M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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cured to them by" the Death of Edward I. Robert Bruce,
who may juftly be called the Reltorer of the Scotch Mo-
narchy, politickly fuppreffed the Factions which divided
his Subjects, and united them all in the defign of mak-
ing off the Yoke of Servitude. By this happy Union,
he was in a condition not only to recover the beft Part
of his Country, but alfo to carry his Arms into Eng-
land. I am now going to relate the particulars of the
Scotch War, which I could not, without confufion, in-
termix with the Relation of the domeltick Troubles in
England.

Edward I, refolved utterly to deftroy Scotland, and pro-
bably would have reduced the Kingdom to a wretched
Condition, if Death had not matched him out of the
World very opportunely for the Scots. Robert Bruce was
preparing to take advantage of the Conllernation of the
Englijh, occafioned by the lofs of Edward: But a great
Fit of Sicknefs feizing him at the fame time, hindered
his entering upon Action. Mean while, the Scots, who
knew not yet the Character of Edward II, were in
great perplexity, their King being very dangeroufly ill,
and their Forces much inferior to thole of their Ene-
mies. Edward II's fudden Refolution to return into
England, alter advancing as far as Dumfries, and ftriking
Terror into the whole Kingdom, gave them room to en-
tertain better hopes. His Impatience to meet Gave/Ion, to
marry the Princefs defigned for him, and to be crowned,
expelled all thoughts of War, to which he had no In-
clination. So, leaving his Army under the Conduct of
94. John Comyn a Scotch Lord, he returned into England '(3).
His abiupt departure caufed great murmurs in the Army



V r er -.uilb
Scotland.



An. S. Au^
Walling.



Aft Pt
lii. p.



fighting. At fuch a juncture, a Retreat might have 13 j).
difheartned his Subjects, and occafioned the Lofs of hi-;
whole Kingdom. In this Refolution, having mounted
his Horfe, fupported by two Efquires, he drew up hi-
Army, and expected the Enemies, with a Steddinefs that
produced a wonderful Effect. The Englijh imagined,
this little Army would never dare to ftand before them.
But when by the good Polture of the Seats, they found
themfelves difappointed, their Courage began fo to coo!,
that hardly could they be brought to begin the fight.
•So weak an Attack, and fo ill feconded, infpiring the
Scots with fiefh Courage, they tell with gieat Ftirv
upon their Enemies, and put them entirely to ronf.
This Defeat was the mo:e difhonourable to the Ettgltm.
as, befides their being fuperior in Number, they were
the fame Troops that had fo frequently vanquifhed the
Scots, and now fuffeied themfelves to be beaten by an
Army levied in hade, and conliiting of undifciplined Sol-
diers. Coinyn retiring into England alter his Defeat, Ro- Chron.
bert entered the County of Argyle, which (till belonged to L J'' e 'f
the Englijh, and ravaged it all over. Shortly after, Ed- Edward
■ward Bruce his Brother, gave the Englijh another defeat, Bruce,
in the County of Galloway. Thefe two Victories gave
the Sects fuch a Superiority, that they began from thence-
forward to defpife the Englijh, and forget their paft
Loffes.

How little Inclination foever Edward had for War, Edward
he could not avoid endeavouring to flop the Piogrefs of"''' 7 ' ci i ,
the King of Scotland. In 1308, that is, in the feepncl Scothrf,
Year of his Reign, he led in Perfon B powerful Army Buchanan.
into that Kingdom. But as he had taken no care for
Provifions, depending upon what he expedited to find in
the Enemy's Country, he was obliged to march back his
Army into England for want of Subfiftence. Robert, andntmiu
more provident than he, had canied away, or deftroyed •""< b ™"A>-
before-hand, whatever might ferve to maintain the Ene- f £„l,
mies Troops. Edward's Retreat gave the King of Scot-
land an opportunity to become matter of feveral Places in
poffelTion of the Englijl}, and to make that Year a very
profperous Campain. The Troubles which afterwards hap-
pened in England on account of Gave/Ion, enabled that
Prince to make a ftill greater Progrefs. In 1310 and 1311, R°!*rt
he entered England twice, and carried away a great " , p k '\*> a>
Booty. In 1312 he recovered Perth, Laneric, Drnn-fi^Zaa.
fries, Roxborough ; and laftly, Edinborough Caitle, which Chron.
was taken by Storm by the Earl of Murray his General. Linerc *
This Year the little Ijlc of Man voluntarily fubmitted to
him.

Whilft Robert continued his Conquefts, Edward, wholly
employed in feeking means to be revenged on the Barons,
for putting Gave/Ion to Death, was furprifingly negligent
with regard to Scotland. Inftead of haltening an Agree-
ment with the Lords, in order to unite all his Forces, he
prolonged the Negotiation, by a Policy very pernicious
to the Affairs of the State. Mean time, Robert took ad-
vantage of the Negligence of the Englijh. After making
himfelf matter of all the Places Edward I. poffeffed in Scot-
land, except Sterling, he fent, in 1313, his Brother Ed-
ward to befiege that Town, the ftrongeft then in Scotland.
The Siege was carried on very vigoroufly; but the Be- R l>«r
fieged made as brave a Defence. However, [Philip] Mow- s ^"
bray, the Governor of the Place, finding his Malter Act. Pub.
made no Preparations to relieve him, thought to do him 111, P- * 8r «
good Service in ligning a Capitulation, whereby he pro- ,1-J„../™1
mifed to furrender the Town in a Year, if it were not re- Buchanan,
lieved by that time.

Ediuard having fufKcient time to prepare, and defiring 1314.
at any rate to prevent the Lofs of fo important a Place, Ec



and Kingdom. People could not behold him without fummoned all his Vaffals to meet him with their Troops (4). "*f'f£*™£



Aftoniihmcnt, relinquishing the Conquer! of Scotland, at
a time when the Number and Ardor of his Troops, and
King Robert's Illnefs, feemed to warrant him a glorious
Campaign. His chufing Comyn to command the Army
was no lefs difliked. This General was a Scot, and
though of the oppolite Party to Robert, and his particular
Enemy, his being a Foreigner was alone fufKcient to of-
fend tiie Englijh, who thought themfelves difhonoured by
this Prefeience. What happened quickly after, (hewed
their Complaints were not groundlefs. Comyn willing to
take advantage of Robert's Illnefs, whom he thought
incapable of heading his Troops, advanced in order to
1. ,,;„ • ^attack the Scots. Though Robert ftill found himfelf
by /& Scots, extremely weak, he believed he ought not to decline



The Englijh, Gajcons, and lpeljh{^), were fo ready to iboufand
obey him, that by June 1314, he law himfelf at the head Mat.
of a hundred thoufand Men. The Soldiers already de- W ^3?L
voured in their Imagination, whatever the former Ravages
of Edward I, had left in Scotland. Only the Earls of
Lancafter, Arundel, Hereford, and the new Earl of If ar-
wick, refufed, on this occafion, to ferve the King, their
miltruft of him not permitting them to put themfelves in his
Power.

This numerous Army entering Scotland, advanced The Battkaf
within view of Sterling. Robert expected them at the P*" ^"
head of thirty thoufand Men, inured to the Fatigues B ™h"'nan.
of War, and who had frequently worited the Englijh. He Walfing.
drew up his Army on an advantagious Ground, where De la M '



(0 November 13. at rVindpr. Rymer's Fed. Tom. III. p. 353. rValfi bam, p. 103. T. dc I" Mocr, p. 593.

(2) Wh ch met on Sunday, September 2.1, ami granted the fang a Fifteenth. Walfingbam, p. 103. There was another ParLament in July, wh:ch did
nothint; of Moment. R<t. Chttf. 6 Edward II. A/. 3. Dwf.

(%) The Earl of Pembroke fin-rendering his Cornmiflion of Guardian of Sal/and, it was conferred, September 13. 1307, on J.fo Earl ot Br,n^>; who,
railing a freih Arnr . marched againft the Scots, and defeated them about November II. So that Robert Bruce was forced to fry into the High-l ( ■

dc Lancrz. Rymer's Fad. Tom III. -, 10. ..-*„._.« ,.,„...

(4) At Nnot .. upon The, thtei Weeks after Eajler. Walfrngiiam, p. 104. And borrowed Money of all the Bifhips, and Monaaenesin the Kingdom,
See Rymer'i K I. ! d. p. 4 -', - -

(5) And/-./. Ibid. p. +-*, -,;!■



he



Book IX.



10. EDWARD II.



im-



fit Englifh
ait touted.



Hefl. B. et.

Buchan. u.



Walfing.



Aft- Pub.
III. p. 491.



Walfing.



Id. p- 106.



An Imfnflor
prcttnjs to
it Edwaid
and it
banged.
Higden.
Walling.



1315.

Gnat ta-



Walfing.
p. 106.



he could not be furrounded. A Mountain full of inac-
ceffiMe Rocks covered one of his Flanks, and the other
was fecured by a deep Morafs. How great foever the
Inequality of thefe two Armies might be, the Scots being
determined to conquer or die, received their Enemies with
that Vigor and Resolution, that they foon put this nu-
merous Army into Difordcr and Confulion. The Eng-
lijh Horfe being preM'ed at fir't, with i Fury they could
not withftand; were the Occafion by their Flight, of
the Defeat of the whole Army ; a Defeat the moft ter-
lible England had eve!' endured fince the beginning of
the Monarchy (1). The Scotch Writers mount the
Enemies Lofs to fifty thoufand Men. They pretend,
the Number of the Prifoners taken on this occafion ex-
ceeded that of the Conqueror;. The Earl of Gloccjlcr,
Nephew of Edward II, with*many other Lords of Dis-
tinction (2), and above (even hundred Knights, lay dead
on the Field of Battle. The Englijh reduce the Number
of the Slain to ten thoufand. But the Confequences of
this Action difcover that their Lois was much greater,
fince from that time they ventured no more to take the
Field.

Edward, with the Remains of his Army, haftily re-
treated, without thinking himfelf out of Danger till he
was at York, where the difperfed Fugitives came to
him (3). He formed a very confiderable Body, with
which he fhewed a Defire to re-enter the Enemies
Country, and hazatd another Battle. But the Coniler-
nation of his Troops was fo great, that he could not
prevail with them to endeavour to retrieve their Honour.
This Battle, called the Battle of Banockboitrn, procured
the Scots, befides an ineftimable Booty, a Peace which
lafted feveral Years. They acquired fo great a Superio-
rity over the Englijh, that thefe laft, far from being able
to recover what they had loft in Scotland, were long
forced to fee their Borders ravaged, without daring to
make the leaft Refiftance. Their Terror was fo great,
that one of their Hiftorians affirms, three Scotch Soldiers
were fufficient to put a hundred EngRJhmen to flight, (o
much were they difcouraged by this terrible Defeat.

Whilft Fortune ftrove on all occafions to humble
Edward, an Impoftor, one 'John Dcydras, a Tanner's
Son of Exeter, fought to take his Crown from him, by
maintaining that he was himfelf Edward, and changed at
Nurfe. So extraordinary and ill-formed a Project ferved
only to bring the Impoftor to the Gallows, inftead of a
Throne, which he would fain have mounted. Without
doubt he built his hopes upon the little Efteem the EngliJJ)
had for their King, having probably imagined it would
not be difficult, to make them believe he was not Son
of Edward I, who had none but noble and generous
Inclinations. But it was not this vile Inftrument, which
Providence was pleafed to ufe, to ruin this unhappy
Prince, though in fome Meafure this Event may be con-
sidered as a fort of Prefage of what was to happen.

The Lofs fuftained by the Englijh in Scotland was fol-
lowed by a dreadful Famine which lafted three Years,
and deftrdyed an infinite Number of People. In vain did
the Parliament endeavour to help it by fettling the Price of
Provifion?: They were forced the next Year to revoke the
Acl that had been palled on that account. (4) But nei-
ther War nor Famine, nor the Murmurs of the People,
were able to hinder the King from expending a large Sum,
in celebrating the Funeral of his Favourite, whole Body
Was removed to King's Langlcy in Hertfordjhire. He
would honour the Funeral Pomp with his Pretence, at-
tended by the Archbifhop of Canterbury and fome other
Bifhops. But the Barons pofitively refufed to affift at
the Obfequies of a Man fo odious to them, and whom



393

I31C.



they deem'd unworthy of the Honour done to his Me-
mory.

Mean time the Famine raged in fo terrible a manner »3'6.
that one can hardly give Credit to what Hiftorian, i -"''
it. (;) They are not content with telling us, that the moft Walnr*
loathed Animals were tiled for Food, but what is much
more horrible, People were forced to hide then Children
with all imaginable care, to prqvcnt their being ftolen and
eaten by Thieves. They allure us, that Men thcmfelves
took precautions to hinder their being murdered in private
Places, knowing there were but too many Inftances 1 1 I
fome had been ferved in that manner, to feed fucfi as could
find no other Subfiftence. We are told hkewife, that the
Prifoners in the Goals- devoured one another in a barbarous
manner, the extreme Scarcity of Provifinns not permitting
their being allowed neceflary Pood. The Bloody Flux,
caufed by grofs feeding, corhpleated thcMifcry of i\x Englijh.
Such Numbers died every day, that hardly could the Living
fuffice to bury the Dead. The only Remedy that could
be found againlt the Famine, but which was not capable
ol bringing all the neceflary Relief, was, to prohibit on
pain of death, the brewing any fort of Beer, to the
end, the Corn ufually expended that way, might fcrve
to make Bread (6).

Notwithltanding thefe Calamities, which mould have 1317.
turned their thoughts to Religion and Repentance, the
mutual Enmity which the King and Barons had long har* 'uncaflerf
boured in their Breafts, was feen daily to increafe. It was
almoft impoffible but this violent Hatred fhould in the
end produce very fatal Effects. Edward, not being
able to forget the Injuries he had received, entertained in
his heart a ftrong Defire of Revenge, which put him
upon feeking all poffible means to gratify it. He was
chiefly exafperated againft the Earl of Lancajlcr, whom
he looked upon as the fole Author of his Difgraces, and
his moft dangerous Enemy. Had the Earl's Life been in
his Power, he would not, probably, have fpared it.
But as his Diflimulation had not been capable of drawing
him into any Snare, finding he could not reach his
Perfon, he attempted to deprive him of his Eftate and
Honour. To that purpofe he created him a Trouble,
which the moft immoderate Miftruft could not have
prevented.

Whilft the Earl kept at a diftance from Court (7), 2 H7i Wifeii
certain Knight, called Sic Richard St. Martin, a Man^'^ (
of a mean Look, and dwarfifh Stature, prefented to the uw&r.
Judges a Petition, claiming the Wife of the Earl of willing.
Lanaijler, Heirefs of the Families of Lincoln and Salif-
bury. He fet forth in his Petition, that he had carnally
known her, and that the had made him a Promife of
Marriage, before fhe was contracted to the Earl. The
Countefs, diiTatiified with her Husband, having, to her
eternal Shame, confelled the Fact, was adjudged, with all
her Eftate, to the unworthy Claimant. This Affair,
which would have lequired a long Examination, was fo
quickly decided , that it was eafy to fee the J ud^es
were gained before-hand, and the King himfelf had been
a Promoter of the Procefs. An Injury of this nature
done to a Prince of the Blood Royal, exceedingly be-
loved by the People, raifed an extreme Indignation againft
the King. Nothing was every where heard but Adur- ' .■'

murings againft his Government. As he had then no "i '■'.
Favourite to bear the Blame, it was all call on himfelf;
and People faid publickly, never was the Throne of
England filled by a Prince io unworthy to rule a free
Nation. There were even fome who took the Liberty
to upbraid him to his face tor his ill Conduct. Upon
a certain Holiday (8), Edward dining in publick in Weft-
minJler-Hall, a Woman in a mask came on horllback



(1) This Battle was fought on the 25th of Juxt 1314, by the River Banothifarn. It is faid thit the Stat had digged Trenches three Foot d.rp



(beans were nu-



and as many broad} into which, being covered over with Hurdles and drove full 01 iharp Stakes, the Eitgh '■ Horfi (eU t and by that
fcrably Ihughtered. T. dt h Moor. p. £94.

(2) The Lords Rilert dt C/yffcrdt, Pa?an Typtttt, William Martjcall, Gilt! dt Argtnttn, Edmund it Maulr, 6?c. There were lia-n and taken Prifoners,
of Earls, Barons, BaromLts, and Knights, one hundred and titty tour in all, according to IValJing. 105. T. dt la After, p. £94.

(3) Here he held a Parliament, which fat from Augujl 15. til! MUbatlmat. In this it was agreed to exeiungc : I Rdtrt Britt frr BmiHpbrey
dt Burnm Earl of Htrtfcrd ; and the Bilhop of Gtafcnu, and Earl of Marr, were exijanged for othei Nobl: men. A. dt Mmimutbt. IValjin^. p. igG.
Symer'j Fa-d. Tom. III. p. 4S0.

(4) It was enacted and proclaimed, by Order of the Parliament, which met on January the 20th, That the Heft Ox not fed with Grain, mould te fold
for fixteen Shillings and no more ; and if he were fed with corn, then for twenty four Shillings at mult ; the b.lt live fat Covr for tw elve Shillings $ a fat
Hc.g of two Years old for three Shillings and four Pence ; a fat Weather, or Mutton unlhorn lor twenty Pence, and thorn for fourteen Pence $ a fat Ooofe
for two pence half Penny $ a fat Capon for two Pence j a fat Hen for one Penny, two Chickens for one Penny ; and twenty feur Eggs for one Penny ;

and thole that would not fell thefe things fo, were to lorfcit them to the Ring. This Parliament granted the King a twentieth part of their Goods j

which when it came to be railed, occalioned Disturbances in Stafford/hire and Sbrcpjbi't. There was anet her Parliament fifteen Days after Eajltr. Walfing.
p. 106, 107. R01.Cl.111J. Pat. Ediu.-i. M. 12, 27. DorJ. Brattyt Afpend. No. 60.

(f) A quarter cf Whest, Beans, or Peafe was fold for twenty Shillings j of Malt for thirteen Shillings and four Pence ; and of Salt for thirty fiv<!
Shillings. Watf.ng. p. 107.

(6) 'January 28. a Parliament was held at Lintoin, which granted the King, in Aid of his War with Stotland, one flout Footman, cut of erery Town
in the K : ngdcm, exept Cities and Burghs, and the King's D.metns ; which Footmen were to be armed and lurnilhcd withEVws, Arrows, Slings, Lan-
ces, C3*r. at the charge of the Towns, and their Expences to be paid, till they came at the Place o*" Rendezvous, and their Wages for lixty Days after
and no longer, if the King's Service required it, at ft ur-pence a Day ; the King ptcmifing, that this Grant mould be no Precedent tor the future. Rymtr's
Fotd. Tom. III. p. 742. The fame Day, the King funimcncd the MiLtia to be at Nvwtaflk upon lir.t fifteen Days after Midfummr. And the Par-
liament granted the King for this War, a Fifteenth part ofall the Moveables. Rot. Part. Ed-w. 2. N. 1. Wal/mg. p. 107. Theic wasanother Paiiiament
after Eajitr. Id. p. 108 This Year was born at EliLam, Augaft 15. J"*"", the King's fecond Sen. Ibid.

(7) About the latter end of Mai, or beginning of Jam, Walfitg. p. 10S. The Hiftorian lpeaks, as if that ill favoured Knight had ftolen her away.
{%) At WbitJust.dt. Iiid.fi 109.



No. 2.0. Vol. I.



5 O



feci



394



The HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



' 3 ' 7- and delivered him a Letter. The King imagining it
Ba-cmduS Conta j ne j fomething proper to divert him, ordered it to

ripped up m ,

e Lctitr. he read aloud. But he was very much furprized to hear
Valiing. onlv outragious Reproaches for his Cowardice, Tyranny,
and all the Grievances introduced in his Reign. The
Woman being apprehended, confeffed, (lie was bribed by
a certain Knight to play that part ; and the Knight
boldly maintained, That believing the King would read
the Letler in private, he thought it the propereft way to
let him know the complaints of his Subjects.
lleBarlm Whilft England was reduced to extreme Defolation,
, . j Edward, without troubling himfelf about the Ravages,

Jwiral the Scots continued to make on the Borders, minded
only how to humble the Barons, who began to form new
Projects, the Confeqnences whereof he had reafon to
fear. They had lately prefented to him a Petition, contain-
ing a long Lift of the People's Grievances, of which they
demanded a fpeedy Red.refs. Nothing was farther from
Aft. Pub. n ' s Thoughts than to reform abufes. However as he durft
III. p. 69S, not openly difeover his intentions, he had referred the mat-
"h* !1 d tCr t0 £ ' ie P ar ' iament which was to meet at Lincoln. A
difflfon .1 Scetijh Invafion at the fame time, afforded him an excufe
Parliament, to prorogue the Parliament feveral times, and at length to
diflblve it. This Proceeding fo incenfed the Barons, that
with one confent they refolved to take Arms, to obtain by
Force the Satisfaction they required. They would have
doubtlefs extiemely diftrcfied this weak Prince, uncapable
of governing himfelf at fo nice a Juncture, if fome Lords
of more Moderation had riot joined with the Pope's Le-
* .C '"' t atc to promote a reconciliation. Thefe Mediators obtain-
King and ed of the King, that for the Satisfaction of the confederate
.-/./;.,. ,!. Barons he fliould admit a certain number of them into his
DcVmom £° unc V> arK ' promife to do nothing without their advice.
The Earl of Lancafler was to be one : but as he could not
truft the King, it was agreed he fliould nominate a Baron
or Knight to fupply his place ( 1 ). Moreover Edward pro-
mifed to grant an abfolute pardon, without any reftriclions,
to the Earl of Lancafler, for all that was palled. This A-
Aft. Pub. greement was made and figned at Leek on the 9th of Augujl
in. p. 72:, I ^,g ) arK ) confirmed three days after by ( z) the Parlia-
ment, called upon the prefiing Inftances of the Mediators.
After this Affair was ended, the King and Earl of Lancaf-
ler meeting on a Plain near Leicefter, embraced and killed
one another in token of a perfect Reconciliation. Let us
now return to the War with Scotland, which ftill continued
during the Troubles in England.

After Robert's obtaining near Sterling that fienal Victory

£:!■•? r/ whicn P roved fo fatal t0 the E "£ ! 'A he P'arfued the Van-
quifhed into England, where he committed prodigious Ra-
ld - vages, whilft Edward durft not ftir from Tori to oppofe
I ,"", :' his Enemy. The King of Scotland, not fatisfied with this
Walling. Advantage, projected the Conqueft of Ireland upon the
Ch.Laoerc. Crown of England. This Ifland had long been governed
by Englijh Officers who were more careful to enrich them-
felves, than to promote the Publick Good. Their arbi-
trary Proceedings had bred among, the Irifli fo great and
univerfal Dilcontent, that they wanted only a favorable
Opportunity to revolt. The defeat of the EngUJli Army
before Sterling, giving them reafon to believe, the prefent
Jundture w,as very proper to execute their Defign, they
lent word to the King of Scotland, that thev were ready
, to call: off the Englijh Yoke, provided he would give them
wl/d bh Afiiitancc. Robert took care not to lofe fo fair an Oppor-
Bntbcrtbi- tunity to become mailer of the Ifland, or at leaft to make
,b '' r - > there a powerful Diverfion. Ke lent thither fome Troops
III' " " 6 under the Command of his Brother Edward, who heading
Walfing. the Rebels, conquered the beft Part of the Ifland, and
was even acknowledged for King. Whilft he was carry-
ing on his Conquefts, Robert amufed the King of Eng-
land with Propofals of Peace, which he feemed to do
with Sincciity and Earneftnefs, but artfully raifed from
time to time Difficulties, which hindered matters from
being concluded. This Proceeding Jafted till 1317, with-
out Edward's perceiving his Enemy's Artifices. His little
Penetration would even have made him entirely lofe Ire.
land, had he not been rouzed by the Murmurs of the Peo-
ple. The Prejudice England might receive by the Lofs
of that Ifland was fo manilefr, and the Confequences fo
plainly laid before him, that at length he refolved to fend
thither a powerful Supply, under the Conduct of Mortimer.



With this Aid the Englijh that were in Ireland, finding ijrS.
themfelves able to take the Field, marched to attack the
Scotch Prince. Mean while, the King of Scotland, re-
ceiving intelligence how much his Brother flood in need
of being fpeedily relieved, went himfelf into Ireland.
But upon his Arrival, he heard his Brother was defeated WbeUi*.
and flain in a Battle wherein he had rafhly encajed {i\faMi*»l '
Robert's Lofs on that occafion breaking all his^meafurcs, ^
and difabling him from continuing the War in that Coun- ' " E '
try, he thought it more propel to go and improve the



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 166 of 360)