M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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make that Prince fubfervient to his Defigns, whilft he
fhould imagine he was labouring only for himfelf. To that
end, he pretended to be more attach'd than ever to his
Perfon and Intcreft, and endeavoured by fundry means to
perfuade him he was entirely devoted to his Service. His
Aim was to induce him gradually by thefe Marks of Af-
feftion, to be wholly guided by his Counfels. When he
thought he had fufficiently gain'd his Confidence, he re-
prefented to- him, " That his Subjects were difpleafed
" with him, and in all appearance waited only for a fa-

" vorable Opportunity to execute the ill Defigns they had
" form'd : That an Opportunity would infalliby offer
" when the Saxon Troops fhould be employed in the
'" northern Wars ; and then being deftitute of the Affift-
" ance of his Friends, he would be in danger of being ex-
" pos'd to the Infults of thofe that hated him : That he
" thought himfelf obliged to acquaint him, his Subjects
" held Intelligence with Ambroftus Aurelianus, who was at
" the Court of Aldroen King of Armorica, and probably
" had confpired to fet that Prince on the Throne." There
was fome ground for Hengi/l's thus artfully hinting the
Danger Vortigern was in from Amhrofius. That Prince Ambrofiu,,
was of Roman Extraction, and according to the general , t j]j„g flreU
Opinion, Son of one of the Monarchs elected by the Bri-'Orig.p. 319.
ions after the Departure of the Romans (3). As he was very G,ld - P- 9-
young when his Father died, his Youth fcreened him from
thejealoufy of thofe that attended the Throne immediately
or fhortly after. But it was otherwife when Vortigern came
to the Crown. A ftrong Party being form'd in favor of
Ambrofms, the new Monarch was fo filled with Sufpicions,
that he fought means to deftroy the young Prince. The
Danger Amhrofius was expofed to obliging him to quit
Britain, he retired to Aldroen his Relation, where he was
waitidg for a favorable opportunity to come and head his
Party. This being the Cafe between Vortigern and Am-
broftus, what the Saxon Prince faid could not but make
deep Impretlion on his Mind.

By thefe continual Marks of a feemingly difinterefted
Friendfhip, Hengiji led the Britijh Monarch by degrees to
feek of his own accord, the means he defign'd to furnifh
him with, namely, the fending for a greater Number of
Saxon Troops. His Aim was to put himfelf in condition
to have nothing to fear from the Britons, and withal to be
independent of the King; which lie could not attain to but
by the means he intended. Vortigern, defpairing ever to
regain the Affection of his Subjects, and confidering Am-
hrofius, tho' abfent, as a very dangerous Rival, faw his
whole Refuge lay in the Saxon Prince, whom he deemed
his beft Friend, and accordingly to him it was he applied
for Advice and Afliftance. Hengiji tells him, " All the
" Saxons in Britain are at his Devotion, but their Num-
" ber is too inconfiderable to protect him." Adding,
*' The Britons, in all likelihood, will not fail to fhew Brit. Hilt.
" their Difcontent, whilft the Saxons are in the North, '• 3- c - *•
" and therefore he fees but one way to fecure the King
" from their Plots, which is, to fend for more Saxons to
" be commanded by trufty Leaders, who will implicitly
" follow his Orders." This Advice being agreeable to Vor-
tigern's Intentions, he immediately clofes with it. Hengiji
promifes to fend the new Troops into the North, againft
the Pic~is and Scots, whilft he flays himfelf in Kent to have
an Eye upon the Male-contents. This Precaution feem'd
very proper to prevent the Infurrection of the Britons, who
by that means would be hemm'd in by the Saxon Forces.

Hengiji having obtained the King's Confent, fentfora 452.
Fleet of forty Ships, conducted by Oiia his Brother, who °^ a . ***
brought with him his Son Ebufa, and a great Number of.,,,/ ,;.„/, ;„
Saxon Troops. Thefe New-Comers begin with ravifhingr« North
the Oreades, then making a Defcent on the Coafts of the T i" h SiXm
Picls, oblige the Inhabitants to retire Northwards. AsNcn.'
foon as the Picls had thus deferted part of their Country, Ge iff. Mo»
the Saxons feated themfelves there fo ftrongly, that it was Cam "
not poffible to difpoffefs them. At firft they fettled on
the North-fide of the Tine towards the Eaft. Afterwards
they advane'd towards the South, and drove the Britons
beyond the Hnmber; but this was done by degrees. This
third Body of Saxons arriv'd in 452, three Years after the
Firft. With thefe frefh Supplies, Hengiji found himfelf
ftrong enough to be in no great fear of any Attempt
from the Britons : Nay, he began to fhew lefs Refpect
for Vortigern, and under colour of wanting frequent Re-
cruits to keep up the Number of his Forces, fent for con-
tinual Supplies from Germany without asking his Leave.
At length he throws away the Mask, and making bitter Gild. Beat,
Complaints that the Saxons were not duly paid according '" '• c ' "5 1
to Agreement, boldly demands the Arrears, threatening,
without prompt and full payment, to do himfelf Juftice.

The Britons, furprized at thefe Menaces, and greatly 453.
mortified to fee Hengiji in a condition to do as he proudly Vortimer
threatned, began to route themfelves, and think of means to ^T'-'f"
free themfelves from thefe Foreigners. Vortimer, eldefi Son ,' a drive out
of Vortigern, had beheld hitherto with extreme Regret, how '*« Saxons,
the Saxons, by his Father's Fault, ftrengthened themfelves J*! llB ' '" *"
daily, and had very much dreaded the Confequences thereof.
As foon as he faw the Britons in Emotion, he improv'd the
Opportunity, and reprefented to the leading Men that it
was time to apply an effectual Remedy to the Evils they
lay under. He told them, his Father's Cowardice, or
perhaps Treachery, had been the Occalion of the Saxons

( J ) This Story of Rtmjena is the lei's authentic!:, for not being mentioned by Bede or Gild.is, and related by Yulmfbury as a Report only.

(2) Camden takes Gorongus to be the Name of an Office or Employment. See Langboin, Cbrtm\ Reg. Aug. Rapin,

(3) He is faid by feveral to be Son of Conjlantine, beheaded by thnsriia, Rafin,

j becoming

Book I.



becoming fo powerful ; that it was necefiary therefore to
prevent Vortigern from heaping any more Favours on thele
Foreigners, to the Prejudice of the Britijh Nation, which
was in danger of being over-run, ifMeafures were not ta-
45+' ken to put a Stop to their growing Power. The Britons,
/'^convinc'd by thefe Reafons, awak'datlaft out of their Le-
effjiiMbh thargy, and by Vortimer's Infligations, the moft powerful of
Sen. them having entered into a private Confederacy, of which

Vortigern had not the leaf! Notice, fuddenly compell'd him
to make his Son Partner with him in the Government, and
to leave the Adminiftration of Affairs to his Care. The Plot
was fo well laid, that in an Inftant Vortigern faw himfelf
without either Fortrefs, or Troops, or Credit, and conftrain'd
to do whatever was defir'd, he not having time to call the
Saxons to his Aid. As he had not miftrufled his own Son,
he had taken no care to guard againft him. Thus Vortimer
was inverted with the whole royal Authority, leaving his Fa-
ther only the empty Title of King without any Power ( i ).
Tk? War The new Monarch found no great Difficulty to pcrfuaJe

«£«"j! tie t] le Britons, that nothing but Force could drive the Saxons
khfdJxn. out °f tne ' r Country. It was but too plain, from their
Proceedings, that they did not defign to go away volunta-
rily. The War therefore being refolv'd, the Britons made
Preparations to rid themfelves of their Gueits, whom they
look'd upon as their mortal Enemies. Hengijl, for his
part, finding he was like to have a fierce War upon his
Hands, made harte and concluded a Peace with the Picls,
who were proud of having for Allies Men fo formidable for
their Arms. This Precaution enabled him to make a pow-
erful Diverfion in the North by the Help of the Picls, affifted
by the Saxons lately fettled in thofe Parts. As for Kent, Hcngijl
look'd upon himfelf to be ftrong enough there to make head
againft Vortimer, who was preparing to attack him.

I am now going to enter upon the Recital of a War,
which, after numberlefs Engagements, render 'd the Saxons
Mafters of Britain. An Event fo remote from the Ex-
pectations of the Britons when they fent for the Saxons to
affift them, affords Matter of Wonder and Admiration at
the Short-fightednefs of Men, and the Uncertainty of their
Counfels! But before I relate the Iffue of this War, it
will be proper to acquaint the Reader that he is not to
expect a full and particular Account of Matters. Hifto-
rians have been contented with relating fome certain
Facts, which juft ferve to carry on the Thread of the
Hiftory, but hardly give us a general Idea of that R' volu-
lution which peopled Britain with new Inhabitants, and in-
troduced a new Face of Things over the whole ljland.
The Britons and Saxons being prepared for War were not
IK Haitk o^ong before they came to an Ingagement. In the firft Cam-
EglesiorJ. paign, the two Armies met at Eglesford (2) in Kent, the Saxons
AflerMe- jj e ; n g commanded by Hengijl and Horfa, and the Britons by
Atlielwcn- Vortimer. The firft Battle, according to the Hiftorians, was
dus. Flor. very bloody. Hengiji loft Horfa, (3) his Brother, and with
^„ I!r | n c his own Hand flew Catigern (4), youngeft Brother of Vorti-
Ranu.ph. mtr. If we may believe the Britijh Hiftorians, Vortimer
Ceftr. Poiy no t only obtain'd a compleat Victory over the Saxons, but
c'lvHmib dr ' v i n g Hengijl as far as the Hie of Thanet, compell'd him
I. 1. ,. i. to imbark and fly into Germany. But by what follow'd after
this Battle, it is evident, if the Saxons were not victorious, at
leaft they were not vanquifh'd (5), fince all their Hiftorians
unanimoufiy affirm, that this very Year 45;, immediately
Hencift after the Battle, Hengiji firft took upon him the Title of
uiei -.it King of Kent, which doubtlefs he would not have done,
ink uj m»j | ia£ j j^ k een (j e f eate( ] an j obliged to fly into Germany,
trie. One muft not be furprized to find fo great Contrariety

Ann. Sax. among the Hiftorians concerning Events fo remote from
our Time ; when even the Authors that write of what has
pafs'd in our Days, very rarely agree in Facts, which by
their late Date, might eaiily be known.

Two Years after, another Battle was fought near Crecan-

Th'V'l f 0, 'd{(>) in Kent, where'mVortimcr was entirely defeated with

•fCrccan- tne Lofs of more than 4000 Men and his beft Officers. Not

f»rJ- being able to keep the Field, he was forced to fhut himfelf

BoW i up in London, till he could draw another Army together. In

Hen.' Hun- the mean while Hengiji, to ftrike the greater Terror into

tingd. A 2. t ] ie Britons, ravaged the Country in a mercilefs manner.

Sax. Ann. -phey tnat were mo fl. e xpos'd to the Fury of the Saxons,

quitted their Houles, and fled to the Woods for Refuge.

Some abandon'd their Country, and retir'd into Armories,

where they were civilly receiv'd by King Aldroen. During

thefe Devaluations, the very Churches were not fpared, but

all that were in the Neighbourhood of the Saxons were re-

due'd to Arties. Thefe barbarous Pagans, joining to their

natural Fiercenefs a Religious Zeal, thought they honoured

their Gods, by inhumanly treating the Chrijiians, efpecially

the Ecclefiajlies, who were mofl cruelly dealt with.

The Britons being redue'd to this Extremity, their Chiefs **« Britons
afTembled themfelves to confider of Means to prevent their d '&,
total Ruin. Guithelin, Archbifhop of London, and Head of tbYKi'ng If

there was Room to hope he would not abandon them in c - Monm.
" this their preffing Neceffity." Adding, " thatfinteT^-H^f'

gernawl Vortimer were no longer to be depended upon, he
" thought it neceffary to invite over Ambrofms Aurcliamis,
" who being fprung from Iliuttrious Ancejlors, and having all
" the Qualifications to be defir'd in a General, would, in all
' Probability, by his Valour and Conduct, free them from
" their prefent Danger." As they had always hated Vorti-
gern, and, fince his laft Defeat, were diffatisfied with Vorti-
mer, the common, though unjuft Fate of vanquifh'd Gene-
rals, they readily embrae'd the Archbifhop's Advice, and de-
fired him to go himfelf and negotiate the Affair; which he
gladly undertook, as enabling him to accomplifh a Defign he
had long been forming. He fets out immediately for Armo-
rica, and laying before Aldroen the deplorable Condition of
the Britons, obtain'd with eafe the Aid he demanded. Al-
droen, who had fo generoufly receiv'd all the fugitive Britons,
was willing to give the Nation a farther Proof of his Friend-
fhip, by granting them an Aid of Ten thoufand Men. He
plac'd Ambrofms at their Head, who conducted them fafely
to Totnefs. This General was receiv'd with great Demon- 4 - 8.
ftrations of Joy, being look'd upon as the only Support of An.:.,' ,
the finking Britons. But this Joy was not univerfal • Jf or _ l »"d<™">'
timer's Party, ftill powerful, confider'd Ambro/ius as one a Mon^rrt"'
come to ufurp the Crown, under colour of defending it.
And Vortimer himfelf threatned to punifh feverely thofe
that fhould join him. Thus the miferable Britons, always
a Prey to their inteftine Diviiions, inftead of uniting againft
the common Enemy, prepared to deftroy one another.

Mean while, Ambrofius and Guithelin perceiving the Con- Ambrofius
juncture to be favorable, confpir'd theRuinof/^r%r«andf",''.S^ c "
Vortimer. They began with reprefenting to their Party, tL Ruin If
" that vain were the Hopes of driving out theSaxons, under"' ,;, " E,i '
" the Conduct of thefe two Kings, the Son being a Prince'" 1 ' *"*'"
" without Courage or Experience, and the Father an Ene-
" my to the Nation, as appear'd by his ftrict Union with
" the Enemies of the State; not to mention his exceffive
" Liberalities, which obliged his Subjects to take the Ad -
" miniftration -out of his Hands. That in vain therefore
" were their Preparations to drive out the Foreigners, if
" thefe two domeftick Enemies were not firft deftroy 'd,
" who were in Arms only to favour and affift them." On
the other hand, Vortigern and Vortimer told their Friends
" that Ambrofius, under pretence of affifting, was come to
" fubdue them: That the Archbifhop was an ambitious "' '
" Man, who fought to put the Crown on theHeadof,/ OT - %$$£*
" brofuts, only to get the Adminiftration of the Govern- iLLi '
" ment into his own Hands, than which, fuch was his Arro-
" gance, nothing fhould more be dreaded by the Britons :
" That they muft wilfully fhut their Eyes not to fee, that
" the Defigns of thefe two Heads of their Party, were
" directly oppofite to the Good of the Kingdom : That
" inftead of maiching their fre/l> Troops againft the Saxons,
" they had done nothing fince their Arrival, but caball'd
" with the People, and taken Meafures to opprefs thofe
" who were in Arms for the Defence of their Country.

The mutual Animofity of the two Parties was fo violent, C/W/f^rj
that they foon came to Blows, each preferring his private am ™S thc
to the public Intereft. The firft Battle was fought near Britons "
Catgwaloph (7) in Carmarthen/hire. As it is difficult from 458-
the confus'd Accounts of Hiftorians, to know on which c a '''tX h
fide Victory inclin'd in this and feveral other Engagements, Bedl,"! 7. '
I fhall only obferve that the civil Wars lafted till the Year'' "'
465, to the great weakening of the Britons, whilft the Saxons "T" Z '
had time to ftrengthen themfelves both in Kent and beyond
the Humber. To fo wretched a State were the Britons at
laft redue'd, that numbers of them, harrafs'd one while by
the Civil War, another while by the Saxons, abandon'd
their native Country, where they could no longer fubfift.

A Dutch Writer informs us, that fome of thofe unfor-^^-""'' 6 '
tunate Wretches going on board of a Galley, and rowing ?*«"
toward the mouth of the Rhine, landed at Catwick near jJh. Lej Jen!
Leyden, where they fettled by the Sea-fide in an old Roman
Camp, to which they gave the Name of Brittenburge.

Thus Britain for feven or eight Years fuffer'd all theCa- 465.
lamities of a Civil War. At length the wifeft of both Parties, ^h f.J of
confidering their Diffention would be the Caufe of their com-^f ctvil
mon Ruin, made up the Breach by parting the Kingdom be- Ncnnius,
tween the contending Princes. The two Britijh Kings had
the Eajlern, and Ambrofius the Wejlern Part, divided from

(1) All Hiftorians agree not in this Point. Some will have it that he voluntarily made his Son Partner with him.
'2; Now siylnfnrd. (3) He was buried at Ilajltd, lb call'd from him.

(4-j He was buried near /ty/esfird, where four great Stones Hand an-end, with others a-crofs them, hk^Suat'ttnge,
(>) R. Higdtn exprcfly fays, that Hengijl got the Victory, p. 223.
'(■! Now Cray pud, firm the Riv,-r Crecan now Crtrci. See Camden. Rapin.
•- PeAtps the Town now call'd Kydnrl/y ; Lat. Catguihj. Lambard'i OiQ. Tepsgr,
N,2. Vol, I, I





Vol. I.



H,n. Hur.t-
ing. !. 1.
Baitk of
G. Monm.
Sax. Ann.

Arthur JSrp
Reg. Ang.


The fourth
Battle be-
tween the
Saxons and
Flor- Wi-

Sax. Ann-

1'reaty of
Peace be-
tween the

Saxuns and


R ,:

farce of tie

one another by the Roman High-way, called afterwards
Watling-Jlreet (1). From hence may be dated the begin-
ning of the Reign of Ambrofius.

The Saxons, upon the Union of the two Parties, join'd
their Forces alfo. In the firft Engagement, Hengiji loft
Wipped, one of his principal Officers, from whom the
Field of Battle was called TVippcd's- Fleet (z). Here the
Britijh and Saxon Hiftorians, according to Cuftom, give us
contradictory Accounts. The laft fay, their Countiymen
obtained that Day a fignal Victory. Whereas the others af-
firm, that Vortimer, who commanded the Army, routed the
Saxons, and compelled HengiJ} a fecond time to fly into
Germany. But it appears by what followed, thatthe Ad-
vantage was on the Side of the Saxons. I will even venture
to fay, contrary to the Opinion of fome noted Hiftorians,
that in all likelihood Hengiji never returned to Germany.
Not fo much as one Author marks either the Time or
Place of his fecond Landing, tho' they were no lefs ne-
ceffary to be obferv'd than Thofe of his firft.

In this War it was, that the famous Arthur, at fourteen
Years of Age, made his firft Appearance in the Britijh Ar-
mies, under Ambrofius. His Inclination for War made him
take upon him betimes the Profeflion of a Soldier, which he
never quitted during his Life. He fucceeded Gorlous his Fa-
ther in the Kingdom of Danmonium (3) in 467. He was no
fooner on the Throne, but he had a War to maintain againft
Howel King of Arcclute (4), in the Neighbourhood of Scot-
land. This Prince is faid, out of Envy to the Glory Arthur
had acquired, to enter into an Alliance againft him with the
Saxons in the North. But inftead of leffening his Reputa-
tion, he ferved to incrcafe it confiderably Arthur beating
him back to the Ifle of Mona, gave him Battle, and flew
him with his own Hand. He gain'd this Victory in 470,
being then about eighteen Years old. We ihall fee him
hereafter fignalizing himfelf by Actions more glorious, as
well as more beneficial to his Country.

The War continuing between the two Nations, a Battle
loft by the Britons in 473, put their Affairs in extreme Dif-
order, and gave the Saxon Prince Opportunity of enlarging
his Territories. At length Vortimer, the principal Promoter
of the War, died in 475, poyfon'd, as fome fay, by Row-
ena his Mother-in-law, thro' the Suggeftion of Hengiji (5).
The Britijh Hiftorians would fain make, at any rate, a Hero
of Vortimer, by attributing to him many fignal Victories
over the Saxons. But the Growth of thefe laft in Power
and Dominion, notwithftanding their pretended Defeats, is
a clear Evidence, that the Advantages of Vortimer were
neither confiderable, nor even real. His Death brought fome
Quiet to Britain, if a deceitful Calm, that prov'd the Ruin
of the Britons, may be fo call'd.

After a Twenty Years War, both Sides began to fhew an
Inclination for Peace, which Vortimer had always ftrenuoufly
oppofed, fearing when the War was over with the Saxons,
he fhould be obliged to begin another with Ambrofius, who
had the Hearts of the People, and could hardly bear to fee
Vortigcrn, and his Son on the Throne, though deprived of
half their Dominions. The Peace was concluded, on con-
dition each Party fhould keep what he pofrefled. HengiJ},
who had entertain'd Hopes of conquering all Britain, was
not a little concerned to find himfelf fo much difappointed.
He comforted himfelf however with the Thoughts of do-
ing by Policy, what he could not effect by Force.

"When we reflect on theWeaknefs and Difpiritednefs of
the Britons before the Arrival of Hengiji, it mult be furprizing
to fee them able to ftand againft the Saxons in the firft War,
which lafted fo long. Thofe very Britons, who after the
Departure of the Romans, fcarce dared to look the Pids and
Scots in the Face, fuccefsfully defended themfelves againft
both Saxons and Pitls : Nay, they even frequently ventur'd
to attack the Saxons in the Height of their Strength, and
put them in fear of lofing the Country of Kent, delivered to
them by Vortigcrn. And if they could not wreft it from
them, at leaft they prevented them from enlarging their
Conquefts. A long War teaches at length the molt unwar-
like Nation theUfe of Arms, and very often enables them
to repair in the End the LoiTes they fuitain'd in the Beginning.

Had the Saxons invaded Britain at firft with a numerous
Army, in all Appearance they would have conquered the
Whole in a very little Time. But fending over only a fmall
Number of Supplies, they fpun the War out to a great
Length, and by that Means taught the Britons a Trade,
which the Romans had done all they could to make them
forget. Of This, there have been many other Inftances.
It may be faid perhaps, that wliilft they defended them-
felves in the South, they loft Ground in the North. But it
muft be confidered, the Country beyond the Hwnbcr was
loft to them, before the Coming of Hengiji, and that the
Saxons took it from the Picls and Scots, and not from the
Britons. We are ignorant of what Ocla and Ebuja did
during this long War. It is to be fuppofed they affifted
Hengiji by frequent Diverfions, and even fent him Supplies
by Sea, which they could not do by Land, becaufe of
marching through the Enemy's Country.

Hengiji, After all his Hopes of becoming Matter of Br/-Hengifl Jar-
tain, faw himfelf with extreme Regret redue'd to the King-'/
dom of Kent. He had acquainted the Saxon Princes in Ger- Brii u .
many, that, provided they fent him Supplies, he could eafily c ;- y nrn -
procure them a lafting Settlement in the Ifland. And yet M :jj™
after twenty Years War, he found there was but little Appea-M. Weftm.
ranee of his being as good as his Word. The falling oft" of
Vortigcrn, and the Valour of Ambrofius, join'd to a Conduct
which equalled him to the molt famous Generals, feemed
to lay invincible Obftacles in his Way. However, he was
refolv'd not to give over his Defign, but endeavour to do
That by Fraud which he could not accomplifh by Force. To
this end he contrived a Plot, that by its Blacknefs fullied the
Glory of all his former Actions. As foon as the Peace was
concluded, he pretended to be mighty well pleafed with it,
and behaved in fuch a manner as fhowed he had no Defign
of enlarging his Conquefts. The Britons, charm'd with
this feeming Moderation, were eafily comforted for the
Lofs of Kent, imagining they knew the worft, and, perhaps,
hoping one Day to meet with a favourable Juncture to re-
cover it again. In the mean Time, not to provoke a Prince
whofe Valour they had fo often experienced, they lived in
an amicable manner with him. In ftiort, their Animofity
againft the Saxons by degrees entirely vanifhed. Hengiji o-
mitted nothing to keep them in a Security, which would lead
them into the Snare he was preparing for them. He let
them know, his Intention being to live in perfect Union
with them, he fhould be glad from Time to Time to keep
up the good Underftanding between the two Nations by
Parties of Pleafure. Vortigcrn, a paflionate Lover of fuch Di-

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