M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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&c JI -6i 659 ' w ' tnout trouble, Adolphus of Najfau, newly defied Em-
Ac! ' peror, Albert Duke or Aujlria, the Archbifhop of Cologn,
and feveral other Princes of Germany, the Duke of Brabant,
the Earls of HoIland,Juliers, and Luxemburg/} were engaged
in the League, by the great Sums Edward was to furndh
Mezfrai. them with (1). All thefe Princes, proud of their Num-
Chr. Belg. ber and Strength, lent Cartels of Defiance to Philip, of
whom he was offended with none fo much as the Earl of
Flanders ; who being his Valla], boldly told him, he would
no longer acknowledge him for a Sovereign.
Edward Whilft Philip was preparing to repulfe this Attack, Ed-
cttcts 1I11 ward was uling all poflible endeavours, to procure the Mo-
Ptidt of the ne y ke wanted extremely, on account of his Engage-
Walfing. ments with the confederate Princes. To that end he af-
M. Weft, fembled the Parliament at St. Edmundsbury (2), and ob-
T. Wikes. ta j ne( j an am of the eighth Part of the Moveables (3) of
the Cities and Burroughs, and a twelfth of the reft of
the Laity. This Example could not influence the Cler-
. n. r, , CV- They pretended they were exempted Irom giving

Aft. Pub. *=/. , / C_. , . J r - , ,. \ . . ri-u °

II. p. 707. Aids to the Ring, by virtue of a Bud lent the laft 1 ear
by Boniface V ill. to the Archbifhop of Canterbury, which
r>. 4 - S. 1 he had kept without making publick. By this Bull
Walling. all Ecclefiafticks were exprefsly forbid to pay any Tax to
fecular Princes, without tne Confent of the Holy See.
The Clergy's Refufal extremely provoked the King. Ne-
verthelefs beiore he proceeded to violent Methods (4), he
caufed it to be reprefented to the principal Members, That
fince they poiTefled Fees in the Kingdom, and enjoyed the
Protection of the Laws, as well as the reft of his Subjects,
it .v ;.:but reafonable thev fhould contribute to the publick
Expe..-es. But thefe Remonllrances were ineffectual.
M. Weft. When h cQmnd he could not prevail, he commanded all the
Waliing. Lay-Fees pofil-ffed by the Clergy to be feized, and their
whole Body to be thrown out of the Protection of the
Laws ; exprefsly forbidding his Judges to do them Juftice,
in any cafe whatever. So bold a Step aftonifhed the Cler-
gy, who, fince the beginning of the Monarchy, had
never experienced the like Refolution, in any King of
England. If Edward had been like his Father or Grand-
father, perhaps that powerful Body would have found, in
the People's Difcontent, means to make the King repent
of his Boldnefs. But as they perceived it would be diffi-
cult to ftir up the People, they did not think proper to
exert their Endeavours, which probably would be to no
purpofe. So that fome fpeedily compounding with the
King for the fifth Part of their Goods, their Example
drew in the reft. The Archbifhop of Canterbury was
treated more feverely, as he was not only the rirft Advifer
of the Clergy's Refufal, but perfifted in it more obflinate-
Jy than the others (5). The King ordered all his Eflates
to be feized, with the Revenues of the Monafteries of hisDi-
ocefe, and committed the management of them to Officers,
who left the Monks no more than was abfolutely neceffary
for their Subfiflence. In all appearance, this was to punifh
them, for too warmly adhering to their Archbifhop.
The King's Refolution at length made that Prelate ftoop,
who to recover his Sovereign's Favour, gave him a fourth
Part (6) of his Goods. Thus the Clergy when they meet
with vigorous Princes, are as fubmiffive, as they are haugh-



ty, when they have to deal with thofe that are fcrupu- 129-.
lous and weak.

Shortly after, on much the fame occafion, the Lay- Edward »
Lords fhewed more Steddinefs than the Prelates, though °Pt°S£ h
againft the fame Prince. To execute his grand Projects, M wCft.'"
he aftembled the Nobility at Salisbury (7), on purpofe to Walfing.
fee exactly what Troops each Baron could furnifh him
with (8). His Intention was to make a powerful Diver-
fion in Guienne, whilft he preffed the Enemy on the fide
of Flanders. But it was difficult to find Lords that would
ferve, but where he commanded in Perfon. Every one
defir'd to be excufed ferving in Guienne, though they
were willing to furnifh the Troops. Edward, not fatis-
fied with their Excufes, threatned to give their Lands to
fuch as would be more obedient. Thefe Menaces raifed
great Commotions among the Nobles. They were far
from thinking their Lands at the King's difpofal. Hum- Bjj-xf, a f
phrey Bohun High-Conftable, and Hugh Bigod Earl of two Ear'h.
Korfolf and Marfhall of England, more bold than the reft, £ n 'g>"on.
plainly told the King, they were ready to follow him waifing? 3 "
where lie commanded in Perfon, and not otherwife. The C.Abingto*
Marfhall added, he was willing to lead the Van-Guard un-
der the King, as his Office obliged him, but would not
ferve under any other, to which none had a Right to com-
pel him. The King anfwered in a great Paffion, he
would make him go. To which the other replied, he
fhould not. By the eternal God, faid the King then, in
gieat Ra<;e, You /hall march or be hanged. By the eternal
God, replied the Earl, I will neither march nor be hanged ;
and immediately withdrew without returning to Court
any more.

Edward had feen, in the King his Father's Reign, frfi- Tin King
quent and fatal Inftances of the Infolence of the Barons. d 'A?' , ' h
He knew too well their great Union in the defence of their Knighton.
Privileges, to hazard his Reputation and Quiet in a War M. Weft,
againft them. A Quarrel of that nature mail have been
very prejudicial to him, as well as to the whole King-
dom. The leaft Inconvenience that could happen, was,
lofing the opportunity of being revenged of the King of
France. As the Barons flood difpofed, it was fcarce to
be doubted, but they would have all joined againft him,
if he had undertaken openly to chafti'e the Infolence of
thofe that dared to withftand him to his Face. He had
ftill farther Reafon to be confirmed in this belief, when
he heard that, dreading his Refentment, they began to
raife Troops in their Defence, in cafe he defigned to at-
tack them (9). Without much penetration it was eafy to
fee, they were fupported. Thefe Confiderations induced
the King to hide his Refentment till he could fhew it
effectually. Befides, he was unwilling to lofe the oppor-
tunity of going into Flanders, where the Wants of the
Earl his Ally inceffantly called him. However, it was m tuns
not long before he found a favorable Juncture to correct :b ' m '<" °f
the Boldnefs of the two Earls, by turning them out of : "' r °JP"''
their Pofts, becaufe they refufed to do fomething belong-
ing to their Offices, for fear of falling into his hands. TUPispk
He was very near repenting what he had done. Tuft as™^r*™ "
he was going to embark, he received from the Bifhops, ' K ' n ; En '^„
Earls, Barons, and Commons of the Realm, a long Re- Col. 25 n.
monftrance, containing a Lift of the Grievances of the Walfing.
Nation, and feveral Violations of the Great Charter. j\j'\vcfh
This Proceeding made him fenfible, he was to act with
deliberation, for fear of provoking a Nation, which feem-
ed ready to take Fire upon the firft occafion. He re-
turned therefore a very gracious Anfwer to the Remon-
ftrance, and promifed upon his Honour, to redrefs, at
his return, all the Abufes complained of. He defired the He appeafet
Nobles to be quiet during his AbTence, alluring them, he ,b ' m b »
would give them entire SatisfacTtic-i. As it was no lefs necef- limt *""""
fary to appeafe the People, exafperated by the fecret Prac-
tices of the two Earls, he publifhed a Proclamation to juftify Aft. Pub.
his Conduct, and fhew his Reafons for turning out thefe two u - ?■ 7 8 J-
great Officers. Amongft other things, he faid in this
Proclamation he was informed his People were made to
believe, that he refufed to receive Remonllrances, tend-
ing to the Good of the Publick, which he affirmed to
be falfe. He expreffed likewife great Sorrow for having Knighton,
put his Subjects to vaft Expences for the maintenance of



[l] M /•'.'. i.i>-. Pihatni promifed to give the Emperor a hundred thoufrnd Pounds Sterling, p. 411. la Rytna't Feel, it is three hundred thoufand
Pounds of black Tunlois, Turn. 11. p. 741. And gave the Earl of Flanders fifteen thoufand Pounds, to fortify his Catties, li. p. 419. King Edward
tuned olio .Itnadeus Earl of Sat y to his Side, and fent him two and twenty thoufand Pounds Sterling, to pay the Forces that were to be raifed in his
oris, and the Parts ac'jjccnt. lb. p. 651.

(l) On Mrvontcr II. M. Weft, p. 418. Kc-vemter 3. fays Walfingbam p. 68, which is according to the Writ; of Summons.

(3) ''-'• /; "-' V-; • it lva - *« e.ghth Penny, from all Merchants and Citizens, cf Cities and Towns, p. 421.

(4) He gave them time to confider of this matter till the next Parliament, which was held at London, Jan. 13. Walfingbsm, p. 68.

(5) He earned the Bull above-mentioned to be read in all Cathedrals. Ik. p. 42S.

(6) The fifth P^rt, fay, M. Wifi. p. 429. and Walfing. p. 69.

(7) On February 25. Mat. Weft, p.429. Wolfing, p. 69. Ret. Pari. 25. Edw. I. M. Dor/.

(8) He trlcred thofe that held by Knight's Service, and all that were worth above twenty Pounds a Year in Land, to be reaty at Ltnd-.rr, by Auguft

1 Arms, to go over with him into Guienne. And alfo railed the Cuilom upon Wool, horn t..vnty to forty Shillings per Bag.

tm, p. 69.
o; They drew feveral of the Great Men to their Side, and affembled about fifteen hundred Men together, intending to ftand upon their own D.frrcet
I I ■ life to pay all manner of Taxes or Contributions. Kmgbtui, Col. 2493.



his



Book IX.



9. E D W A R D I.



379



Aft P..b.

II. p. 791.

Walling.
Knighton.
M. Weil.



Philip pre-
/"'•■' /'■' his
Define



lie corrupts.

Edward's
Mia,



Walling.



and bcfieges
Lille.



Tie Duke of
Juliers de-
feated by the *
French.



Edward
arrives in
Flanders.

T. Wikcs.
'Walfing.

Knighton.
Facliens
there prejudi
c:al to bis
lr.tereflt.



his Wars. Me defired his People to excuie what Necef-
fity had cond rained him to do, and promifed to obferve the
Great Charter punctually for the future, which he fhortly
after performed ( 1 ). The Prince his Son, whom lie left
Regent (2), allemblingthe Parliament^), and obtaining a
large Sublidy (4), confirmed King John's two Charters,
by an authentick Act, figned in Flanders by the King
himfelf, and fealed with the Great Seal which he had
carried with him (5). We may obferve in the Hiftory
of England feveral of the like Inftances. I mean, that
the Kings, who have dealt gently with their Subjects,
and anfwered with moderation to their Complaints, have
feldom failed to appeafe them, provided they have not,
like Henry III, affected continually to deceive them and
break their Word. On the contrary, fuch as have acted
too haughtily, have generally brought thcmfelvcs into great
Trouble; ot which we have feen very remarkable Exam-
ples in fome of the foregoing Reigns.

Whilft Edward was employed at home in making Pre-
parations to fupport the League formed againft France,
Philip was no lefs careful to provide acainft the impending
Afiault. He ftrengthened himfelf by Alliances, with the
Kings of Cajlile and Arragon, and railed a powerful Army,
whilft Joan Queen ol Navarre his Wife, afi'embled her
own Forces to aflift him. Champagne, which belonged to
that Princefs, was firft attacked, by the Earl of Bar one
of Edward's Allies, who ravaged that Province from one
end to the other. But the Sequel of this Undertaking was
as fatal to the Earl, as the beginning was profperous.
Upon the Queen's Approach, who was advancing to de-
fend her Country, the Earl, feized with Fear, and unable
to fight, or retreat, was forced to furrender to that Prin-
cefs, who lent him Prifoner to Parts.

Mean while, the confederate Princes made no hafte to
fend their Troops into Flanders. Adolphus of Najfau,
detained by Troubles which Philip had raifed him in
Germany, or as fome affirm, by Prefents, could not, or
would not perform what he had promifed. The Duke of
Aujlria was bribed by the fame means, and the Dukes of
Brabant and Luxemburgb, the Earls of Guelder s and Beau-
mont, followed their Example. Philip improving this
Advantage, entered Flanders at the head of threefcore
thoufand Men, and immediately fat down before Liflc.
Guy, who impatiently waited for the Englifh Supplies,
was not able to withstand the King of France, not ha-
ving half the Forces he was made to expect:. All he
could? do was to try to break Philip's meafures by a Di-
verfion, under the Conduct of the Duke of juliers.
When the King of France heard, this General had taken
the Field, he detached the Earl of Ariois, who meet-
ing him near Fumes, gave him Battle, and put his
Army to rout. The Duke of Juliers was flain in the
Fight, and the Earl of Artois loll his eldeft Son. This
Defeat caufed Guy not to ftir from Ghent and Bruges,
where he expected Edward. Befides he was in great
Perplexity by reafon of the Divifions in his Country.
There were two Parties in Flanders ; one, called Porte-lys,
was in the Interefts of France, and the other for the
Earl.

Edward arrived at laft (6), after having been long ex-
pected, but with Forces little proportioned to the great
Undertaking (7) ; becaufe he depended upon the Allies,
who were not fo good as their Word. At his entry
into Bruges, he found the whole City in Confulion, by
reafon of the Animofity of the two forementioned Fac-
tions. It was with difficulty, that he at length appeafed
the Commotions of the City, by granting the Inhabitants
certain Privileges, concerning their Commerce with Eng-
land. After that he came to Ghent, where he found
the fame Divifions. So that, as on his part, he brought
not with him all the Forces he had promifed, he him-



felf faw v/ith vexation how little able the Earl of Flan- 1 297,
ders was, to fupply the Troops he had been made to ex-
pect. 1 he Flemings were divided concerning the Wax,
Some approved it, whiht other-, maintained it' to be dc-
ftructive to their Country, and undertaken by their Prince
for his own, or the King of England's, Interefts.
Whilft Edward was employed in compofing tlicfe DifTe- LifletoW
rences, fo prejudicial to his Affairs, Philip, after a three ^ i ' hil '>'
Months Siege, made himfelf mailer of LiJJt. When he^bomaiei
was in pollefiiun of this Place, he eafdy reduced Douay, J^f - *
Courtray, and fome other Towns in the r.-j-hbourhood. '" 9 ''
Then he inarched to Bruges, which furrendered without
rcliftance. He had lormed the Project of burning the
EngUJh Fleet, which lay at Anchor at Dam. But the
Earl ot Palais, who had taken this Expedition unonhim,
not being fecret enough in his Preparations, found the
Englijb Ships failed.

All Edward's meafures were broken, by the Treachery * Trmtt
of his chief Allies, who forfook him after taking his Mo
ney. The Supplies he could exped from the Earl of AS. t
Flanders, were uncertain and incontiderable, by reafon of u - P- 79S»
the Porte-lys Faction, which oppofed all Refolves any fa '
way detrimental to France. His own Troops were too
few to enable him to withfland his Enemy's Forces.
Befides, fiefh Commotions in Scotland, rendered his
Prefence neceifary in his Kingdom, where too he was
not without Fear, that his Abfence might occafion fome
Troubles. All thefc Coniiderations together, induced
him to feek fome Expedient to get off, without being
obliged to abandon the Earl of Flanders, whom he had in-
gaged in his Quarrel. He found no better than to detirc
a Truce, which was granted him folcly upon the account
of the King of Sicily, and the Earl of Savoy ; who ufed
their Interefl for him. By this Truce, (which was to
laft but till the Epiphany for Guienne, and till St. An-
drew's Day (8), only for Flanders,) Philip continued in
pofTemon of the Places he had taken. Probably, this Afl - p " b -
Condition ferved to prolong the Truce for two Years ; "' J' So £'
Philip being very well pleafed peaceably to enjoy his Con-"'
quells. How hafty foever Edward might be to fettle Eliwa " J
matters in Scotland, he fpent the reft of the Winter at Ghent* and
Ghent, to try to unite the Inhabitants of that powerful ulikt'tt be
City. He hoped by that means to have a conliderable * :li ' 1
Affiftance from thence, when the Truce was expired. M " We '
During his ftay, he was in danger of his Life, by a Se-
dition of the Citizens, who were refolved to murder all
the Englifh. It is faid he owed his Life to the Gene-
rofity of a Flemifh Knight, of the Porte-lys Faction, who
by his Pains and Intreaties flopped the Fury of the muti-
nous People. His danger giving him teafon to dread fome
irefh Intuit, he relinquifhed his Undertaking and returned
to his Dominions.

Such was the Succefs of Edward's Expedition into
Flanders. The powerful League, which feemed ready to
fwallow up France, ferved only to drain the Treafur'e of
the Projector; and convince him, how difficult it would
be to recover by Fotce the Country loft by his Impru-
dence. To be difappointed in his Projects, was not much :
That is a misfortune to which the greateft Men are fome-
times liable. But here was more : He could not extricate
himfelf out of the Difficulties he had run into, without
greatly injuring his Honour. Notwithftanding his pro-
mife to protect the Earl of Flanders to the end, hedeferted
him however, as will be feen hereafter. Let us return
now to Scotland, which is to be the chief Subject of the
reft of this Reign.

Though Edward had conquered Scotland, he had not -v
fubdued the Hearts of the Scots, who bore with impati- ScJtlln ' 1 '
ence the Yoke impofed on them by Force. When thev
faw Edward employed in Flanders, they took that oppor-
tunity to rife under the Conduct of IVilliam H'allace, a



(1) Before King Edward d 'parted for Flanders, he held a Parliament at London, Augujl I," wherein he reltored the Archbilhop to his Favour ; and ordered
the Great Men there prefent, to luear Fealty to his Son Edward, and acknowledge him fur his Heir. Walftngbam, p. 70. fCnigbton, Col. 2510.

(2) The following Perfons were appointed his Governors or Councilors, Richard Bilh p of London, William Beaucbamp, Earl of Waraiat\ and R-

de Gray, "John Gijfard, anil Alan Phtenet, Knights. IValjingham, p. 73. "John de Langeton was appointed Chancellor. Rjmer*t FttJ. Turn. II. p. -01.

(3) On Oliobtr 7. RyiKtr's Feed. Tom. II. p. 793, 794.. 10 Clauf. 25 Edward I. M. 6. Dorf.

(4) In confederation of his confirming the two Charters, the Laity regranted him the eighth Part of their Goods, they had given before at St- Edm:rdi-
bury ; {for it had not been yet levied ; the Eirls of Herefrd and Norfolk, having given exprefs Orders to the Barons of the Exchequer, and the Sher.i:

to attempt to collect, it ; alled.ing, that it had been granted without their Knowledge, fine quorum afjinfu taliagiam non d-.bel exig:, vet imjr.nj. At. /.' ' .
p. 431.) The Clergy alio granted the King a Tenth. Ibid.

(c) It was fealed at Gaunt, November r, Ibid. This Aft, or Statute, is extant in Coke's fecond Inttitute, p. 52:. and contains fome Additions to, or Ex-
planations v( fome Articles in Magna Cbarta. It is as follows, 1. No Tallage, or Aid, mall be impofed, or levied, by us or our Heirs, in our Kingdom,
without the Will and Confcnt of the Archbilhops, Bifhnps, Earls, Barons, Knights, BurgelTcs, and other Freeholders in our Kingdom. 2. No Officer be-
longing to us, or our Heirs, (hall lake the Corn, Provifions, or any other Goods whatsoever, without the Owner's C nlcnt. 3. Nothing thall be t b
the future, fur any Sack of Wool, under the Name and pretence of Culloms. 4. We Will and Grant, for us and our Heirs, that all the Clergy and Laity
in our Kingdom, enjoy all their Laws, Liberties, and free Cufcoms, as fully and freely, as they have been ufed to enjoy them at any time. And if Any
Statutes have been made, or Cuftoms introduced, by us or our Ancettors, contrary to them, we Will and Grant, that thej be for ever void and null. The
reft relate only to the Earls of Fffex and Suffolk, Sec. See Coke's fee nd [nrlitO.tr, p. 532, Ac. Kragbtcn, Col. 2-23. H'al/irghjm, p. 73.

(6) He failed from Wincheltea, Auguft 22, and landed the 27th near Slnys. Rymer's Feed. Tom. II. p. 791. iValJingbam, p. 72.

(?) Knighton fays, he carried over one thoufand five hundred Men at Arras, and fifty thoufand Foot; thirty thoufand whereof w:rr Wthbmtn, Cal»
2512.

(S] Till eight Days after. See Rymer's Feed, Tom. II. p. 795 79S.



Man



3 8o



7%e HISTO RT of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



.297.

William
Wallace
fitrs up the
Scots to a
Revolt.
Buchanan.
Walfing.
Knighton.



He drivel
the Englifh
cut ^Scot-
land.



Walfing.
Knighton.



Ht is de-
clared Re-
gent.
Buchanan.



Philip and
Edward
chcoje the
Pope/or
Umpire.

Aa. Pub.
II. p. 808,

&c.

Walfing.

Aft. Pub.
II. p. Si 7.



Edward

cgr.tim:i the
Gust Char-
ter.

Walfing.
Knighton.
M. Weft.



I29S.
He mardvs
into Scotland
Walfing.
Knighton.



ir.d d, ft its
:i .'. 1 ..
Falkirk.
Buchanar.
Walfing.
M. Weft.



Man of no illuftrious Family, and of a ftill meaner For-
tune, but of a very great Genius ( 1 ). This generous
Scot, though of little Authority among his Countrymen,
took upon him to raife his Country out of the Gulph of
Mifery wherein it was plunged ; whilft the Perfons of the
higheft Rank, divided by Factions, or adhering to the
Conqueror, were ftriving who fhould moft perpetuate its
Slavery. The Scotch Writers give this famous Man a
Character, which equals him to the greateft Heroes, and
are at a lofs for Words lofty enough to exprefs his Merit.
Wallace then, though fcarce known in Scotland, refolving
to retrieve the Liberty of his Country, alTembled a fmall
number of Troops for that purpofe. How inconfiderable
foever this Body was, of which he had the Command,
he made (o wonderful a Progrefs, that one does not know
which to admire moft, either the Boldnefs, or the firft
Succefs, of his Enterprize. All that longed for Liberty,
finding there was a Man hardy enough to head them,
lifted in Crowds under his Banner, and quickly formed a
confiderable Army. With this Aid, Wallace attacked the
Places poffefied by the Englijh, and whofe Garrifons were
weak, becaufe Edward had wanted his Troops in Flan-
ders. By his Severity to thofe that fell into his hands,
he ftruck fuch Terror into the reft, that fcarce any Place
held out to Extremity, for fear of being liable to the fame
Treament. By this means he recovered in a very fhort
Space, all the Towns taken by the Englijh, and left them
only the fingleTown of Berwick (2). Thefe profperous
Succefies bred in his Army fo great Admiration for his Bra-
very, that, without ftanding upon the ufual Formalities,
he was declared Regent of the Kingdom. Edward, who
was then in Flanders, hearing of Wallace's Progrefs (3),
haftened the Conclufion of the Treaty abovementioned,
and returned into England (+), bent upon feverely punifhing
the Revolt of the Scots.

Before he undertook this Expedition, it was abfolutely
neceflary to fettle two Affairs of equal Importance. The
firft was, to find fome way to make Peace with France,
left Philip fhould affift the Scots. The fecond, to give
fome Satisfaction to the People, as he had prom i fed to do
after his Return. He found no better method to accomplifh
his firft Aim, than by getting Philip to agree to refer their
Difference to Boniface Mill, who was not vet at variance
with that Prince as he was afterwards. Philip clofing
with this Propofal, the two Monarchs left their Con-
tefts to the Pope's Arbitration, not as Head of the Church,
but as a private Perfon under the Name of Benedict Ca-
jctan.

This Affair being like to fucceed, the fecond was to be
thought of. In order to gain the Affection of his Sub-
jects, Edward called a Parliament (5), and, of his own
accord, confirmed the Great Charter (6). It is true, he
infifted very much upon having this Claufe inferted in
this Confirmation, Saving the Prerogatives of the Crown.
But finding the Parliament oppofed it with great warmth,
he chofe to defift, which had a very good Effect upon the
People.

Edward being thus freed from the Uneafinefs thefe two
Affairs gave him, put himfelf at the head of a powerful
Army, and advancing into the middle of Scotland, met
his Enemies at Falkirk. The two Armies were encamp-
ed fo near together, that the Englijl? hearing a great Shout
in the Enemies Camp, ran to their Arms in the utmoft
hurry, believing they were going to be attacked. The



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