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King alfo would mount his Horfe ; but as he was put-
ting his Foot in the Stirrup, the Horfe, frighted by the
Noife that was made, threw him on the ground, and
with a Kick broke two of his Ribs. This fad Accident
hindered him not from being in the Battle which quickly
tnfued, and commanding with the fame prefence of
Mind as if he had been unhurt. The Battle proved
bloody, and withal very fatal to the Scots ; who, accord-

ing to fome Writers, loft threefcore thoufand Men: But 1298.
this is not very likely. Others who reduce the Number
to ten thoufand, are perhaps as wide of the truth (7).
Be this as it will, the Lofs of the Scots was fo great,
that for a long while they were not able to hold up their
Head. Wallace with the Remains of his Army, retired
behind the northern Fens, where it was not poffible to
follow him. Meantime, Edward improving his Vi£lory,
retook all the Places of Strength, with the lame eafe he
had loft them. So he may be faid on this occafion to
conquer Scotland a fecond time. After neceffary Orders
for the Prefervation of the Kingdom, he marched back
into England, where he was called by important Af-

Wallace was not then in a condition to take advantage ra « Scotch
of Edward's Abfence. He had not only loft his Army, L '?""'

■ J ' leaizui of

but moreover plainly perceived the Jealoufy of the Scotch Wallace.
Lords was one of the principal Ciufes of his Defeat. Buchanan.
His Virtues, inftead of filling them with Emulation, made
them appreheniive of his afpiring to the Crown. In this
belief, they chofe rather, that their Country fhould groan
under perpetual Bondage, than fee themfelves reduced to
do Homage to one of fo inferiour a Birth. Thefe Suspici-
ons muft needs have been fpread among the Nobility, fince
Robert Bruce Earl of Carrick, Son of the Candidate to
the Crown, upbraided Wallace upon that account. This His Con/,.
Earl, who ferved in Edward's Army, being on the™" «"'*
day of the Battle of Falkirk, in purfuit of Wallace who


was retreating, and ftopped by a little River, which the
Scots had juft palled, fent to defire him to come and fpeak
with him on the oppofite Bank. Wallace confenting to
it, Robert reprefented to him, " That he was ruining
" himfelf by his Ambition. That there was no like-
" lihood of his refifting the Forces of the King of Eng-
" land; and though he might flatter himfelf with fuch*
" Hopes, the great Men of the Kingdom would never
" be brought to own him for King." Wallace replied,
" That in taking up Arms, he was not in the leaft fway-
" ed by Ambition : That he acknowledged himfelf too
" unworthy of the Throne, to dare to look fo high ;
" but that his only Aim was to free his Country, which
" the great Men of the Realm fuffered to perifli by their
" Cowardice." It is faid this Reply made fuch an Im-
preflion on Bruce' % mind, that he burft out into Tears.
It is further added, that he refolved from that very mo-
ment, to ufe his utmoft endeavours to free Scotland from
the Slavery ftie groaned under.

Meantime, Wallace, knowing how much the great Wallace hyss
Men's Jealoufy of him was prejudicial to the Interefts of'*"™* llx
the Kingdom, refigned the Regency, and acted only as a ^r ''
private Perfon. He ceafed not however, to the utmoft of
his power, and upon all occafions, to endeavour to fet his
Country free. Some time after Edward left Scotland, they dmyn
who had any remains of Affection for their Country, chofe 'htfatin tit
Comyn for Regent. But this Regency was of little con- <£"'
fequence, fince it gave him Authority only over a fmall
Part of the Kingdom, and a few confufed Troops, efcaped
from the late Battle.

Upon Edward's return into England (8), he ufed his Hdward
utmoft endeavours to promote the Negotiation, now in'*''*', 1 ''.'
the hands of the Pope, for the Reftitution of Giiiennc (9). B f p, ace .
Since he defpaired of regaining that Province by Arms, »«' France.
the Alliance of the Earl of Flanders was a Burden to him ;
the Protection he had promifed him, being a perpetual
Obftacle to the Conclufion of the Peace. He refolved
therefore to abandon his Ally, and from thenceforward all
Difficulties began to vanifh. The unfortunate Earl, for-
faken by the King of England, and on the other fide,
prefled by the Earl oSValois, who commanded the French
Army in Flanders, knew not which way to turn himfelf.
In this wretched fituation, he was perfuaded at length tQ
deliver himfelf up to that Prince, who promifed to con-

(1) T. rVal/sttgbam fays, That rViUiam de Ormejhy, King Edward's Jufticiary in Scotland, having banilhed feveral Perfons out of that Kingdom, becaufe
they refufed to lwear Fealty, and do Homage to his Mailer J they entered into a Confederacy, and chofe Wallace for their Leader, in May, this Year, p. -o.

(2) And foon after the S.ots became ailb Matters of it j namely, after the Battle of Sterling, wherein the Englijh were defeated, and Hugh dc Crejjingbam
the Treasurer llain ; whom the Scots hated lb, that they ftea'd him, and cut his Skin in pieces. Walfingbam, p. 73.

(i) He ordered John dc Warren, Earl of Surrey and Suffix, to affemble the Militia beyond the Trent, and go and chaftifc the Scots: Accordingly, the Earl
fent his N-jhew, Henry de Percy into Scotland, but it does not appear he performed any remarkable Exploit. Ibid. p. 70.

(4) And landed, March 14, at Sandwich. Rymer's Feed. Tom. II. p. Si 3.

. ( \',, At5 '*' W'aljingham. M.IVcfi. p. 431. And becaufe the Confirmation of the two Charters had been done beyond Sea, the Earls of Hereford and
defired, that the faid Confirmation (houid be now renewed : The Earls of Surrey, War^oick, and Ralph de Mom-hermer, promifed, in the king s Name,
that it mould be done, at his return from Scotland; which was accordingly performed, in a Parliament holden at London, in Ler.t, 13CO. IVaijirgham,
»■ - ; ,7 6 -

[h) He appointed alfo Ccmmiflioners in each County, to enquire into the Grievances. See Rymer's Feed. Tcm. II. p. Si 3. The Laity granted him a
Ninth, and the Clergy a Tenth. .11 Weft, p. 431.
(7) This Cattle was f. ught July 22. Buchanan.

(5) Alter the Battle of Falkirk, King Edivard intended to march further into Scot/and, but was forced to alter his Refolutk n, becaufe the Country being
utterly wafted, and his Fleet n t arriving with Previlicns, as was expected, a great Scarcity was thereby occafioncd in his Camp. He retired therefore through

.ft of Selkirk towards England, taking by the way the Cafties of Ayer and Lcughmaben in Anandalc : And from thence came to Carjli/c, and afterwards

'jam, where he held a great Council in the beginning of September, and bellowed on feveral great Men of England and Sat/and, the Eftates of liioh Scor-

>blemen as had of late revolted from him. From thence he removed to 'Jmmouth, and then to Cutingbam near Beverley, where he kept his Cirftmjfs.

bam, p. 76.

(9) Not long after Chriftmafs, King Edivird held a Parliament at London, on the firft Sunday in Ler.t ; wherein he was petitioned by the Parliament to

e nriim the Great Charter, and Charter of Forefts j accordingly he confirmed the former, but reiufed to confirm the latter: Whereupon the Patliamcnt broke

up in difcontent. M. Weji. p. 431,

2 duel

Book IX.

9. EDWARD f,


j 299.



II. p. 049.


Aft. Pub.
II. p. S33,

T. Wikcs.
M. Wjft.

Act. Hub.
II. p. 868,

duct him to Piiris, that he might treat in Perfon with ihc
King, and in cafe lie could not within a twelve Month ob-
tain a Peace, to permit him to be at liberty to return into
his Dominions. But Philip not thinking himfelf bound
by his Brother's Word, kept the Earl Prifoner(i).

The two Years Truce between France and England
being about to expire, the Ambafladors of the two Kings
met at Montrueil upon the Sea, where the Pope fent them
his Sentence of Arbitration, the Subftance whereof was
as follows: That Edward fhould again take poffeflion of
Guienne, and, to reftorc Union between the two Kings,
fhould marry Alargaret Sifter of Philip (2) ; and that Isa-
bella Daughter (3) of the fame Philip, fhould be given to
the Prince of Wales, Son of Edward. It was faid alfo in
the Sentence, that "John Baliol, formerly King of Scot-
land, fhould be delivered into the hands of the Pope's
Nuntio, to be kept where he fhould think proper. The
Plenipotentiaries of the two Crowns figncd this Sentence :
But as there were fevcral things to be adjuftcd in order to
put it in execution, they agreed upon a Truce, which
afterwards was frequently prolonged before the Treaty of
Peace was figncd. Mean while, Baliol was delivered to the
Bifhop of Vincentia, the Pope's Nuntio, who committed
him to the Cuftody of fome French Bifhops.
Trua granted When the new Regent of Scotland heard, that a Treaty
« Scotland, was negotiating at Montreuil between France and England,
he fent Deputies to Philip to intreat him to caufe Scot-
land to be included. The Juncture appeared favorable.
Edward earneftly wifhed to recover Guienne by a Treaty,
not thinking himfelf in condition to regain it any other
way. Probably, therefore, he would, upon that confide-
ration, grant Scotland tolerable Terms, if the King of
France would ferioufly endeavour to obtain them. And
indeed, Philip tried at firft to perfuade Edivard to leave
Scotland in quiet. But the moment he propofed it, he
found it impoflible to procure any thing, but fome little
Advantages, which too they would be obliged to purchafe,
by a formal Acknowledgment of the Power that held them
in Slavery. Edward was in poffeffioii of Scotland, where
he fcarce met with any farther Oppolition. So that, to
propofe his granting a Peace to that Kingdom, was in
effect to defire him to relinquifh his Conquer!. On the
other hand, he could not grant a feparate Peace to the
Regent and his Adherent?, without leaving in Scotland a
Power independent of his own. All therefore that Phi-
lip could obtain was a feven Months Truce, for fuch as
could not think of bearing his Yoke. If we believe the
Scotch Hiftorians, this Truce was ill-kept by England.
Cmnyn ex- But it may be, this is only to juftify Comyn's Refolution
b.rti tht Scots t0 Drea k: it. However that be, the Regent alTembled the
Lords whom he knew to be well-affected to their Country,
and reprefented to them the fad Condition it was reduced to.
He told them, if they gave Edivard time to fecure his Con-
queft, he would take fuch meafures, as would render in-
effectual all future Endeavours for the Recovery of their Li-
berty. That as foon as the few Remains of the Scots which
ftill refilled, were fubdued, he would entirely reduce the
miferable Kingdom to a perfect Slavery. That this Defign
would now have been executed, had it not been retarded
by the Truces procured them by France. That there was
therefore no time to lofe, and it was neceffary fpeedily
to refolve to make a generous Effort for the Recovery of
their Liberty, or to leave their Country in perpetual Slavery.
Then he fhewed them with what Eafe they might free
themfelves from the Yoke, whilft Edivard depended on
their Weaknefs, and the Winter Seafon offered them Ad-
vantages, which they could never more expect when once
it was pafied. Thefe Remonftrances produced the Effect
M Scotland he promifed himfelf. The Lords, fond of Liberty and
rj/,s and impatient of their Servitude, refolved with one accord to
Eng'iiAou(»/ r 'ie in Arms, and every one laboured to infpire the People
tbt Kingdom, with the fame Refolution. It was not difficult to fucceed,
Buchanan, for the meaner fort were ftill more exafperated againft: the
Englijh than the Nobles, becaufe they were worfe treated.
In a fhort time, the whole Kingdom rife, and it was not
poflible for the Englijh Garrifons to put a Stop to fo gene-
ral a Revolt. All the Inhabitants of the Towns as well

as of the Country taking Arms th( . 1 .

the Garrifons found themfelves atl ill at once,

within and without, with fuch Rage and Fury, that there
was no poffibility of tefifting. In a word, the-'. 1
reduced to the i> , 1 defiriiv ' t .

Kingdom, otherwife they could not avoid being cut in

Edward, imaged that there was no 1 nd < F thefe thing , 1 ;
raifed an Army with all poflible fpeed, and as foon 1
Seafon would permit, entered a third n::. ( . ';', S Word in '
hand, that unfortunate Kingdom, The.
confifted only of ill-armed and undifciplined Militia, nol
being able to ihuid againft Edward, would have retired
upon his Approach. But he followed them fo I
being at length overtaken and obliged Co enjj
were cntiiely routed. llilim 1 rm, that the 1 .

Scotland would have been determined that day, if the
Englijh could have purfued their Enemies thi ; '' ,

which were known to the Natives, but which the Con-
querors durft not vcntuie to pafs (5J.

The Scots upon this Defeat, defpairing of making any /.' r
farther Reliftance, had rccourfc to Intreaties and Submif- " •'-
fions. They humbly delired the King to give thi m
to redeem their Lands with Money, and to rcftore their
King on what Conditions he pleafed. But he rcfufed both
thefe Requefts. This Cruelty caufed them to feek mean
to eafe their Mifery, by putting themfelves under the''
Pope's Protection, to whom they fent Ambafladors with i.
an Offer of the Sovereignty of their Country, I!
VIII, whofe Ambition is well known, immediately accepted W " 6n& '
the Offer. He had been ufed to proceed very haughtily
with Chriftian Princes, imagining they were implicitly to
fubmit to his Will, and that his Authority reached to Tem-
porals as well as Spirituals. In this belief, his bare Letter
was fufficient to caufe Edivard to quit all his Pretenfions
to Scotland. In the beginning of this Brief, which was as
follows, the Pope took for granted a thing that had never
been heard of.

BONIFACE, Servant of Servants, kc. To our be- ?>
loved Son Edward, illujirious King of England, Gritt-
ing and Apojhlical Benedittion.

Ar\. Hub.
II. ;■ -4,

We know, Dear Son, and Experience has often convinc- M ' '[^''^
ed us, how great your cUvout Affection is for the Church ^Knighton
Rome, who upholds you in the Bowels of Love. IVe know,
I fay, your ardent Zeal and Reverence for her, and your
P.eadinefs to obey her Orders. This gives us a firm Hope
and entire Confidence that your Royal Highnefs wilt receive
our Words in good part, diligently li/len to them, and effec-
tually put them in execution. Your Royal Highntj's may have
heard, and we doubt not but you remember that of old, the
Kingdom of Scotland did, and does Jlill, belong to the Church
of Rome, as all the World Itnowsj and, as we have been
informed, was never held, either of your felf, or PrcdeceJ-
fors, &c.

The reft of the Brief, which is too long to be inferted
at length, contains moft of the Objections before-men-
tioned, againft the Pretenfions of the Kings of England
to the Sovereignty of Scotland. As in all appearance the
Pope had been inftrudted by the Scotch Ambaffadors, it is
to be prefumed, that, if during the Affembly at Norham,
the States of Scotland returned no Anfwer to what Ed-
ward alledged, it was not for want of Proofs, but from
quite another Motive. The Pope likewife upbraided Ed-
ward for all the Violences committed in the Scotch War,
and particularly for the Imprifonment of feveral Bifhops.
In fine, he made himfelf Judge of the Controverfy be-
tween the Englifl) and Scots, and ordered the King to
fend Ambaffadors to Rome with all neceffary Inftructions,
within fix Months at fartheft, after which he would pro-
nounce a final Sentence. ,

This haughty proceeding was by no means proper to E
caufe Edward' to lay down his Arms. He was fo of- *»" '■"• n
fended at it, that, inftead of regarding the Pope's Pre
tenfions, he fwore, if he heard any more of them, he w 1

(1) This Year died Humphry it Bdun, Earl of Hereford and Eipx, Hlgb-ConftabTe of B*gla*d) and Cu S de Bcaucbamp, Earl of Warwick M. >!'.!.
p. 43 1.

(2) Eleanor, Wife of Edward, died November »8, in 120,1, of a Fever, ax. Grantham, in Lincoln/hire, (or, according to Wolfingbam, at Herdeby,
fame Count}, p. 54.) In memory of her, the Kin erecT-ed a Crol's wherever her Corps relied, in the way nam Li* ' ' ffejl*unfl,r. As.
tbam, St.AOani, Dunjlab!,, Sec. and particularly Cbaring-Croft. Ryaer'n Rod. Tom. II. p. 49S. T.Wikes, p.m. Walfing. p. 54, 5,.-. M
was to have from the King her Father for her Dower fifteen thoufand Pound de Term's fietix. Rymer't Feed. Tom. IT. p. 84.1. Whit 1

ward granted h-r, fee Hid. f. S54. Margaret linded at Dover , Septembers, and King Edward and Ihc were married at Cmurc^y, Seftemba 10. .'•
p. 43a.

(3) Rafin, by Miftake, faya Sifter. A3. Pub. T. II. p. 841. _

(4) And in his wav thither, heid a Parliament at l.-t. November ir. Wolfing, p. 77.

I 5) Ring Edward having kept his Cbrifimafl at Bcrzvick, and delivered the Government of Scotland to John de St. Job*, and f.I. C mmifli

>ith him, returned in:,. England about Candlemafi j and coming Co Winebefier, he fent for the Citizen] of London, and reftored theii Libcitie: aito
ad been kept twelve Years in his Hands. But before lie left Scotland, he iil'ued out his Writs, dated at Berwi -. Di ml ■ a". tor lhc calling - Parliament

Irad been kept twelve Years in his Hands. But —

to meet him at H rftminjler, :\ K fecond Sunday in Lent , in which the Great Charter, and that of ForefU, were renewed and e nfirmtd , and a n»u

made foi the bmer explaining than, 1 ilfcij .V r -rtas, which you may fee in C.L'. fecond Inllitute, p. c;-. i

iS 1 d uaid 1.

No. XX Vol. I,


Statute was
Rm C.V.-

:8 2


Vol. 1.

i 300. would deStroy Scotland from Sea to Sea. The Deputiesof
the Scots, who were prefent, could not hear thefe Threats
without emotion. They told him, he had Still a great
deal to do before matters could be brought to that pals ;
and there was not a Scotchman but what could fpill the
Grant* a ] a fl d r0 p of his Blood in the defence of his Country. But
Ait "nub notwithstanding his Refolution, not to leave Scotland be-
ll, p. 863. fore it was entirely reduced, he durft not refufe the King
of France a Truce which he demanded in behalf of the
Scots (1).
EJ-.vnrj It was during this Truce that Edward inverted his

',''"'.'.!'/■ e ' tle ft Son, now feventeen years old, with the Principa-
ofWalfs? lity of Wales, and the Earldom of Chejler. The ll'cljh
f.i. Wvft. rejoiced at it, and confidered it as a Mark of the King's
Walfing. favour, becaufe the young Prince was born in their
1301. In the beginning of the next Year, th« King fum-

AnfivtrictbtmoneA a Parliament at Loncoln (2), to confult with them
ftfc'i Hull. CGncern i n g tne Pope's Pretenfions to Scotland, and what
Anfwer Should be returned to his Brief. The Parliament
being no lefs exafperated at the Pope's Pretenfions and
HaughtineSs than the King himfelf, it was refolved, that
a Letter fliould be fent to the Pope on this cccafion,
Aft. Pub. figned by all the Barons of the Realm (3). In this Let-
II- r 873. ter, they plainly tell him the direct contrary to what he
M. v.. ft. a j] ertec j j n his Brief, namely, that the Crown of England
had immemorially enjoyed the Right of Sovereignty over
Scotland, and it was publickly known, that Scotland, as
to Temporals, never belonged to the Church of Rome.
That therefore the Parliament would never fuffer the
King's Prerogative to be called in queftion, or Ambaila-
dors to be fent to Rome upon that account, though the
King himfelf fliould be willing to be fo condefcending
to the HoJy See. Finally, they defired the Pope to leave
the King and People of England in the enjoyment of
their Rights, without giving them any Disturbance (4).
Tic King This Letter was followed, fome months after, by an-
pnitaL*. other from the King himfelf, with a Memorial (5), likethat
lb."£'sti. drawn U P during the Ailembly at Norhatn, to juftify that
J the Kingdom of Scotland had been always dependent on the
Crown of England. But whereas, in the firft he carries
his Claim higher than Edward the Elder, in this, he de-
rives it from Brutus, firft fabulous King of the Ijle of Al-
bion, tracing it through all the Reigns of the fictitious Kings
mentioned in theHiitory, or rather the Romance of Geof-
frey of Monmouth; which he did not venture to do in the
Memorial drawn up for the Scots. But every thing was
valid to the Pope and Italians, who were not fumciently
verfed in the Englijh Hiftory, to difcern Truth from Falf-
hood. Befides the King's Letter was very refpedtful, and
contained no Expreffions offenfive to his Holinefs. This
Moderation on fuch an occahon, when he was highly pro-
voked at the Pope's Pretenfions, mull be afcribed to the
Need he had of him, in the Affair concerning the Resti-
tution of Guienne (6).
Edward re- The Truce with Scotland was no fooner expired, but
tu,m inn Edward returned, and fpent the whole Winter in that
wli..i^' ll 6 l ' om ' But when he was preparing to renew the
ike ratci." War, he was fo Strongly follicited by the King of France,
A.a. Pub. that ne cou ]rj n ot refufe the Scots the prolonging of the
M. Welti' Truce till November. One might wonder he Should have
fo much Complaifance for Philip, if it was true, as fome
affirm, that he had made a Peace with France, at Mon-
treuil, and taken polTeffion of Guienne. But it is certain,
the Peace between the two Crowns was not fully con-
cluded till 1303, and the Treaty of Montreuil was properly
only the Pope's Arbitration, containing feveral Articles,
the Performance whereof might meet with great Difficul-
ties ; though in general the two Kings were well enough
fatisfied with it. This makes Edward's deference for
Philip not fo Strange, fince by a Refufal, he might have
retarded the Conclusion of a Peace, by which Guienne was
to be reftored.

The Truce with Scotland being about to expire, Ed- 1301.
ward km Segrave (7) into that Kingdom to renew the War. He J 1 "' 1 '.
This general marched thither, not fo much with defign f^^l°"
to fight the Scots, whom he thought unable to refift him,
as to deftroy the Country. To that end, he divided his
Army into three Bodies, which marched at fome diitance
from one another, in order to include the more Ground.
His Notion that there was no danger, caufing him to
march in a carelefs manner, and without vouchfafing to
inform himfelf of the Pofture of his Enemies, he unex-
pectedly met them near Rofs (%), five Miles from Edin-
burgh. As he was too far advanced with the Body he
commanded, to receive any Affiftance from the others,
the Scotch Army commanded by Comyn and Frazer, at-
tacked him without lofs of time, and immediately put
him to rout. The neareit of the two other Bodies hfar- Three m-h.
ing the General was attacked, halted to his Relief, but "^
not being able to come time enough, were likewife de- hmeD%.
feated. Though the Scots were victorious in thefe two Buchanan.
Engagements, it was not without Difficulty and Lofs.
Their wounded being many, and their Troops much
harraffed, they were willing to take fome reft, when they
faw the third Body of the Englijl) Army advancing to at-
tack them. This Sight put them into fuch Diforder, that
they would forthwith have taken to flight, if the Exhor-
tations of their Generals had not revived their Couiage.
This laft Battle was the fharpeft of the three (9). The
EngliJ}) animated with a defire of revenging their Country-
men, and the Scots encouraged by their two Victories,
fought a good while with equal Animofity ; but the Scots
had the Advantage at laft, and routed their Enemies.
The Englijh Historians Slightly pafs over thefe three Bat-
tles, and the Scots, on the contrary, take care to extol
this triple Victory (10). It may be, the one fays too much,
and the others too little. Be this as it will, it cannot be EJwarf >
denied that this lofs appeared of great Confequence to Ed- t e '™"' d
ward, fince it made him refolve to enter Scotland once c tandjy
more, with a greater Army than ever. It was not in his ° T ""'-
Power however, to execute his Deiign till the next Year, ff' P ^
becaufe he could not help including the Scots in a Truce
made with France till J until 1).

Before the Truce was expired, the Peace between the 1303.
two Crowns was concluded at Paris, on the 20th of May ' T '""y<>f
1303(12). Philip reftored Guienne to Edward, who .J'^F'ar.ce
promifed on his part to do him full Homage, and with- ^E^land.
out limitation, in the City of Amiens. As for the Allies * et Hu ^
of the two Kings, there was no mention of them in the ibii p?«L

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