M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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overtaking him at Black-more, eafed him of his Baggage, England,
and had like to have taken him Prifoner. The Englijh Act. Pub.
Army being all difperfed on this occafion, Robert contuiu- '"• P-93°-

:lief, he refolved to march towards Scotland fioj, Exfedmm
the Expectation of furprizing Robert, and re- e, 'chauaii?


( 1 ) Thomas Ctilpefer. Walfmg. p. 115.

t\ v h k Lo J is t ^^ b J ie ^<"<-'<y, Senior, and Maurice de Brhlcy were fent Prifeners lof/V&p/lJ Caftle. Ibid.

(;) Xtkrtdi Hclande had promifed to bring him a Reinforcement, but difappnintcd him, whfeh was the Came of his D:feat. Knigbttm, p. -1540.

(4) -Humph") ■■■' Bobun, who married Elisabeth, Daughter of Edward I, and Widow of the Earl ei Holland. He is faid to be tliruft thro' the Eelly by
a IVelJb S01d.tr from under the Eridcc through a Chink. Knighton. IValfing. p. 116.

(5) This Battle was fought Mtmhi6-. Knighton. De la Moor. p. 596 °

(b) The.Earls.of Kent, Ridmond, Pcmiroie, Surrey, Arundel, AthoL Anaga, &c the Monday before March 25. Rymer\ FuJ. Tom. III. p. 9,1.0, ©V.

(7) As he accordingly was, upon a Hill near Ponttfracl, March 25. Cbrc-n. Evcfli.
,J;,< Hl '? cr '' ; " )s *!"'-■ e ,v ' n us ,h c following Lifts of the Names of the Barons that were put to Death. The Earl of Lamafla; the Lords Jf'arcn de Lijle,
r\. « W V '', T ' 1 " 1 1"-;»^", Henry de Bradburn, William FitX-rVilliam junior, V.'Uham Cheney, at PcnttfrqcT, £<£« C:.iT.rd, John M.-wbr„y, Jccctim
j'-'l 1 3t J """' '"' " G ' : '"' 1 ''' ' Ha °y %"> " London; Francis de Aldenhans, at rVirJfir ; Bartbdtmtrm dcB.utUirr.ere, and Bartholomew <U

Ajnburnham, at Canterbury. Threcfcore and twelve Knights, (befides thofe han"ed in Chains,) were fhut up in Prilon, who uncn Fines paid, were afta-
wards fet at Liberty, fays Del* Mcer. Walfing. p . ,,6. Knigbtm. Col. 1541.

[Jj A Parliament was he!d at T-ik this V^ar, three Weeks alter Softer, wherein the Procefs againft the two Sptnars for their Banifhment, was revok-d.
And a „.„,„ p , rt W as granted to the King of the Goods of the Lords and Commons of the Kinidom, and a fixth part of thofe belonging to the Cities,
Borough,, and antient Demclns. Bfaif'^Hifl. p. 140,- &e. Re4.Chuf.ie. 16 Ed-Ji. II. Time was ahothier held again (ha Year *t the fame Plane,
1S| -' he middle of Nevenb. Renter's Fusil. T. 1(1. p. 978,

(,»o) rawaitis the latlii End 01 j«!y, and relumed in the beginning of S-pttmb. Waljing.

Book IX.



$323. ed his March, ravaging the Country with Fire and Sword

to the very Walls of York (1). At lalf, having burnt

the Monaftery of Rippon and ranfacked the Abbey of Be-

Vmct of verly, he returned home loaded with Booty. Whatever

Tar's" reafon that Prince had to expect great Advantages from

f Aft. Pub. the Continuance of the War, he entered into Negotiation

111. p. 9S3. for a Truce, which at length was concluded on the 13th

Walfin h. or " May '3 2 4> for thirteen Years. He confented the

»more readily to this Truce, as he was forced to give fonie
Refpite to his Subjects exhaufted by fo long a War. Be-
fides, he hoped by that means to be reconciled to the
Court of Rome, having received intimation, that his Ab-
folution, and the Removal of the Interdict, depended upon
his Compliance.

The Submiflion of the EngliJJ), and the long Truce
with Scotland, placed Edward precifely in a Situation
moil: agreeable to his Temper. He had nothing to di-
vert him from his Pleafures ; enjoyed a peaceable King-
dom ; and could leave the Government to his J* avorites,
without fear of being controlled by his Subjects. This
was a Happinefs he could not attain till this Year, being
the fixteenth of his Reign. However, his Satisfaction
was fometimes difturbed by the Remembrance of things
Edward re- paft. The Death of the Earl of Lancajler, of which
tints of the he began to repent fince his peaceable State, now and
Death of t j len (). un g him with bitter remorfe. This manifeltly ap-
Wjli.ng. pears, in his Anfwer to certain Lords petitioning him
p- "7- to pardon a condemned Criminal (2). Is it pojfiblc,
cried he, that fttch a IVretcb as this Jhould find fio many
Friend: to intercede for him, -when not one would fpeak in
behalf of my Cot/fin of Lancaster, ivbo, if he had lived,
might have been ufeful both to me and the whole King-
dom ? therefore, as for this Felloiv, he Jhall die as he de-
Uncertainty The Character of Thomas Earl of Lancafler, was not
abmt the much lefs ambiguous than the Earl of Leice/ler's, in the
LukJw'j R e 'E n 0I " Henry III. The King's and the Spencer's Ad-
Cbaratlir. herents called him Villain and Traitor, one that having
taken Arms againft his Sovereign, was juftly condemned.
But the People in general had his Memory in great ve-
neration, confidering him as a real Martyr for Liberty.
Immediately after his death, his Tomb was flocked to,
where many Miracles were pretended to be wrought (3).
Aft. Pub. The King was even obliged, ftrictly to command the
JII-p. 1033. Bifhop of London, to put a ftop to the Superftition of the
People of his Diocefe, who came and faid their Prayers
to the Earl's Picture hung up in St. Paul's Church.
Probably, the Uncertainty concerning the Character of
this Prince would have laited much longer, if two things
, had not determined People in his favour. The firft
leaded. was > tr >e Punifhment of Harcla, who being made Earl
Aft. Pub. of Carlijle, for taking Lancafler Prifoner, incurred the
III. p. 9?S. D;fp] ea f ure of the Spencers, and upon a Suggeltion of a
Wai'fmg. ' Correfpondence with Scotland, was beheaded (4). The
fecond was, the Canonization of Ldttcajler in 1389, at
the Requeft of Edward III, Son of him that had taken
away his Life (5). After that, there was no room to
queftion the Sincerity of his Intentions : At leaft, it was
no longer permitted openly to defame his Memory.
dent Pcw^r The Death of this Prince, and of feveral other
Lords of the fame Party, placed the Spencers on the
top of the Wheel. As there was now no Man able
to oppofe them, thefe two Minifters did, in the King's
Name, whatever they thought agreeable with their In-
terefts, without regarding a Party entirely reduced. Had
they been fo wife to moderate their Paflion, and deny
themfelves the Pleafure of Revenge, they would have
doubtlefs fupported themfelves in their high Station, and
caufed their Matter to pafs an eafy and quiet Life. Bat
where are Men of this Character to be found? The
Spencers, to compleat their Vengeance, threw the King-
dom into greater and more fatal Troubles, than what
They perfe- were lately appeafed. Not content with putting to death
<-m tbur (he Heads of the oppofite Party, with depriving others
of their Eftates, and with condemning great numbers to
perpetual Banifhment, they believed themfelves yet un-
safe, till they were rid of three Perfons who made them


uneafy, and with whom they were extremely incenfed s 1323.
namely, the Biihops of Lincoln (6) and Hereford, and
Roger Mortimer the younger. This lait, who had done
them great damage, was in their power, being actually
Prifoner in the Tower.

Adam Orleton, Bifhop of Hereford, was promoted to 77 "-'" 7 ""*
that Dignity by the Intereft of Pope John XXII, in " ft ,
Jpite of all the Kings Endeavours to the contrary, Ut are cp-
This Prelate, who had fhown but little regard for the & '
Court on that occafion, rightly judged the King would in!' p'tiV
not fail, when in his Power, to be revenged on him. 1
For this reafon he joined with the Earl of Lancafler, to Wi
foeen himfelf from the Perfection he juftjy feared. De ' J ***
Matters having taken a quite different turn from what
he expected, and the King preserving an extreme Re-
fentment againft him, his Ruin was determined. To
that end he was fummoned to anfwer in the King's
Court to a Charge of High-Treafon entered againft him(7).
He appeared, but refufed to plead in any but the Ec-
clefiaftical Court, infilling upon the Privilege of his Or-
der. This Refufal would have done him no Service,
had he not been fupported by the Archbifhops of Can-
terbury and Dublin. Thefe Prelates confideiing the Sen-
tence which the King's Court was going to pronounce, 03
a manileft Violation of the Church's Immunities, went
in Company with feveral other Bifhops, and forbid the
King's Judges to take cognizance of the Cafe, threat-
ning them with Excommunication , if they dared to
proceed. However defirous the King and his Minifters
were to be rid of this Bifhop, the Clergy's Oppofition
hindeied the Judges from palling Sentence, and the Af-
fair was referred to the Parliament. Neverthelef,, till this
Procefs was over, the King ordered the Temporalities of
the Party accufed to be feized.

The Bifhop of Lincoln, who was in the fame cafe, Toe two
plainly perceived what would be his doom, if the Bi- f o ^T '"*
fhop of Hereford was condemned. A common Intereft *
forming a very ftrift Union between thefe two Prelates,
they applied themfelves to find means to raife Troubles,
which fhould Inciter them from the King's Vengeance.
Unhappily for him their Endeavours fucceeded but too

Roger Mortimer the younger was not, or at leaft Mortimer
feemed not to be, in very favorable Circumftances. De- " H Xf"Z'i
tained in clofe Confinement, and deftitutc of a Charac- "lld'r.ed"
ter which might fcreen him from the malice of the Fa-
vorites, who were extremely incenfed againft him, he
expected to forleit his Head for the Damages he had
done. And indeed he was condemned to die (8), but Pat. 16.
found a powerful Interceftion with the Kin?;; who, not- EJ "' - *' M
withstanding the Solicitations of his Favorites, changed 34.' *'
his Sentence to perpetual Imprifonment. It was no fmall '
matter for Mortimer to efcape death. The State he was
in feemed to require his Patience, till time fhould bring
fome alteration in his favour. But fo flow and uncer-
tain a means was not capable of making him eafy.
Whether he was afraid the King would, one time or
other, be gained by his Enemies, or relied upon the
fame Protection that had already faved his Life, he en-
tered into new Plots. Though a Prifoner, he attempted Waiting*
to make himfelf mafter of the Tower, and likewife of
IVallingford Caftle, by the help of his Friends. This
Plot being difcovered, one of his Accomplices was con-
demned to be hanged, and himfelf once more had the
Sentence of Death palled upon him. However, he ob-
tained his Pardon again.

When a Man reflects on the great Credit of the Spen- P.-rraAs *,
cers, their revengeful Temper, and the reafon the)' had bi ' fc "*
perfonally to hate Mortimer, he muft be convinced, that
the Protection which fcreened him from their Vengeance
was very powerful. On the other hand, if all the Cir-
cumftances of this Reign be conlidered, it will not be
thought likely, that any other Perfon but the Queen
could poflibly obtain fuch a Favour from the King, a-
gainft the Intereft and Solicitations of the Minifters.
This Conjecture is confirmed by the fcandalous manner
wherein that Princefs afterwards lived with Mortimer;

(0 They took, among the reft, jtchn de Bretagne Earl of Richmond Prifoner. Walfmvbam, p. 117.

(a) He was one of Lancojlcr's Family and ingaged with his Lord in the late Infurreftion, and being condemned to be hanged, fomo, about the Kinf, be-
caule he formerly had a Place at Court, offered to intercede for bam. At which the King falling into a Pallion faij as above. Wall. n. 1 17. The words
are tranflated nearer the Original than in the French.

(3) He was buried in the Church of the Priory of PonifraB. The Prior and Monks giving out that Miracles were wrought at his Tomb, the Report
gained Ground in fuch a manner, that the King was forced to order the Church to be ihut up. The Kings Letter t , the Biibop of land
his Picture which was fet up in St. Paul's Cathedral, and worshipped by the People, is in Vol. 111. p. 1035, of KrwA Feed See Brady.
p. 136. ciTc J J

Vol. III.

p. 136,

(4.) Betore his being beheaded he was degraded of the Honour of Ksighthord; which is the full Example of this kind. Jl'atj". p. irS.

(5) Queen Ifaie.'h writ in 1316, the lait Day of February, to the Pope, extolling the Virtues of the late Earl of Lam after, and defiring his Holiness
to canonize him, and King Edwatd III, permitted a Chapel to be built ever the Place where the Earl was beheaded: But his Canonisation w» not com-
uleated till Richard It's Re.ign in 13S9. Sec Brady's Hift. p. 13S, 139. and sJppcn. N». 64, 66.

(6) Henry Burwarfche. De la Moor, p. jq-.

, ( 7) He was arretted in the Parliament held at London the beginning of Lent, and examined before the King and Lords upon divers Articles of High-Trea-
fon. n at\. p. J 19. oc o

(S) And his Eltates, together with his Uncle's, were forfeited, in 1322. Not leng after, the elder Zlertmer died in the Tower.

No. 20. Vol. I.




lie H I S T R T of E N G L A N D.

Vol. I.


Aft. Pub.
IV. p. 7,

from whence it may be inferred, their good Underftand-
ing commenced long before it was publickly known.
For a further Confirmation of this may be added what
all the Hiftorians unanimoufly relate, that the Queen in-
ceffantly complained of the Severities, exercifed upon the
Friends of the late Earl of Lancafter. This gives occa-
fion to prefume, that Mortimer was the principal Sub-
rbiSutmU'ytSt of her Complaints. Moreover, at this very time it
/»W *y r£r waSj t hat the Spencers began to vex Queen IJubella, in-
DeirM. fomuch, that by their Perfections, they obliged her to
complain to the King of France her Brother, that file
was regarded but as a Servant in the King her Husband's
Houfe. Now it does not appear, that the Favorites had
any other Reafon to mortify her, than the Protection fhe
granted to Mortimer their Enemy. All thefe Reafons
incline me to believe, there was at this time a Fami-
liarity between Ifabella and Mortimer, and that the Pro-
tection fhe publickly honour 'd him with, drew upon her
the Malice of the Favorites. The Vexation they gave
her, led her to feek means to be revenged in her turn.
Mortimer. This is truly the Source of the Events we are going to
Frf " ""° relate ' concerning which Hiftorians have exprefl'ed them-
Wilfmg. felves very obfcurely. Let us add here, in order not to
Ad. Murin. return to Mortimer till there (hall be occafion, that quick-
ly after he found means to efcape out of the Tower (1),
and lie concealed fome time in England, notwithftand-
ing the diligent Search that was made to apprehend him.
Though Hue and Cry was railed after him, which fel-
dom fails of Succefs, he had the good fortune to efcape
the Search, and retire into France. Probably, he was hid
in fome Place where they durft not look for him. Let
us now proceed to the fatal Effects of the Love, Ambi-
tion, and Revenge, which at that time poffeifed the
Minds of the principal Perfons at Court.
Afal, j if The Peace made by Edward I with France ftill fub-
| dwa ' dw,vi fitted, notwithftanding certain Difputes between the two
Crowns, in the Reigns of Lewis Hutin, and Philip le
Long, Sons and Succeffors of Philip the Fair. Upon
Charles the Fairs AccelTion to the Throne of France,
after the Death of his Brothers, thefe Differences were
confiderably increafed, on account of the Jurisdiction
claimed by that Prince over Guicnne, as Sovereign Lord
of that Duchy. It is probable too that Charles, diffa-
tisfied at the ill Treatment of his Sifter Queen Ifabella
in England, fought occafion to give Edtvard Marks of
his Refentment. An unexpected Accident in Guienne,
gave him an opportunity to make himfelf Satisfaction.
Hence flowed all thofe Misfortunes which afterwards fell
upon the King of England.

At a Town in Agenois, called St. Sardos, held of the
Caftle of Montpezat, fome Outrage was committed, which
Edward's Officers in Guienne neglected to redrefs (2).
Whereupon the Parties concerned carried their Complaints
to the King; of France, as Sovereign. Charles embraced

III. p. 100 v ,. " . . ' ,• r>- 1 /" • Ho

IV. 4.8, 55, this opportunity to improve his Right over Guienne. trie
63, &c- ' caufed the Court of Peers to fentence the Lord of Mont-

pezat, and other Gafcon Gentlemen to Banifhment, and
confiscate their Caftles to the Crown of France. By
virtue of this fentence, given without fummoning the
King of England, or his Officers, Charles would have
taken poffeffion of the Caftle of Montpezat ; but was pre-
vented by the EngliJJj, who placed a ftrong Garrifon
there. This oppolition occafioned another Sentence, de-
claring the Garrifon guilty of Felony, for oppofing the
execution of the firft. Mean while, the King of France
ordered Troops to be raifed in Perigord, and the neigh-
bouring Provinces, with defign to beliege the Caftle. To
give the better colour to this Armament, he complained,
that Edward had not done him Homage for Guienne and
the Earldom of Ponthieu (3), and fo had a Pretence ready
to confifcate thefe Provinces, in cafe his Arms met with
1 3 24. the expected Succefs. Indeed it was vifible, his Defign
Charles de was not to take a Caftle only, fince he fent a formida-
makcl ' ?rca: ble Army into Guienne, under the Command of Charles
Piigrijt m de Valois his Uncle, who made himfelf matter of feveral
Ouienr.e. Places. Certain it is, nothing; was farther from Edward's

De la M. ' =

7,V King
of Fiance.
takes occa~
Jion to feixe
Gu enne.
Ail. Pub.
III. p. 100

De la M.

thoughts, than a defire of entering into a War with
France, and yet he took no Method to avoid it. In-
ftead of giving the King his Brother-in-law fome Satis-
faction, by doing Juftice to the Parties concerned in the
Affair of St. Sardos, and by offering the Homage due to
him, he ftill kept his Character of neglecting great mat-
ters for the fake of Trifles (4). It is true indeed, he
fent Commiihoners into GuieJine (5), with publick Orders
to make inquifition concerning the Bufmefs of St. Sardos.
But by their private Inftructions they were to do their ut-
moft to oblige the Plaintiffs to defift from their Appeal,
which was not endeavouring to fatisfy the King of France.
As for the Homage, though he did not pretend to dif-
pute it, he excufed himfelf from doing it, on pretence lie
had never been fummoned in form. Mean time, he
fent his Brother , the Earl of Kent, to command in
Guienne, but with fo few Troops, that the Earl not
daring to keep the Field, fhut himfelf up in Reole, where
he was befieged, and at laft forced to capitulate.

Before the Earl of Kent went over to Guienne, he
was fent to Paris, to try to adjuft the Difference be-
tween the two Crowns. He had even agreed with
the Court of France upon a Treaty, which the King
his Brother refufed to ratify. This was the Subject of
a long Negotiation, which ferved only to give the Earl
of Valois time to purfue his Conquefts in Guienne. At
length, Edward perceiving the Duchy was in manifeft
danger, thought fit to make fome Preparations, which
occafioned the Court of France to equip a Fleet, to
oppofe that of the Englijh. The Spencers, ever watch-
ful of occafions to vex Ifabella, ufed this to deprive her
of the Earldom of Cornwal, afhgned her for her private
Expences. They fuggefted to the King, that it was
dangerous to leave that Country in the hands of the
Queen, when he was in War with the King her Bro-
ther. They added, that probably, the Fleet the French
were fitting out, was defigned for an Invafion from that
quarter. This was fufficient to induce Edward to re-
fume that Earldom in a very difobliging manner to the
Queen, without diffembling that he thought her capable
of holding a criminal Correfpondence with the Enemies
of the State (6). This Indignity, which ftie highly re-
fented, added to fo many other Reafons of Difguft a-
gainft the Spencers and the King, in all likelihood,
haftened the Project, the particulars whereof I am going
to relate.

Though Edward made fome Preparations for War, it
was not by the Force of his Arms that he expected the
Reftitution of what was taken from him. His chief Re-
liance was on the Pope, who being chofen Mediator be-
tween the two Crowns, put him in hopes of a good Iffue
of this Affair. To work this Agreement, the Pope fent
twoNuntio's to Paris (7), where Ambaffadors from Eng-
land (8) alfo repaired. But the Negotiation went on fo
flowly that the Englijh could not help fhowing fome Im-
patience. As they feemed inclined to return home, a Per-
fon of great Note in the Court of France took occafion
to infinuate to the Nuntio's, that if the King of England
would fend his Queen to Paris, fhe would undoubtedly
obtain from the King her Brother much better Terms
than the Ambaffadors could expect. The Nuntio's having
made this Propofal to the Englijh Plenipotentiaries, it was
refolved that one of them, the Bifhop of JVincheJlcr (9),
fhould take a Journey to London, to perfuade their Mat-
ter to follow the method fuggefted to them. Thefe par-
ticulars are to be feen in a Letter from Edward to the
Pope on this occafion, inferted in the Collection of the
Publick Acls. It was not therefore a Contrivance invent-
ed by the Spencers to be rid of the Queen, as fome affirm-
ed, fince the Project came firft from France. It is much
more likely, that the Queen her felf put the King her
Brother upon it, in order to have an opportunity of go-
ing to Paris, and beginning the execution of her Plot
acainft the King her Husband and his Favorites. Be that
as it will, the Propofal being debated in Council (10),
any expedient was thought preferable to a War, as mat-


Ad. P'ib.
IV. P . 9.


at Paris.
Art. Pub.
IV. p. 42,

p. 84.



The p.pe
tritt to ac-
Matters .
Art. fob.
IV. p. 105.


It is propo~
(A to Ed-
ward to (end
b:t ^ricer. to

De la M.

Art. Pub.
IV. p. 140,

De laM.

Ht confents
t> it.
Aft. Pub.
IV. p. 14S.

(1) On Auguf! 1. this Year. Ad Murim. .... ,, . .. ., _

(j) The cccaliun of the prefent Quarrel was this : Hugh Lord of Mtmtpasat had built a Caftle on fome Land, wh.ch he pretended was within the Ter-
ritories of the Kinc of England, but which the King of France mainlined to be his; and therefore he fummoned the laid Lord oerore the I arhament of
Pari,, which adjudged the Land to theKinp ot Frana ; and his Officer in thole parts immediately leized the Caftle. To recover wh,ch the Lord ot Mont-
fezat allembled all his Valfals, and received alfo AITiftance from the King's ienefchal of England in Guienne, by which means he loon becam. again
mafter of his Caftle, and put all the French-men that were in it to the Sword. P. Daniel's Hi/i. oj France. Tom. V. p. 4:.

(3) He lent thenar de Seonville, and a Notary named Andrew de Florence, to fummon him to perform that Homage. Waif p. 117. De la Maor.

P ' (l)'upon his being fummoned by the King of Ftanee, he affembled the Parliament in Lent (of which mention is trade a little above) to confider what
Ani'.ver he (hould return to thofe Summons, U'aif. p. 119.

(?) His Brother Edmund Earl of Kent, and the Archbithop of Dublin. Ibid. p. no. . ,

(6) There was only a Pennon allowed her. Hid. r . 121. At the fame time the King iffucd out CcmmiiTions of Array, which fee in Rymer s Feed.

Tom. IV. p. 78, 107.

(7) The ArchbinSop of Vicnne, and the Ri/hnp of Orange. Ibid. p. lot.. Waif. p. 1:1.

(8) The Bilhops of rVmcbifier, and Norwttb, together with John dc Bretagnc Earj of Richmond, and Sir Henry de Beatmor.t, but afterwards in his room
Wtlham dt Ayreminc Canon 01 York. Rymcr's Faed. Tom. IV. p. 106, 145.

(9) Rapin by m.ftake fays, Exeter. Ibid. p. 140. Waif. p. 'ill.

(loj Or rather, in a Parliament, which was held at IFjimtrJIer, January 21. to deliberate abcut the Arlairs ot G;.:.irar. ibid. p. 121,


Book IX.

io. E D W A R D II


1 32 j, ters then flood in England. Tfabella was therefore defired
to go to France ; to which fhe feemed to confent only in
order to make Peace between the two Kings (1). Imme-
diately after her Arrival at Paris, fhe obtained a fhort
Truce, during which fhe concluded a Treaty (2) with
Artidaaf the King her Brother. By this Treaty the Duchy of
Witella'i Gu'rcnne was to be wholly rcfigned to the King of France,
btr Bntbcr. That afterwards both the Kings fhould meet at Beauvais,
lb. p. 153. where Charles, at the Inftance of the Queen his Sifter,
Waliing. /hould reftore Guiennc to Edward, upon his doing Homage
for it. Tiiat in this Reftitution the Country of Agenois

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 168 of 360)