

Death of
Alphonfus,
San to tbt
Xing.

.Art. Pub.
II. p. 175.
II. p. lS.



fecond Statute ofJFeJlminJler (9). Wolfing''" '

In the year 1286, Edward ordered all the Jews in the 1286.

pencd in the reign of Edward I. It may, however, be kingdom to be feized, upon one and the fame day (10). 1~heIG*ggets

{aid, that if amends can be made for fuch a lofs, they had The Commons granted him ( 1 1 ) a fubfidy of the fiftieth/"™ : \ -!' "

rcafon to be eafy, fince they became one and the fame part of their moveables, to expell the kingdom all fuch T* Wil

nation with their conquerors. From that time they have foreigners as were a burden to the nation. He promifed Knight

all along enjoyed the lame laws and privileges, which ren- it; but after obtaining the fubfidv, he granted them a de-

der the people of England the happiefl nation under the lay, which was dearly purchafed (12).
Sun (1). About the middle of the fame year, three important II' z«-. .•■.-.-

The fatisfaftion Edward received from the conqueft of affairs called Edward into France, where he continued £j a wlft

Wales, was immediately followed by a great affliction, above three years. As in the mean time, nothing very Waiting,

caufed by the death of Jlphonfus his Son (?.). He was a remarkable palled in England, I fliall only relate the af- M*ly> '/



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 152 of 360)