M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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ment it fhouid be elfewhere removed, great revolutions
would enfue. For this reafon, Edward carried it away,
to create in the Scots a belief, that the time of the dillo-
lution of their Monarchy was come, and to leflen the
hopes of recovering their liberty (9). But how much
foever they were attached to this tatal Stone, they had a

(1) March 1. 1295. M. JFcJI. p. 42G.

(2) He not only renounced, in the beginning of April, the Homage and Fealty he h.id taken to King Edward, but alio defied him. See Kaig • .
p. 2477. Walfing. Rymer't Fad. Tom. II. p. 707.

(3) This Year, about Micbaelmafs, Eleanor, Daughter of King Edivai d, was married to Henry Earl of Barre, at Brijlcl. Walfing. p. 60. M.Wejl.

p. 4.19 And this fame Year died Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Glccc^er. Ibid. p. 427. A Parliament was alio held this Year j and every County was

required in the Writ to fend two or three Knights. See Aotitia Parliamcntaria. .

(4) M. Vl'cjl. lays, fixty thoufand of all forts. This Town was taken March 30. p. 427.

(5) Whilft Edward was employed in fortifying Berwick, fome Scots made an Excurlion into Cumboland, and burnt the Town of Cerrcbridg: and I
lejbam. ibid, and went and laid liege to Cailijie. Waljing. p. 65.

(6) April I-]. M.lVeJl. p. 427.

(7) Julyz. Rymer's Feed. p. 417.

(S) This is a miftake j for Balicl College was founded in the Reign of Henry III, by *Jchn Baliol of Bernard Caftle, Father of Jcbn Bali J the King.
He only laid the Defign of it, and fettled yearly Exhibitions upon feme Scholars, and at his death, in 12C9, he recommended this picus project to C«
g uld hia Wife. She fettled the Exhibitioners in a Tenement, which flie hired in Horimangets-Street, now Can-d::.b. in 12S2. Afterwards, in i2?4-.
fhe puichafed Mary's Hall near the fame Place, and lettled the Society there by her Charter, confirmed by her Son 'Jcbi: Baliol the Kirg, and ly OLver
Bilh p of Lincoln. Camd. in Oxfordjhtre.

'9) Keneth II King ot the oeots having made a general Slaughter of the Piels, near the Monaftery of Scone, placed a Stone there, which vulgar Tra-
dition reported to be the fame as ferved Jacob tor a Pillow, and inclcfed it in a wocden Chair, for the Inauguration of the Kines. 1*
out of Spain into Ireland by Simon Breccus, afterwards out of Ireland into Argyle, and King Edward caufed it to be conveyed Co •'•" On it was

engraven this Dillich :

Ni fallat Fatum, Scoti quocunque locatum
lavement Lapidcm, regnarc tenentur ibidem.

Or Fate's deceii'd, and Heaven decrees in vain ;

Or where they Jinithii Stone, the Scots /ball reign. Carr.i. ll'.-\'-;- p. ?Q. Sudan. 1.6.



'The H I S T R T of ENGLAND.


iao6. greater lofs on this occafion. The burning of their re-
ikbu.nubc cords (i), by Edward's order, was to them and their
Recerd,<>f po ft er i t y an irretrievable lofs. Befides thefe precautions,
Hc&Bc'eth. Edward took care to fecure his conqueft, by placing En-
Baduuan. f , , ,y,' ) garrifons and governors in all the Caftles ; and
leaving John Warren, Earl of Surrey and Sujpx (z), to
command in Scotland, returned in triumph to En-
Edwarf'j A frer feeing the firft war with Scotland ended, by the

witb csnqucll of the kingdom, it is time to confider what was
doing in France, where Edward'* affairs were upon a
very different foot. But firft it will be necefiary to relate
the occafion of the rupture, between the two crowns of
France and England. Since the treaty between St. Lewis
and Henry III, the two nations had lived in good under-
Handing, when a quarrel between two perfons of little
confideration, gave occafion to the two Monarchs to
Afl. Pub. take arms. A Norman Pilot, and an Englijh Mariner,
II. p. 607. quarrelling ; n a port of Guienne, where they were landed,
p V 's mB ' the Pilot chanced to be killed. Whether the magiftrates
M. Weft, of the port neglected to bring the murderer tojultice, cr
he was not in their power, the Normans finding, that the
murder of their countryman was left unpunifhed, refolved
to be revenged. To that end, furprizing an Englijh vef-
fel, they hung up the Pilot at the yard-arm. Thefe re-
prisals occafioned others on both fi , fo that th
(3) and Normans made fierce war [ each outer,
wherever they met, even to the piund< ring one another's
fhips, when it was in their power. For fome time, ic
was only a private war, in which the two Kings weie
Walling, not concerned. But fome Englijh fhips happening to
p. to. meet a Norman fleet laden with wine, carried them to

England. The Owners complaining to the King of
France, he demanded reliitution of the fhips and goods,
Aft. Pub. and immediate fatbfacrion for the outrage. Edward not
11. p. 617. returning a fpeedy anfwer, Philip the Fair, who was of
Wa w "^ an extreme haughty temper, fummoned him to appear in
perfon before the couit of Peers (4), to anfwer to the
complaints brought againft him. This iummons was il-
fued in 1294 (?), about the fame time £ ruiard cited the
King of Scotland, for very trifling matters, as we have
feen. The French hiftorians Cay, Edward not appearing,
but only fendinr his Brother Edmund in his liead, Philip,
not fatisfied therewith, difpatched the conftable de Nejle
into Guienne, where he feized Bourdeaux, with all the
reft of the province. Certainly, it muft be fuprizing,
that fuch a conqueft fhould coft France fo little. Was it
poffible for that General to become niaftcr of Guienne,
without forming a fiege, or fighting a battle ; as if it had
been an open country, deftitute of caftles and troops for
its defence? This makes me believe, either the French
hiftorians were ignorant of what pafied on this occafion,
or did not think proper to mention it. But what does
not ap, ear in their hiftories, is fully cleared in the ColleStion
cf the Publick Ails, lately printed in England, and which
I have fo often quoted. And therefore 1 hope the reader
will not be difpleafed to fee the particulars (6).
r-arti Edward being Lmmoned before the Peers, as was
r '' ''''.'» faid, did not think propel to appear in penon. He fent
x , , j. Prince Edmund his Brother to Paris, to anfwer for him ;

Act. Pub. with orders to avoid, as much as poflible, engaging him
II. p. 620; ; n a , var vv j tri France. Accordingly, the Prince was fully
impowered, to gi\e the King of France all the fatisfac-
tion he could reafonably defire (7). Edmund found the
French Monarch extremely ir.cenfed, and full of threats.
After feveral inftances to enter into treaty, his negotia-
tion feeming to him entirely fruitlefs, he refolved to re-
turn home. Juft as he was ready to depart, the two
Queens, namely, Mary of Brabant, Widow of Philip
the Hardy, and Joanna of Navarre, Wife of the prefent
King, intreated him to renew the negotiation with them.
The great defire they expreiled of procuring a firm peace
between the two Kings, and Edmund's inltructions from
the King his Brother, eaftly induced him to confent to
the propofal. The two Queens reprefented to him, that
Philip was extremely offended at the affronts received
from tdward's fubjects, and particularly from certain
perfons of Guienne, againft whom he was incenfed to the
laft degree : That therefore it was impoffible to come
to a good agreement, unlets a reafonable fatisfacHon was

Vol. I.


given him. They added, as the King's honour, was con- i2Q^,
cerned in the affair, there was no other way to appcafe-
him, but by Edward's making him a publick reparation,
to fhew the world, that he difclaimed what was done by
his fubjects. To that end, they pr< pofed that Xaintes,
Talmsnd, Turenne, Puymirol, Penne, and Monftauguin,
together with the perfons complained of, fhould be deliver-
ed to Philip. But as this fatisfadtion feemed unreasonable,
they intimated to Edmund, that it was only for form fake,
and Philip would engage to reftore the towns and perfons,
upon their own requelt. Moreover they promifed, that
as foon as the King's honeur was fafe by this reparation,
ho fhould revoke the fummons, and give Edward a fafe-
conduct to come to him at A;.:iens, where he 'would re-
ceive his homage. Edmund contented to all thefe propo-
fals, provided the two Queens would fign them in wri-
ting, and promife with an oath, that the particulars
agreed open fhould be punctually performed. This treaty,
which was figned by the two Queens, and for the King
ol France 's honour was to be kept fecret, was fent to Ed-
ward, who feemed very well latisfied. He was chieflv
n ■ ,.1 : hat concerned Scotland, and in all likelihood

lib mai . ns to Bahol on trilling occafions, were
intended only to caufe him to rebel, in order to have an
opportunity to punifh him. Befides, whilft this affair
was negotiating at Paris, he made himfeil matter of Scct-
So that, as a war with France, at fuch a juncture,
could not but greatly embarrafs him, he was very giad to
^ite Philip a feeming reparation, which in the main was
no prejudice to h m. 1 ding therefore, the French King
was contented .< in _ppearance of reparation, he re-
folved to give it him more fully than was even defired, in
ordei to oe more fure of a peace with France, fo necefiary
for him. To that end, he gave Edmund power to deliver ■' ct Pub.
to the King of France all Guienne, with its metropolis; 1 '" P- 6l 9-
and fent pofitive orders to the Senefchal to obey the
Prince's command, without any exception. 1 a ■ u>:d ac-
quainting the King of France with the orders he had re-
ceived, declared he was ready to execute them ; but on
condition that, in the preftnee of creditable witneffes, the
King would promife with his own mouth, to perform the
articles itgned by the two Queens. Philip was very wil-
ling to give him that laustuction, and going into a certain
room, attended by the Duke of Burgundy, gave his royal
word, before the fame Duke, the two Queens, Blanch of
Navarre, Wife of Edmund, and the Englijh ambafiadors,
to perform that treaty. At the fame time, he revoked
with his own mouth Edward's iummons, and ordered the
revocation to be publifhed in open Hall, by the Bifhop of
Orleans. Edmund thinking himfelf fecure on that tide, Guienne it
ordered the Senefchal ol Guienne (8), to deliver the duke- < 1 ''< v <"4 n _
dom to the perfon that fhould be impowered by the King Franc"?
of France. Ralph de NcJle, conftable of France, was com- ibid. p. 620.
miflioned to take polieilton of Guienne in Philip's name.
The Senefchal would have proceeded with caution, and
not demer up the Province, but on the terms of the
treaty, ot which Edmund had informed bim. But the
conltabie refufed to be tied to any conditions, alledging
he knew nothing of the treaties between the two Kings,
and was ordered only to take poffeflion of Guienne in his
Mailer's name. Then he demanded tne perfons agreed
upon, and lent them to Paris.

All the articles being more than performed on the part philip, .,<;,(-„
of England, 1 dmund demanded the reliitution of Guienne,"" ■•
and the perlons ftipulated in the fecret treaty. To ' -O-
which it was anfwered, that his demand fhould be ex-
amined in the King's council. At the fame time Philip
fent him word, not to be furprized, if he save him a
harfh anfwer before the council, on account of fome
Members who were not in the fecret ; but as foon as
they fhould be gone, he would give him entire fatisfacti-
on. Edmund relying upon his word, appeared before the
council, where Philip was prefent, and demanded the
reliitution of Guienne, to which that Monarch roughly
replied, He would not reftore it. This anfwer not fur-
prizing the Prince, who expedied it, he withdrew into
the next room, waiting for the performance el the
King's promife, and was, left there fome time, without
any other anfwer. At length the Bifhops of Orleans
and Tournay came and told him, it was in vain to wait

to t> -tie toe

(1) This Mr. Tyrrct thinks only a Calumny, invented by Heller Boethius. See Hi/!, p. 97.

(2) Rapin by miftake calls him William : At the fume time Hugh de Crrffingbam was made Treafurer, and WMiam de Oin.tjby Jufticiary of Scotia J.
Rymer^s Ftfd. II. p. 726, &c. IValftng. p. 6S.

(.3; Chiefly the CinjuetPtms. See M. Weft, p. 419. As alfo Ships from Portfrnutb, Ireland, Sec. T. Witts, p. 125.

(4) At Parit . Rymer'sFad. Tom. II. p. 619. M. Weft, p. 420.

(«) About the end of November. Rymer's Far d. Tom. II .' M. Weft. p.4I9-

((•) The beginning ol the Year 1295, two Cardinals came into England, to try to make Peace between the Kings of England and France; but nothing
cculd k bieught to a Conclufion. M.H-'tj). p. 424. See Rymer's Fard. T. II. p. 6O5.

(7) M. V/efi. fays, he had Orders privately to prepole a Marriage, and to offer to deliver part of Cajogne, and leme Caftles, in the Hands of King
Pl;t'>f> } for the Space of forty Days, if the treaty ot Marriage took effect, p. 421.

[SJ Sir Jobn de Havering j as MoSir Jcbnde St. Jsbn, Dcputy-Gcvemot of Cuitrnr. The, Order bears date, February 3, at Paris, in 1293. RymcSs
Fad. II. p. 619,


Book IX.

9. E D W A R D I.



Act. Pub.
11. p> <>3+-

M. Weft.

M- Wed.

p. 620. &c

any longer, for the King would not be follicited any
more upon that Affair. Some days after, Philip came to
the Parliament, without acquainting Edmund, and ordered
the King of England to be publickly cited, to appear and
anfwer to the Articles exhibited in the Summons. Ed-
mund not being then in the Palace, Hugh de Vere, and
'John de Lacy, Edward's Ambaffadors, entered, and faid,
they could not have imagined this Affair would be decided
by way of Juftice, but according to the Treaty, efpe-
cially as the Summons was revoked. This Excufe not
being admitted, they were difmifled ; and though they de-
ffred only till the next day, to confult with the King's
Brother, they could not obtain that Delay. So the Court
decreed the Coniifcation of Guienne to the King of
France ( 1 ).

This is the fubftance of a Memorial in the Collection of
the Publick Ails, where Prince Edmund himfelf gives an
account of this Affair, and the manner it was tranfacled,
from the beginning of his Negotiation. It may indeed be
objected, that it comes from one of the Parties, and con-
fequently his Teftimony is not to be credited. But, be-
sides the Simplicity and Plainnefs of the Memorial, the
Conqueft of Guienne, without Sieges and Battles, makes
the Relation very probable. Moreover, we find in the
Collection above-mentioned, feveral of Edward's Letters,
complaining of being deceived by the King of France.
There is one, among the reft, directed to the Prelates
and Barons of Guienne, wherein he excufes himfelf from
making a Treaty wjth France, without their advice;
and tells them, he is deceived as much or more than
themfelves (2). This is further evident from the dif-
claiming of the Homage he had done to Philip, in the fol-
lowing Words :

Our Ambaffadors fliall fay to the Kiw of France thefe
Words ;

Sire, Our Lord the King of England, Lord of Ireland,
and Duke o/"Aquitain, did you Homage conditionally; namc-
Ib. p. 650. ly, according to the Form of the Peace made betvjeen your
Ancejlors and his, ivhicb you have not kept. Moreover,
that all Differences between your Suhjecfs and his might be
ended, a fecret Treaty was made between you and my Lord
Edmund his Brother, as you may remember, containing cer-
tain Articles zvbicb you have not performed, though he has
done more than was promifed on his part. After that, he
required you twice by his faid Brother, and a third time by
the Peers of France, and other Great Men of your King-
dom, to re/lore him his Land of Guienne, and to deliver
thofe of his Subjcds whom you detain in Prifon, which you
have refufed. And therefore it feems to him, that you no
longer count him your Vaffal; and accordingly he refufes to
be fo for the future (3).

Aft. Pub.
II. p. 637,
639, 6+1,
642, 647,


p. 644.

of tbt Ho-
mage done
by Edward
to Philip.

War of
Cu'enne of
little Impor-
lb. p. 651.

M. Well.
p. 416.
Aft. Pub.
II. p. 654,


How great foever Edward's Vexation might be, to fee
himfelf thus cheated by Philip, he chofe rather to leave
Guienne in the hands of that Prince, than relinquifh the
War with Scotland, which to him feemed of greater im-
portance. Befides, he was fenfible, before he ingaged in
a War with France, it would be neceflary to prevent the
Diverfion, the Scots might make on the Frontiers of the
North. For this reafon he was contented with fending
his Brother Edmund into Guienne, with few Troops (4),
his fole Aim being to keep Philip employed in thofe Parts,
for fear of his affifting the Scots. Edward not intending
a vigorous profecution of the War in Guienne, where he
had only Bayonne, and fome neighbouring Places, it may
well be thought what pafled in thofe Parts cannot be
very conliderable. And yet, the French boaft of gaining
two Battles, one under the Earl of Valois, and the other
under the Earl of Artois. But thefe Actions could not
be very important, confidering the fmall Number of Ed-
jnund's Forces. The truth is, France was obliged to
keep there a confiderable Army, becaufe fhe had to op-
pofe, not only the Englijh, but the Revolts of the Na-
tives, who were extremely difpleafed with having a new
Mafter. The Superiority of the Earl of Valois's Forces,
obliged Edmund to fhut himfelf up in Bayonne, where
he died in 1296 (;). The Earl of Lincoln (6), who

took the Command of the Englijh Troops, befieging Daes, 1 2q<5 %
was forced to make a hafty Retreat, upon the approach
of the Earl of Artois, who was advancing to rai.V the
Siege. Perhaps he received on this occafion fome little
lofs, which the French call a Battle (7). However, I do
not think it neccfiary to dwell any longer on the War
of Guienne, fince it produced no remarkabler Event (8).

It was not in Gafcogne that Edivard intended to exertEdwarc?
his utmoft agamft France. He perceived it very difficult*'" 1 ' '*'
to it-cover a Province fo remote from England, and where lu!£. „
he had no other Place but Bayonne. His Dcfign was tabitJuU.
attack Philip in Flanders, where the fituation of Affairs
feemed to promife him better Succefs. The Earl of
Flanders's Circumftances obliged him to feck for Protecti-
on agamft France ; and he could find none fo near or fo
ready as that of the King of England, who burned with
dchre to be revenged. The occafion of the Earl's Diffe-
rence with Philip was this.

In the Year 1284, Guy, fo the Earl was called, quar- <^» v ' "'
relied with the Men of Ghent, on account of the Govern- Funia "
ment of their City, which they pretended he had nothing
to do with. In the Reign of Philip the Hards, this Af-
fair was brought before the Parliament of Paris, who
paffed Sentence in favour of the Earl, and fined the Ma-
giftratcs. Guy took this occafion to be as troublcf jme as
poffible to the Inhabitants of that large City, which they
highly relented. When Philip the Fair afcended the
Throne, things had another face. Philip perceiving*
the Quarrel between the Earl of Flanders and the People
of Ghent offered him a favorable opportunity to make
an advantage of their Difcord, was unwilling to neoletSt
it. Wherefore, he privately fent word to the Magiftrates
of Ghent, that if they would renew their Procefs againfl:
the Earl, he was ready to do them Juftice. This was
fufficient to ingage the City of Ghent to renew the Quar-
rel. The Affair being once more brought before the Par-
liment of Paris, the Authority of the thirty nine Ma-
giftrates or Governors, abolifhed by the former Decree,
was re-eftablifhed in Ghent. The Earl was extremely
offended, that Philip mould make it his bufinefs to plague
him, by reftoring to the City a Power, which to him was
fo odious. He durft not however fhew his Refentment ;
but refolved to take meafures to ftrengthen himfelf ajainft
him, regarding him as an Enemy, whofe Defigns he
ought to try to prevent. Some time after, he fet Robert
dc Bcthun his Son to work, who, by fecret Infinuations,
perfuaded the Cities of Flanders to fortify certain Places,
contrary to the Tenor of the Treaties with France ; af-
furing them, they would meet with no oppofition from
the Earl his Father. Guy's Aim was to fet the Cities at
variance with France, left Philip fhould excite them a-
gainft him. Philip was informed of the fhare the Eail
had in this Affair; but, as he was then otherwife em-
ployed, did not think proper to difcover his Refentment,
either againfl: the Cities which had violated the Treaties,
or againfl their Advifer. Mean while his very Silence
made the Earl fenfible, he was to expecl an attack fome
other time. Things continued thus for fome Years.
Philip diflembled his Anger, and Guy continually thought
of means to prevent its Effe&s.

During thefe Tranfadions, the Rupture between France M. Weft,
and England, happened to break out. Though Edward' W-
ufed all poffible means to avoid a War, by the Negotiation Aa.'pub.
at Paris, he believed that whatever fell out, he ought toil- V 7+'.-
fecure the Affiftance of the Earl of Flanders, whofe Dif- & °
content was no fecret to him. To that end, he demand-
ed his eldeft Daughter in marriage for Prince Edward his
Son, judging it an infallible means to bind him ftronglv to
his Interefts. This Negotiation, though fecret, came to
Philip's knowledge, and gave him great Uneafinefs. But
he concealed it, left by fhewing it he fhould deprive him-
felf of the means to prevent an Alliance fo prejudicial to
France. To compafs his ends, he pretended Ignorance, I! >- P- 74*»
and upon fome Pretence drawing Guy and his Countefs to
Paris, kept them Prifoners. It was a fort of Favour that
he gave them their Liberty, on condition they delivered
their Daughter in Hoftage, and promifed to break their
Alliance with Edward, on pain of Excommunication.

(0 But John dc St. John, King Edzviri's Governor in thofe parts, bravely defended Guienne for lime time againfl all the Attacks of the Fr-r.cbm
M. Weft. p. 421.

{2) This Letter bears date July i. 1294. at Portsmouth. Rymcr's Feed. Tom. II. p. 645.

(3) I faid above, that the French Hiftorlans explain not the manner how Pbilp the Fair made himfelf mafter of Guienne t beccufe I had net then feen
Father Dame!', Hiliory, which relates fome part of what is contained in Prince Edmund'% Memorial, though in a very abridged Manner, with remark-tie
D.lterences, and without exactly obferving the Order of Tirrae, in quotine Walfing. in Edivardo. Rap i.

(4) He failed with three hundred and twentv five Ships, from Plymouth, Jan.i^. and Her.ry de Lacy , Earl of Lincoln, along with him. M.WeJI.
p. 426. Rymer'% Feed. Tom. II. p. 6S3, 699. ll'aljmg. p. 65. A good Body of Troops was fent thither in the Year 1297, which v .re put into the
fenced Cities. See M. Well, p. 423.

(5) He very probably died in June, and lies buried in Weflminfler- Abbey. See Rymcr's Feed. T. II. p. 719. Walf.r.g. p. 65. As does alii William dt
Valence Earl of Pembroke, who died this Year, June 13. M. Wejl. p. 428.

(6) Henry de Lacy,

(7) In one Skirmilh John de St. John, Governour of Guienne, was taken Prifoner. M.WrJl. p. 429. Jf'alfing. p €9.

(8) Father Daniel will have it, that this was a very Iharp War, and that the Englijh were very ftrong in Guienne. The Englijh Hiftoriaas fpeak of it in
a very different Manner, and with greater Probability, for the Reaioit. above-mentioned. Rafia.

No. 19. Vol. I.





Vol. I.


1296 Guy was no fooner (n his Dominions but he tried all forts
of ways to recover his Daughter from Philip. But it
was not poflible to fucceed. Philip was too apprehenlive
of the Earl's Union with England, voluntarily to let go
the Pledge he had in his power.

Whilft thefe things paired, the Affairs of Scotland,
Edward which wholly employed Edward, afforded him neither
form a Leifure nor Opportunity to think of his projected War
againft Philip. But as ibon as matters were as he wifhed
them, he turned all his thoughts to Revenge. Philip's
fraudulent Proceeding, being an Injury not to be eaiily
forgotten, he had put a great Reftraint on himfe'.f, in de-
laying thus long to make him repent of it. However as
he was going to deal with a potent Adverfary, it was ne-
ceffary to have a powerful Army, whicli England alone
M- Weft. was not a k] e t0 f u ppiy. Wherefore he fought means to
form beyond Sea a ltrong League againft France, and
though it feemed a difficult matter, failed not to accom-
Aft. Pub. plifh it. Befides the Earl of Flanders whom he gained

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