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will fancy, no doubt, what I have been faying is injurious
to the glory of that Prince, or the grandeur of England 1
but I hope, they who arc let's prejudiced will do mc more
juftice. It is time now to return to the hiflory, and
fhew the fatal edicts of Edward's ambition to both king-

It the defire of reigning had caufed Baliol to acl con- '20}.
trary to the intereft of Scotland, Edward's eagernefs to Edward'i
eftabliflj his fovereignty over that kingdom, made him f J "^ v *"
commit errors, deftructive of his own real interelts, as~u>«rd,tbt
well as of thofe of England. On much the fame occafion """ K "* '/
Pope Innocent III was very careful, not to let the Englijh r Cjlhni '
feel too foon the weight of his fovereignty, acquired by
King John's resignation. He inured them to his yoke by
degrees, and inlenfibly, for fear of alarming them too
much. But Ed-ward took a quite contrary courfe with
the Scots. Hardly was he poflefled of his fo much defired
fovereignty, but he made his Vaflals feel the whole. w
of it; and this rigor produced not the effect (* peeled.
Far from conducing to keep that nation in (ubjedion, it
ferved only to excite their endeavours to free themfelves
from it (3).

Before Edward left Newcaflle, an opportunity offered A< ~*' Pu!> *
to cxercife his new right, which he failed not to embrace. ' p ' ' S '
A townfman ot Benvici complaining to him of an injury
done him, as he pretended, by Ibme Englijh commiffio-
ners fent into Scotland, Edward ordeicd the affaii to be
tried in England, by his Judges. The council of Scotland,
looking upon this proceeding as a breach of the King of
England's promifes, fent fome of their members to rcpre-
fent to him, that he had engaged, that the pleas of things
done in the kingdom fhuuid not be drawn out ot it.
Edward thought this rcmonltrance very unreasonable. He
replied, That the affair was of fuch a nature, that he
could not permit it to be tried any where but in his own
courts; fince it belonged not to Vafials, to punifh the
mifdemeanors of thofe lhat reprefented the peiion of the
Sovereign. If he had flopped there, the Scots might have
flattered themfelves, that this partka.;.i cafe would not be
brought into precedent. But the Kinj intention was Aa- Pub.
otherwife. To prevent the like con j. for the fu- "• p ' ' 9 ' -

ture, he fent to the council of Scotland the . ing de- mfa^bat

claration : That if, during the vacancy of the 1.. ne, he^ebad
had made the Scots any fuch temporary promifes, h badg""' i,le
punctually obferved them ; but did not intend to le rt/i. u-
ed by fuch promifes, now there was a King in Scotland ;
and would admit and hear all complaints, and all bufnefs
concerning that kingdom, where and ivhen he plcafed. He
repeated this declaration, fome days after, in his own
chamber, before Baliol, and a great number of Lords of
both nations : Adding, He would call the King ijf Scotland
himfelf to appear in England, whenever he thought conve-
nient. The warmth wherewith he ("poke, flopped the
mouth of Baliol, who, being in his power, thought it not
proper to make any anfwer. But he did not come offfo.
Two days after he was forced to renounce, by Letters Baliol «rffe
Patents, for himfelf and fuccetlbrs, all the promifc, ■'■'"/'•
conceffions, and ratifications made by the King of Ibid '
England, during the vacancy of the throne of Scotland ; '' :
and to approve whatever Edward had done during that
time. In return for this renunciation, Edward gave P . 601.
him a writing, whereby he acknowledged, he had no
other right to the kingdom of Scot/and^but that of ho-
mage. Moreover, he promifed for himfelf and fuccef-
fors, not to claim the wardfhip and marriage of young

This firft ftep of Edward was fufficient to convince
the Scots, of his refolution to ftretch his prerogative to
the utmoft. But it was not long before he gave them
more fubftantial proofs. A merchant of Gafcogne (a)
prcfented a petition to him fetting forth, that Alcxan- r-
tier III, late King of Scotland, was indebted to him in
a certain Sum (5), ftill due to him, notwithftanding all
his follicitations to the new King for payment: That
therefore he applied to him, as fovereign of the Kin" of

(1) In his Parliament held .it Wtflminfler, 1292. Symtr'sFad. T. II. p. 600.

(2) And yet one would be apt to think, luch was his Defign, by his uniting the two Kingdoms, which he did, or attempted to do, as app
following Writ. Quia Regna Anglia; & Scotia?, ratione fuperioris Dominii, quod in eodem Re^no Scotia optinemus benedicio Altiilimo funt
Mandatum eft Juftiuariis de Banco, quudBrevia Regis, coram eis porrccla ye] retornata, dedata dicrum 6c locorum, infra idtm regnum Scor.:
ncm facientia de cajtero admittant ; Exceptions, fi quas, de hujufinodi datis & locis, prcponi contigerit coram eis nhUatenui Uoeantcs. Tell
Berewicum fitper Twcdam tertia die Juiii. Ibid. p. 533.

(3) This Year a Parliament was held at London, about a Month after Ecfitr. T.Wikcs, p. 125.
(4.) John Majon. Rymer's Fad. Tom. II. p. 605.

(5) Tv.v tho.iland, one hundred, ninety-ieven Pounds, eight Shillings, Sterling. Ibid.

N ^- Vol. I. 5 Jj £., /Wi

ars by the
c njunchi,
:, mentic-
e regp apud



Firft Sum*
mons %

Aft. Pub.
II. p. 605.

Second Sum-

f , 6o5.

Third Sum-


p. 60S.

Fourth Sum-

Fifth Sum-

P . 615.

Sixth Sun,
nuns, in

p. 631.

Baliol ap-
pears before
the Fariia-
ment of
p. 1 54, ®c.
I. viii.



Scotland, for juftice. Edward eagerly embracing this op-
portunity of exercifing his right, fummoned the King of
Scotland to appear at IVcJhninjhr the morrow after JJcen-
fton-day, to anfwer in perfon the complaints brought
againft him by the merchant. This firft fummons bears
date the 8th of March (1), about two months after Ed-
ward's, departure from Newcajile.

Eight days after, he fent a fecond fummons to Baliol,
upon the following occafion. Whilft he was ttill at Ber-
wick, he had ordered the Regents of Scotland to put Mac-
ditff'Earl of Fife, in pofleffion of certain Lands claimed
by that Earl (:). Thefe orders had been executed before
Baliors coronation, whilft Edward was Hill matter of
Scotland. In the firft Parliament held by the new King
at Scone, the Earl of Fife was accufed of unjuftly taking
pofleffion of thefe Lands, the cuttody whereof belonged
to the King. This was properly accufing him of an af-
fected over-haftinefs, in applying to the King of England,
and of not flaying till there was a King on the throne of
Scotland. Upon this charge, the Parliament ordered him
to be imprifoned. Some time after, the Earl being re-
leafcd, carried his complaints to Edward ; and thereupon
the King of Scotland was again fummoned to appear be-
fore Edward, wherever he fhould be, the day after Tri-

The 1 5 th of June following, the King took a frefh oc-
cafion to fummon Baliol upon another account. Whilft
he was at Newca/lle, he had ordered (3) Walter de Hun-
ttrcombe, governor of the Ifle of Man, to put Baliol in
pofleffion of the Ifle, which was accordingly done. Short-
ly after, a Lady named Aujlrica, claiming that Ifle, de-
manded it of the King of Scotland ; and her demand be-
ing rejected, fhe complained to Edward. Upon her com-
. plaint, Baliol was again fummoned to appear in perfon,
fifteen days after Alichaelmas, in whatever place (4) the
King fhould then be. Moreover, Edward ordered the
Sheriff of Northumberland to notify this fummons to the
King of Scotland himfelf, before witnefs.

A few months after Baliol received another fummons,
the occafion whereof was this. David King of Scotland
had formeriy granted to the Mor.aftery of Reading, in
England, a certain Priory (5), held of the Bifhoprick of
St. Andmvs. Afterwards this Priory was alienated by the
Abbot of Pleading, to the Bifhop of St. Andrews. The
fucceflbr of this Abbot, willing to recover the Priory,
pretended, the alienation was made againft the confent
of the majority of the Monks, and thereupon prefented a
petition to the King. The Bifhop being informed of it,
appealed to the Pope, and his appeal was admitted by the
Court of Scotland. Upon the complaints made to Ed-
ivard by the Abbot of Reading, about admitting the ap-
peal, Baliol was again fummoned to appear in perfon,
fifteen days after the Feaft of St. Martin.

A year after, Edward took occafion to treat this Prince
in the fame haughty manner, by commanding him to ap-
pear before him to anfwer for himfelf, for denying juftice
to the Bifhop of Durham, in an affair concerning his Dio-
cefe (6).

So many different fummons, upon fuch flight occafions,
and upon the bare complaints of private perfons, made
the new King of Scotland perceive, that he was become
rather the Slave than Vaflal of the King of England.
However, as he had taken no meafures to throw off the
yoke, he durft not but appear, to anfwer to thefe feveral
accufations. Buchanan pretends, it was by accident
that Baliol happened to be prefent in the Parliament of
England (7), when the Earl of Fife brought his complaints
againft him : but others affirm, it was in obedience to
the fummons. Be this as it will, he was accufed before
the Parliament, of denying juftice to and imprifoning the

T.ar\ of Fife. He Would have anfwered by a Prc&or, but ; :Qi.
was not permitted, and fo was obliged to ftand at the
bar like a private perfon. This was a great mortification
for a crowned head ; but Edward was bent upon hum-
bling him, and making the Scots fee! the whole weight of
their dependence. Baliol being thus coilttrained to anfwer Kyle; .
in perfon, alledged, as the accufation entered againft him
concerned his crown, he could not anfwer to it, without
firft advifing with his Subjects. His excufe not being
deemed valid, the Parliament ordered, that three of his
principal Caftles fhould be ieized into the King's hands<
till he gave full fatisfa&ion. The Englijh authors affirm,
that before this fentence was pronounced, Baliol prefented
a petition, acknowledging the fovereignty of the King of
England over Scotland, and praying Edivard to allow
him time to confult his Parliament. As foon as he had Ryley, ibid,
ftooped fo low as to petition, his demand was granted,
and a certain day (8) was affigned him to appear. He
withdrew, incenfed to the laft degree at the affront he had
received, and bent upon trying all means to free himfelf
from fo intolerable a yoke (9).

The war which broke out at the fame time, between T2o$.
France and England, put Baliol in hopes of a favourable Baliol maka
jun&ure to free him.'elf from the fubjection he was un- '"^Manec
der. And indeed it was likely, he would have leifuie to Act. Pab. Ce
take all neceflary meafures to compafs his ends, \w,,hr i:. p- ■ io,
Edward was emplo} ed in that war. A private quarrel 695 &9S '
betu en fome Englijh and French mariners, was the occa-
fion of this rupture. At the fame time, it gave the
K:ng of France a pretence to fummon Edivard before the
court of Peere, and an opportunity to feize Guienne by a
ftratagem, the particulars whereof will be feen hereafter.
Before the war was proclaimed, Edward endeavoured by
way of negotiation, to recover that Duchy from the
King of France (10). But Philip, who was not ignorant
of the King of Scotland's defigns, prolonged matters till
that Prince declared his intentions. During the negotia- ,, ... .
tion, Baliol lent ambaffadors ( 1 1 ) to France, on pretence p. 42:, 427,
of renewing the ancient alliance between the two nati- A ^- Pub -
ons : But his real defign was to enter into a ftricf: uni- ' p ' 97 *
on with Philip, by the marriage of his Son Edward
with a Daughter of tiie Earl of Palots, Brother to that
Monarch. How privately foever this negotiation was
carried on, Edivard had intelligence that fome plot was
contriving againft him at Paris. Accordingly, to prevent Aa , Pub
the King of Scotland's defigns, he demanded of him the II. p. 652.
Catties of Berwick, fedburgh, and Roxborough (12), pro-
mifmg to reftore them as foon as matters were adjulfcd
with France. But without rejecting entirely this de-
mand, Baliol found means to gain time (1 3), whilft he
continued to take meafures to throw off" the yoke of the
Englijh. When his ambaffadors had concluded with
France the propofed League, he thought it time to declare.
He was ttrongly follicited to it by Philip, who, knowing
Edward was preparing for war, was defnous to raife him
troubles at home, that might binder him from thinking
on means to recover Guienne. Baliol had been long in
fufpence, on account of his oath to the King of England.
But to remove this fcruple, Philip procured him the
Pope's difpenfation. So finding himfelf fecure from the „ _ .„
Church's cenfures, which were then very formidable, pmftsioittT
and having no further uneafinefs on account of his oath, E j iol'j
he thought nothing fhould any lousier retard him. Edward, 2f h ',, .
furpnled at this resolution, which quickly came to his Knighton,
knowledge, formed the defign of relinquishing his affairs
in France, and employing his preparations againtt Scotland.
He confidered that Baliol's revolt gave him a plaufibie
pretence to make himfelf matter of that kingdom, the
conquett whereof would be of much greater importance
than Guienne. Initead therefore of embarking his army

(I) AtK*Sy. Rymers Feed. II. p. 606. {z) Rerys mi Crey. Ibid.
(3) "January 5. Ibid. p. 602. (4) In England. Ibid. p. 60S.

(5) ThatofMiy, in the Diocel'e of St. Andrew's. Ibid. p. 61;.

(6) For refuting to deliver to hira the Towns of Berwick and Hadmgton. Ibid. p. 632.

(7) This Parliament was held at Micbaetmafs. See Ryley, p. 158. There was another held this Year at Wcflminftcr, after Whitsuntide j \vh"rein a
Relolut ion was taken to recover Guienne by force of Arms ; and John Baliol, King ot Scotland, granted King Edward the Revenues of his paternal
Eftate in England for three Years, towards defraying the Charges of that War. The Earls and great Men of £ng land promilld alfo to contribute libe-
rally towards the fame. M. JVeJl. p. 421. This Year alfo, injuly, King Edivard caufed all the Monafteries to be fearched, and ordered the Money

that had been collected and depolited there, for the Holy War, to be feized and applied to the War in Guienne. T. (flies, p. 126. In the mean time,
his Fleet lay at Portsmouth, and was detained there by contrary Winds, from 'June 24, till September J4. The King not thinking his Army large en<
ordered all the Prifoncrs to be fet at liberty, and to be lifted in his Service j but mod of them gave him the Ilip. The contrary Wind, having pu ■ ftop
to King Edward's Vuyage, he called a Parliament on September 21, at IVefimwfter, wherein the Clergy granted him the halt 01 ail their Good: ; the
Laity, a Tenth; and Merchants in Cities and Towns, the fath Penny of all they pofTeired. M- Weft, p. 421, 422.

(8) At the Parliament that was to be holden after Eafier. Ry ley's tlacit. p. 159, 160.

(9) This Year, about the latter end of September, one Madoe caufed an Infurreclion in V/ales ; on occafmn of the Su'efidy for the War in Fran , that
was levied in that Country ; whereupon the King, with his Brother Edmund, Earl of Corneal, and Henry de Lacy, Ear] [of L. , .In, went and reduced
him to Obedience. And King Edward rebuilt the Town and Cattle of Beaumaris. Wttljing. p. 62, 63. Knighton, p. 24^1, &c.

(10) Nemcmbcrzg, King Edieard called a Parliament at IVcftminfter faccerfiuclen, magnatibiis, i£ pepulo) wherein the Laity granted him the ele-
venth Part of their Goods, the Clergy the Tenth, and the Merchants the Seventh. M.tteft. p-42t- Pat. **. Edvi. I. M. 2.

(II) TheBilnopsofSt. Andrews, and Dunkcl; John de Soules, and Ingelram de Vmfreville. Ryaer'ss Feed. Tom. II. p. 6S1. M.Weft. p. 427.

(12) M. H'cJl.mirVal/ingbamhy, it was the C.'lrks of Bei-.eick, Edinburgh, and Roxborcugb. M.Weft. p. 427. Walfivg. p. 64. But in Rfs/Ur'i
Feed, it is Gedwortb (the fame as Jedburgh J mftead ot Edinburgh ; which (hews of what great Ufe that noble Collection :■, i n rcftiiying the MiftaJu
Hiftorians. See p. 692.

(13) They were aftually delivered. See Rymtr's Feed. Tom. II. p. 652,


Book IX.

9. E D W A R D L


iel . ./ . la 1

,.A.a. Pub.
11. p. 707.


f Col. 2477.

M. Weft.


Edward at-
tacks Scot-

He gains
Brace to bit

m hejlc-cs
E irwick,
M. Weft.

ana* takes it
by Jlratagem.

Battel van'
M. Weft.

for France, as he liaJ intended, lie marched direcvtly for
Scotland (1). Mean time, B'tliol, who depended upon the
afliilance prom i fed hy the King of France, lent to the
King of England the Superior of the Cordeliers of Roxbo-
1 •, to deliver a letter itito his own band. Jn the let-
ter he complained of the frequent injuries received from
him; of the many fummons iff'utd upon very flight ocea-
fions, and upon the hare petitions of private perfons ; and
in conclusion, declared, he would he no longer his Vallal
(z). This letter (erved only to cxafperate Edward ftill
more, who, continuing his march towards Scotland, and
feeing his affairs in France in a visiy ill htuation, relolved
to make a conqueft of that kingdom, as the Englijh hifto-
rians confefs on this occafion. Here may be fixed the
beginning of the long war, that bred in the hearts of the
Englijh and Scots a mutual enmity, which time has not
yet been able to extinguifh (3).

Edward was advanced as far as Ncwcajlle, with intent
to beficge Berwick, which was, as it were, the key of
the two kingdoms, and for that reafon of all places mott
liable to the ficges and furpriz.es of both Nations. For
this purpofe, he had fent a fleet to Sea, with Ariel orders
to prevent any thing approaching the town he intended
to beficge. But the fleet was furprized by the Sects, who
burnt and funk eighteen (hips. At the fame time, they
gained another advantage over fome Englijh troops, who
being advanced to feize a certain poft, were cut in pieces,
with the lofs of above a thoufand men. Thefe fuccefles,
which incouraged the King of Scotland, ferved only to
ftir up EdwardUo a revenge, and oblige him to exert his
utmott to fubtlua a people who appeared fo refolute to
fhake off his yoke. ' There were in Scotland, as was be-
fore obferved, two factions, one for Baliol, and the other
for Bruce. Edward, well knowing the laft had fubmit-
ted only by force to the judgment pronounced in favour
of the firft, believed it might be of great fervice to him,
could he perfuade Robert Bruce to join with him. To
that end, he offered him the crown, provided he declared
againir. Baliol. Robert accepted the offer with joy, and
ftrengthened Edward's party with a great number of
friends, who had only out of fear taken the oath to

After taking thefe meafures, Edward entered Scotland,
and laid fiege to Berwick. As this place was very ftrong
and well-garrifoned, he was apprehenfive of meeting a
refinance which would give Baliol time to prepare, and
the Scots in general an opportunity of uniting together, to
free themfelves from a danger that equally threatned them
all. So nothing could be more to his advantage, than
fpeejily to become matter of Berwick, in order to ad-
vance into the heart of the kingdom, and break the mea-
fures of the Scots. This made him refolve to ufe ftrata-
gem, to compafs his defigns in lefs time. To that end,
after ailaulting the town feverai days, he fuddenly railed
the liege. At the fame time, by means of fome foldiers,
who, pretending to defeit, threw themfelves into the
town, he caufed a rumour to be fpread, that the King of
Scotland's approach to their relief, obliged him to retire.
This rumour was quickly followed by the falfe News of
Baliol's being but a league off", ready to enter the town.
Upon this falfe intelligence, the foldiers and townfmen
fallied out in crowds to meet him, imagining Edward
was now at a diftance. This headlefs multitude, falling
into an ambufh, and endeavouring to retreat with precipi-
tation, were fo briskly purfued, that the Engl/Jl) entered
pell-mell into the town, and made a great flaughter. It
is laid above feven thoufand (4) Scots perifhed on this oc-
cafion (5).

Edward being thus matter of Berwick, marched (6) to
Dunbar with defign to beficge it. He was fcarce arrived
before the town, when he heard of Baliol's approach at
the head of a numerous army. Though he did not ex-


i 9 6>

fperSt the Scots could be ready fo f»ort, lie gladfy received tho 1
news, in hopes of obtaining a victory that would render
him matter of the whole kingdom. Baliol advanced on
his part with equal ardor, bent upon deciding by one bat-
tle, whether he fhouid be free or a Slave. The two ar-
mies ingaging, fought a good while with great bravery,
though not with the lame fortune. The Scots were at
length forced to give ground, after lofing the be-tt part of
their troops. Their lofs in this action is laid to amount
to above twenty thoufand men, a lofs fo great and arto-
n 1 filing, that they were not able for a long while to op-
pofe the progrefs of the Conquerors. After this great vie- Edward',
tory, Edward immediately returned to Dunbar, wboii:^"!'/''
gates were opened to him. Then, without giving his Buchanan.
enemies time to breathe, he marched to Roxborough, of*?\ Wt "-
which he became matter with the lame eafe. Piefently Walfing."'
after he approached Fdinborougb, the cattle whereof was
furrendcred in eight days. From thence he went and
feized Sterling, Perth, and all the confiderable place, 111
general. In a word, before the end of the campaign, he Baliol njtgta
was fo much matter of all Scotland, that Baliol and the^V;',, ' "
whole nation had no other remedy but to fubmit to his n. p. 718.
mercy. And upon that condition lie granted them peace. M- w, ' ft -
The King of Scotland came to him at Kincardin (7), and W " llr "' E '
appeared before him with a White Rod in his hand, re-
figned his kingdom to him, to be difpofed of according to
his pleafure. This refignation was drawn up in form,
and figned by Baliol, and the greateft part of the Ban ins
of Scotland, and fealed with the Great Seal of the king-

To confirm this new acquifition, Edward ordered ' /,: ' s
the States of Scotland to aflemble at Berivick, where all' r ;
the nobility, and officers of the kingdom, fwore fealty to Knighti n.
him ; and delivered up all the catties and places they Wj -
were ftill in potteflion of. Among the Scotch Nobles, a i<mtrcMtu
William Dowglas was the only perfon, that could never Major,
refolve to (wear to a Prince, who had no right to Scot-
land, but what force gave him. This refulid drew on
him the indignation ©f Edward, who commanding him to
be conducted to England, kept him in dole confine-
ment, where he ended his days, without his misfortunes
being ever able to bring him to acknov. ledge Ed-ward for
his fovereign. Baliol was likewife fent into England, and Baliol »
confined at firft in the Tower of London ; but was after - ^"' '""
wards removed to Oxford, where he founded the College, Buchanan,
which bears his name (S). Other Scotch Lords, whom M. Weft.
Edward judged neceflary to fecure, were fhut up in feve- Wa) ' ln B'
ral prifons in England; and if he left fome their liberty, it
was on condition they fhouid keep in the fouthern parts,
without ever pafling the Trent, on pain of death. He
might caiily have been crowned King of Scotland ; but
his intention was not, that the two kingdoms fhouid re-
main any longer divided. He had a mind to unite Scot-
land to England, as he had done IVales, and make but
one kingdom of the whole Ifland of Britain. This evi- Edward
dently appeared from his removing into England the'f^'"'^
crown and fcepter of Scotland, with all the reft of the a„j Scepter
Regalia, and every thing that fhewed the leall lign of thet/Scctlmd,
liberty hitherto enjoyed by the Scots. But it was not fo""'/^£
eafy to blot out of their minds, the remembrance of j-s C one.
their deur liberty. He did not forget to caufe the famous Walfing.
Stone, on which the inauguration of their Kings was M '^f 1 '"
performed, to be conveyed from Scone. 1 he people of Knightm.
Scotland had all along placed in that Stone a kind of fa- Buchanan,
tality. They fancied, that whilft it remained in the
country, their State would be unfhaken, but the mo-

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