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his affairs, was, probably, the" caufe of his death on the
6th offline 1:8;. He left for fucceflor Charles II, his
Son, firnamed The Lame, prifoner in Spain, to whom
the Arragonians gave only the title of Prince of Salerno
during his captivity.

Neither the death of Charles, nor the lofs of the battle
of Naples, were capable of diverting Philip from his pro-
jects. In the month of May, that very year, he headed
his troops, confilting of fourfcore thoufand foot, and
twenty thoufand hor/e, and (though he heard in his
march of the death of the King his Brother,) entered
Rouffillon and became matter of Perpignan. Then he ad-
vanced into Catalonia, where, after feveral conquefts, he
laid fiege to Gironne. The King of Arragon attacking
a convoy going from Rozcs to the fiege, was hurt in the
skirmifh, and died three months after of his wounds.
He left Arragon and Catalonia to Prince Alphonfo his eldett
Son, and Sicily to 'James his fecond Son, on condition
that, if Alphonfo died without heirs, James fhould fuccccd
in Arragon, and relign Sicily to Frederic his younger Bro-

The King of France's fuccefles in the beginning of the
war, did not latt to the end of the campain. Roger Lau-
ria attacking the French fleet, deftroyed all the fhips, ex-
cept a few that sfcaped to Rozcs. On the other hand,
the ficknefs in Philip's army, retarded his progrefs by
land. In fine, being himfelf feized with the contagion,
he was carried to Perpignan, where he ended his days on
the 6th ofOilobcr. Philip IV, his Son, firnamed the Fair,
was his fucceflor. Honorius IV, was now chofen in the
room of Martin IV, who died this fame year.

Such was the Irate of the affairs between the Houfes
of An agon and Anjou, when Edward accepting the u
tion offered him by both parties, undertook to adjuft their
difference. The main difficulty of this negotiation con-
lifted, in freeing the Prince of Salerno out of the hands 01'
the King of Arragon, without which it was impoffible to
procure a peace. Edward took great pains to fucceed.
He had upon that occafion feveral interviews with Al-
phonfo. Alezerai affirms, he even went to Sicily to talk

3 6 c


Ibid. p. 252,

M. Weft.



Edward is

. < rit
A. g> ;

:i ar.d
Sici \ .
M. Weft.
T. Wikes.

(1) Eecaufe the Bull which rjng to Evening Prayers was made th>- Signal.

{*.) Sec the Extract of Volume II, ef the Pubiick Acts of England, in the Siil tafUiCl ifit of Mr. Li Clerc, Tern. XX. p. 53. where this AfTair is
Hilly difcufled, and the King of Arrag<:n\ Conduit juftified. £./•■ ■

Hilly difcuMed, and the King of Arrag<:n\ Conduit juftified. Rjpi 1
(3) W'lpIIIj who vnis then alive. Rap



The H I S r RT of ENGLAND. Vol. I.


Aft- P'-ib.

H. p. n*-

M. Weft.
An- Waver!

|2 88.
Art. Pub.


p- 3a"

P- 37*-

lb. p. 435,
45°, +55-

return: to
T. Wikcs.
An. Wavcrl


with King Jama : But the hiftory mentions not this
voyage. In fcort, at a conference between him and
Alphonfo at Oleron in Beam, they fettled the terms on
which the Prince of Salerno was to be releafed, and for
which, as far as concerned the ranfom, Edward confent-
ed to be feciuity. After this, the articles of agreement
were confirmed, by a treaty concluded at Campo Franco
the fourth of Oclober 128S. Nicholas IV, fucceflbr to
Hcnorius, ftrongly oppofed the execution of the treaty.
He thought it too advantageous for the King of Arragon,
and too difhonorable for the Holy See ; becaufe the Prince
ol \ Salerno, without consulting him, had obliged himfelf to
caufe the Earl of Valois to renounce the kingdom of Ar-
ragon. This oppofition railed frefh difficulties: But they
were at length furmountc-d by the prudence and pains of
Edward, who acled as mediator with great impartiality.
To facilitate the execution of the treaty, he was willing
to give Englifl) hoftages to the King of Arragon, and to
caule the principal cities of Guienne to interpofe as pledges,
Alphonfo doing the fame thing with regard to the principal
cities of his dominions.

In confequence of this agreement, the Prince of Saler-
no was fet at liberty, leaving his Sons in hoftage. It
feemed, this affair which was in fo good a way, would
quickly be ended; the main obftacle being removed by
that Prince's liberty, who was bound by the molt folemn
oaths. But he performed nothing of what he had fworn.
He not only caufed himfelf to be crowned King of the
two Sicilies by the Pope, contrary to the exprefs terms of
the treaty; but alfo did his utmoft to confirm the Earl of
Valois in the refolution to profecute his pretended right to
the kingdom of Arragon. When he thought his affairs in
good order, he feigned a willingnefs to return to impri-
fonment, as he was obliged, in cafe he performed not the
articles of the treaty. For that purpofe, he repaired to a
certain place where the King of Arragon was to receive
him, and exchange him for the Princes his Sons ; but
came fo well attended, that Alphonfo did not think fit to
venture upon his fincerity. This occalioned mutual com-
plaints, reproaches and apologies ; each party applying to
the King of England, as mediator and guarantee ol the
treaty. Edward, in all appearance, being tired with
acting in favour of thefe Princes, who fo ill anfwered all
his pains, left them to decide their difference as they plea-
fed, without concerning himfelf any farther. But not to
leave the reader in fufpence how this difpute ended, I fhall
add in two words, that, after long negotiations, mixed
with many hoftilities, the two Princes adjufted their quar-
rel by a treaty. The Prince of Salerno, called Charles the
Lame, kept Sicily on this fide the Faro, which from thence-
forth began to be diftinguifhed by the name of the king-
dom of Naples ; and the Houfe of Arragon remained in
poffeffion of the Ifland of Sicily. The Earl of Valois re-
nounced alfo his pretenfions to the kingdom of Arragon

After flaying above three years beyond Sea, Edward
returned into England in Augujl 1 289 (2). His firft care,
immediately after his return, was to reform feveral abules
introduced in his abfence, particularly in the administra-
tion of juflice (3). Upon complaints from all hands,
that the Judges fliffered themfelves to be corrupted with
bribes, he itrictly examined into their conduct, and fe-
verely punifhed the guilty. Of this number was [Sir
Thomas IVeyland] the chief Jufticiary (4), or firft Judge,
who was banifhed the realm, and his eftate confifcated
(5). Thefe mifdemeanours, which were but too fre-

quent, gave the King occafion to oblige the Judges to fwear, 1 289.
that for the future they would take neither money nor
prefent of any kind, except only a breakfaft, which they
might accept, provided there was no excefs. A hiftorian
affirms, the King got above a hundred thoufand Marks
by the confifcation of the eftates of thofe that had been
faulty (6)'.

In the beginning of the year 1290, Edward convened 129c,
a parliament (7), where the Statute of ll'tjiminjlcr, the p< ( Jews
Third {H), was enacted, and the banifhment (9) of the £™^
Jews was ablulutely refolved. The nation had long de- T. Wikea.
fired it, but the Jews ftill found means to divert the Walfing.
blow, by prefents to the King and his minifters. They Kn 'Z ht0 *-
would fain have ufed the fame method now, but could
not prevail ; the King being unable to protect them any
longer without difobliging the parliament. Their im-
moveable goods were confifcated, but they had leave to
carry away the reft with them. It is the general opinion,
that they began to fettle in the kingdom in the reign of
William the Conqueror ; but fome believe their fettlement
more ancient. At firft their number was fmall, but, by
degrees, they increaied to fifteen thoufand. Their money
procured them feveral confiderable privileges, confirmed
by Edward himfelf, as a fynagogue at London, a head of
their religion, being a fort of High-Prieft ( 1 o), and Judges
of their own nation to hear and determine their differen-
ces. They loft all thefe advantages, by not being able to
curb their infatiable greedinefs of enriching themfelves by
unlawful means, as ufury, adulteration of the coin, and
the like, which muft render the praclifers odious. As for
the imputation of crucifying, from time to time, Chri-
ftian Children, one may almoft be fure it was only a ca-
lumny invented by their enemies (11).

We are now come to the grand affair of the reign o{ The Affairs
Edward I, I mean, the conqueft of Scotland ; of which °/ Scotiand-
it is extremely difficult, not to (ay impoffible, to fpeak in
a fatisfadlory manner to the Englijh and Scots. Though
the two nations almoft agree in the faiSts, and the occafion
of this conqueft, they widely differ however as to the
right. If we believe the Englijh, Edward did nothino-
on this occafion, but what was agreeable to reafon and
juftice. The Scots, on the contrary, pretend, he was led
by ambition alone to take advantage of the troubles of
Scotland, in order to become mafter of the kingdom on
frivolous pretences. Though feveral centuries are paffed
fince this event, hiftorians have not been yet able to lay
afide their national prejudices. The Eng/ijli ftill confider
Edward I. as a great Prince, employing his arms only in
maintaining the juftice of his caufe. The Scots fpeak of
him as a tyrant, vowing the deftruc/tion of their nation ;
and, contrary to all manner of right, intent upon fatisfy-
ing his ambition, in uniting all the people of Great Bri-
tain under his dominion. As I am not engaged in either
party by birth or any other motive, I flatter myfelf with
having impartially examined this affair, and produced
from the Collection of the Puhlick Ails fuch light, as may
ferve to give a jufl notion of the thing. To this end, it
will be neceffary to be fomewhat particular, as it is the
only poffible means to difpel the prejudices, which help to
darken the affair.

Alexander 111, King of Scotland, married, as was faid ^„„„ c
elfewhere, Margaret Daughter of Henry III, King of the Difputct
England, and Silter of Edward. He had by her three i"" 'J"

At r\ ■ ; 1 njr r\ • Succelhcn to

children, Alexander, David, and Margaret. David died tbcCsmvn <f
an infant, and Margaret was married to Eric King of Scotland.
Norway, in 128 1. It was agreed in the Maniage-Con-

(1) A Parliament was held at London, in February 1288, wherein John de Kirby, Lord Trcafurer, demanded, by the King's Order, as he faid, an Aid
for the King's Charges in France. But the Parliament anfwered, by the Earl ot Clocefier, their Spokefman, that they would grant nothing, unlefs they
f.uv the King perfunally prefent. Whereupon, the Treafurer impofed a Tallage on the Cities, Burroughs, and the King's Demefns. 7. Jt'ika, p. 1 17.

(2) Augujl 12. and, inftead of coming to London, went into Norfolk and Suffolk. 'J. Wikes, p. I 18.

(3) This was done in the Parliament mentioned a few Lines lower. Set 7. Wikes, p. 118. Am. Waver'., p. 241.

(4) Of the King's Bench. 7. Wikes, p. 118.

(5) The King punifhed thus feverely, not only the Juftices of the King's Bench, but alfo the Juftices of the Jews, and of the Forefts, the Forcflers,
Sheriffs, Stewards of Manors, and all other Delinquents. T. Wikes, p. J 1 9.

(6) Sir Ralph de Hengham, Chief luftice of the higher Bench, was fined feven thoufand Marks ; Sir John Ltmttot , Juftice of the lower Bench, three
thoufand Marks ; Sir William Braml'cn, Juftice, the like Sum ; Sir Solomon Rochefler, Juftice of Allizes, four thoufand Marks ; Sir Richard de Borland,
lour thoufand Marks; Sir -Thomas Scddmgton, two thoufand Marks ; Sir Waller Hcpton, two thoufand Marks : The four Lift were Juftices itinerant. Sir
William de Sabam, three thoufand Marks ; Robert Littlebitry , Mafler of the Rolls, a thoufand Maiks ; Roger LeiccJIcr, a thoufand Marks ; Henry Bray,
Efcheater, and Judge for the Jcivs, a thoufand Marks ; and Adam de Stretton, a Clerk of the Court, was fined no lcls than thirty-two thoufand Marks
of new Money, befides Jewels, and Silver Plate. Chron. de Dunjlable MSS. 7. Wiles, p. I iS. The Juftices of the King's Bench being thus turned out,
were fuccceded by John de Mctmgham, and Ellas de Bebmgham, Clerks ; and William de Gcfelham, and Robert de Hertford. Knights. 7. Wikis, p. 121.

(7) On January 14. 7. Wites, p. 118. The Writs, Returns, and Indentures of this Parliament arc extant, and ol all, a muft, fince; except from
the 17th of Edward IV, to the lft of Edward VI. See Mr. Prynn's Bre-via Parliamentaria Rediiiva, and the learned Mr. Brown Willis's Notitra Par-

(8) Otherwife called (from the firft Words of it) Siuia Emptcres Terrarum, becaufe it chiefly related to Purchafcrs of Lands held by Knight's Service.

(9) Sir Edward Coke fays, they were not banifhed ; but their Ufury was banifhed by the Statute de Judaifmo, enartcd in this Parliament ; and that was
the Caufe that they banifhed themfelves into toreign Countries, where they might live by their Ufury ; and becaufe they were very cdious to the Nation,
that they might pafs out ot the Realm in Safety, they made Petition to the King, that a certain Day might be prefixed for them to depart the Realm,
that they might have the King's Writ to his Sheriff's, for their Safe-conduct. Coke's 2d lnftitute, p. 507. See one of thele Writs there. But Mr. Tyrrel
obferves, that though this account is very probable, yet there is no good authority for it, p. 60. Many of the Jews took fhipping in the River Thames,
in a Veffel belonging to one of the Cinque-Ports, and were by the wicked Mafter and Seamen, not only plundered of all the)- had left, but were alfo cru-
elly thrown over-board, which, when the King heard, he caufed many of thofe inhuman Mariners to lie hanged. T.Wikcs, p. 122.

(10) See the Charter whereby King John granted them one, in Sir Edward Coke's 2d lnftitute, p. 50S.

(11) Sec a large Account ot the Jr.11, in the Coin-Note at the end of the Reign of Henry III Frcm the 17th of December, in the fiftieth Year of

Henry HI, till the Tuejday in Shrovetide, the fecund Year ot Edward I, which was about leven Years, the Crown had four hundred and twenty thoufand

Pounds, fifteen Shillings and four-pence from the Jeivs. Coke's 2d lnftitute, p. 506. This Year, Ma-ch 30, died John di K-.rkcby, BifiVpof Ely,

Treafurer of the Exchequer; and was fucceeded by William de Marthe. 7. Wikes, p. 120, m.


Look XI.



1-290. tract, that if Prince Alexander dial without heirs, and the
King his Father left no ifi'ue Male, Margaret fhould ftic-
ceed to the crown of Scotland, and her children enjoy the
fame right, in cafe fhe died before the King her Father.
Shortly after Alexander lofing liij only Son of- the fame
name, and the Queen of Norway his daughter being like-
wife dead, after bringing into the world a daughter called
Margeret, that Prince refolved to perforin the agreement
above-mentioned. For that purpofe he obliged the Scotch
Barons to fwear, that in cafe he died without Male-Heirs,
they would acknowledge the young Princefs of Norway,
Alcx.mdrr for their Queen. Alexander lived but about two years
HI. Jiti. a f tcl . ] lav j n g t ] lus fettled the fucceffion, his death, oc-
T Wikes.' c.ifioned by a fall from his Horfc, happening in the year

Margaret of When the Scots loft their King, they chofe fix regents
Norway ac- to govern the kingdom, 'till the Princefs of Norway, who
kawlcijtl was at mo fi- i, ut tnree years old, was capable of holding
Scotland. the reins of the government. I do not find in the hiito-
Bucharun. ries of England, or Scotland, why the Scots were three or
Waiting. j- QUr y ears [, e f ore they demanded their Queen, or why
Eric her Father neglected to fend her over. It was not
'till 1289, after Edward's return into England, that Eric
fent ambaffadors for that purpofe. Ed-ward being Mar-
garet's Great-uncle, Eric thought he could not do belter
than ask his advice and affiftance, to place the young Prin-
Aft. Pub. cefs on the throne of Scotland. Immediately after this
11. p. 4+5. ambally, Edward wrote to the regents of Scotland, ftre-
nuoufly recommending the intercfts of young Margaret,
and acquainting them withal, that he defigned to fend
ambaffadors to fettle certain affairs relating to the welfare
and tranquillity of Scotland (2). But the regents thought
it more proper, to fend themfelves plenipotentiaries into
England, to adjuft with the ambaffadors of Norway, in
the pretence of Edward, whatever concerned the interefts
lb 44.6. °^ Scotland. However, they took care to infert this
claufe in the credentials of their Envoys, Saving the ho-
nour and liberty of the kingdom. The Bifhops of St. An-
drews and Glafcow (3), were commimoned to tranfact
this affair.

Though hiftorians have neglccled to clear the difficulties
concerning the coming of Margaret into Scotland, they
were evidently very great. This appears, as well from
the time fince the death of King Alexander, as from the
precaution taken, in affembling at Salisbury the plenipo-
tentiaries of Edward, Eric, and the Scots, to fettle toge-
ther whatever related to the reception of that Princefs.
lb. p. 448. ^ n tn ' s aflbmbly it was agreed, the young Queen fhould
be fent into England, iree from any Marriage-Engage-
ment. Edward promised on his part to take care of
her edtication, 'till Scotland fhould be in perfect tran-
[,y quillity, and in a condition to receive her. Moreover he

gave his word, not to fuffer her to be contracted in
marriage, provided the Scots would not take any ftep to
that end, without his and the King of Norway's con-
„. , It was not without reafon that Edward caufed this laft


pnfofa the article to be inferted in the agreement. Since the death
Marnage of f the King of Scotland, he had been forming the pro-
MargarcT." J e< -* °^ urnt ' n g tn e two kingdoms of Great-Bi itain, by
Aft. Puli. his Son's marriage with Margaret. Nay, he had alrea-
11. p. 450. dy demanded and obtained a difpenfation from the court
of Rome, though he had not thought proper to difcover
fo early his intention. But after taking the foremen-
tioned meafures, he caufed the marriage to be propofed
lie Regents t0 tne re g ents - This propofal being examined, in a
tmfnttnit. council confifting of all the great Men of the king-
lb. p. 471. dom, it was unanimoufiy refolved to agree to it (1).
But it was upon certain terms, which they were to lay
before the firft Parliament aflembled in England. There
were upon this occafion feveral negotiations, the particu-
lars whereof would be needlcfs. It fuffices to fay, tiiat the
commiffioners of the two Nations meeting at Bingham (5),
agreed upon feveral articles, the chief whereof, with rc-
Ipect to die fequel, were as follows :

7b Terms ^ The Plenipotentiaries of Edward promifed in his
of the Mai- name, that he would inviolably keep the Laws, Liber-
yiage. ties, and Cuftoms of the Kingdom of Scotland, in all

11^ n. 482. tr| i n g s and in all times, throughout the whole Realm,

with all its Marches.

II. That in cafe either Edward the Son, or Margaret

his future Spoufe, fhould happen to die without any

Children by their marriage, and in all Cafes or Event-:, ik) .
whereby fjio kingdom of Scotland fhould fall to the next
heir, it fhould be reltored to the people of Scotland, free,
independent, and without any fubjection, laving however
the rights of the King of England to the crown of Scot-
land, in cafe it devolved to him, or his heirs, by a law
ful fucceffion.

III. That the kingdom of Scotland, fhould remain fe-
parated, divided, and free in itfelf, without any fubjection
to, or dependance on, England; faving to the King of
England, and his fucceflbrs, his right to certain Lands in
the P'rontiers, or elfewhere, before the time of this agree-
ment, or any right he fhould lawfully acquire hen after.

IV. No perfon holding Lands in fee ei the King of
Scotland, fhould be obliged to profecute any fuit out of
the kingdom, according to the cultom hitherto obferved.

V. That all the Subjects of the crown of Scotland,
fhould enjoy the fame privilege, according to antieiit

VI. That all Records, Charters, and Privileges, or
other memorials concerning the royal dignity, and the
kingdom of Scotland, fhould be depofitcd in a place of
fafety, and not carried out of the realm, under the feals
of certain Lords, till the Queen fhould come into the
kingdom, and have children.

VII. That there fhould be made no fubjection, aliena-
tion, or obligation, of any thing relating to the kingdom
of Scotland, till the Queen fhould be there in perfon, and
have children alive.

VIII. That no Parliament fhould be held out of the

Thefe precautions dcmonflrate, how far the Scots were
from believing in thofe days, that the kingdom of Scot-
land was dependant on England.

Thefe and feveral other articles, which I pafs over in 7 ,, ■;-.._
filence, being approved and ratified, the marriage was riage is ton-
concluded and refolved, to the general fatisfaclion of both dud ' d -
nations. Edward began from thenceforward to take as
it were poffeffion of Scotland for the Prince his Son, by f, & ' P !jh
fending thither the Bifhop of Durham, who, jointly with
the fix regents, was intruded with the admhiiftration of
affairs, in the name of young Edward and Margaret.
No one queftioned but the two kingdoms of Great-Bi Lain Aft. Pub.
were going to be united by means of this marriage, when n - £ ' o 9 -
fuddenly and unexpectedly all hopes of an union vanifhed.
Edward received a Letter from the Bifhop of St. An-
drews, acquainting him with the report of Queen Mar-
garet's death ; and that fome Scotch Lords (6) upon the
news, began to ftir in the profecution of their pretended
rights to the crown. The Bifhop intreated him withal,
to advance towards the Frontiers, to prevent by his pre-
fence the commotions, which the Queen's death, if
found true, would caufe in the kingdom. The report, ,, ^ ,
fpread of her death, was but too well grounded. The death.
Princefs, whom the King her Father promifed to fend in- Buchanan,
to England before the month of Oclober, failed according-
ly from Norway, and died in a certain Ifland (-), where
fhe was driven by ftrefs of weather.

As foon as this news reached Scotland, it occafioned ex-
traordinary commotions, which threw the kingdom into
a more wretched condition than ever. The late King, who
took care to caufe the Great Men to fwear to acknowledge
Margaret of Norway for Queen, neglected to fettle the fuc-
ceffion, in cafe that Princefs died without heirs. The choice
of a fuccefibr was therefore very perplexing, and become
more fo every day, by reafon of the factions formed in fa-
vour of the pretenders to the crown. Never was union
among the Great Men more neceflary. But private inte-
relt {lining the love of their country, every one proceeded
according as he was engaged, either by Family-ties, or
other motives, without troubling himfelf, whether right
was on the fide to which his inclination attached him.

Among the pretenders to the crown, John Bsliol and ,. _ j. j
Robert Bruce divided almoft all the fuffrages of the king- ar ,d Robert'
dom. The firft held large pofleffions in France, in the Bruce, ?>e-
province of Normandy. The other had a confiderable ''"' '"'.■
eftatc in England, and both were very powerful in Scot- Scotland.
land, where their alliances procured them great credit.
For the better underftanding the grounds of their Titles,
it will be neceflary to take a view of the Genealogy of
the Royal Family of Scotland, of which I am going to
give a fhort explanation.

(1) On the 19th of March. Heel. Bccth. p. 191.

(2) This Letter is dated at Clarendon, Ncmeinb. 6. Rymer's Fxdera, Tom. II

(3) Together with the Lord Robert Bruce, the Lord of Anandale, and John Comyn

(4) This Refolutionisdatcdat Bnggeham in Afrit. Rymtr's Fatdtra, Tom. II. p

(5) July IS. Ibid, p. 484.

(6) The Lord Robert de Bruce, and the Earls of Marr and Atbal. Ibid. p. 1090.

(7) The He of Orkney, fays M. Well. p. 414.

p. 445.

. Ibid.

p. 446.



Vol. I.





\ r oI. I.


Dav'td King of Scotland had but one Son named Hen


Gmahg'yof who dying before him, left three Sons, viz. Malcolm IV,

lie Royal
F. mily of

them, or that for the future, upon any account whatever, 1290.
they Jhould be obliged to come and treat ivith him on this fide

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