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lately conquered by France fhould not be included : But
that the King of England fhould be allowed to fue for it
in the Court of Peers, where Juftice fhould be done him.
And in cafe the Court fhould decree that Edward fhould
have polfeffion again, he fliould be obliged to pay the King
of France a certain Sum towards the Charges of the War ;
but fhould pay nothing in cafe he loft his Caufe. The
day alter figning this Treaty, the Commiilionersof France,
for reafons they did not care to explain, deferred fifteen
Aa. Pub. days longer the Interview of the two Kings, which had
IV. p. ..,6. Deen f5 xec ] t tne Affumption of the Virgin (3).
Idward How difadvantagious foever this Treaty appeared to Ed-

frrpartstt>£t> ward, as he was willing at any rate to avoid a War, he failed
timm, not to ratify it and prepare to do his Homage. The Spencers
lb. p. 148, beheld thefe Preparations with great Uneafinefs, knowing
if'i w l ^ ere were ' n f hc Kingdom great Numbers of Male-con-
tents who might take advantage of the King's Abfence,
to excite frefh Commotions. An Expedient found out in
this Interval, either in France, or in England, freed them
The glvtrg from their Trouble. It was inlinuated to the King, that
*/• Guienne |f he would refign to Prince Edward his Son aged thirteen
tntnlida Y e TS, the Duchy of Guienne and the Earldom of Pon-
th e Km*, thieu, the King of France would receive the Homage of
Cint. Nun. the young Prince, and reftore him the Places he had pro-
DcVm. niifed to give up by the Treaty. In all likelihood this
Overture came fiom the Court of France, as well as the
Propofal of the Queer': going to Paris. But it was only
hinted to the King like the former, in order to induce him
to demand that Favour himfelf. However that be, as
every one is apt to flatter himfelf, Edward imagined that,
out of Refpecl to him, the King of France had devifed
this Expedient, to excufe him from doing what was very
difagreeable to him, or the Queen had obtained this Fa-
vour by her Sollicitations. Neither himfelf nor the Spen-
cers perceived the Poil'on that luiked under this feemingly
very advantagious Propofal. They did not queftion in the
leaft, but the management of Guienne would ftill remain in
their hands, in the Name of the young Prince, at leaft
during his Minority. On the other hand, the propofedChange
did not appear to be beneficial to France. But for that
very reafon they fhould have fufpecled it ; fince it feldom
happens that any thing advantagious is offered to another,
without the Propofer's receiving fome Benefit, though at
lit aatpis firft it does not appear. However, as Edivard fufpecSted
tbiPnffal. not his Queen, he accepted, without hefitation, the Offer,
which excufed him from a Journey he was very unwilling
to make. This was, as one may fay, throwing himfelf
headlong into the Snare laid for him, the Queen's fole
Aim, in the whole Contrivance, being to get the Prince
her Son with her, and to make him her Inftrument to
ruin the King her Husband.
Remarh There is hardly room to queftion, that Charles the Fair

witch mah was verv (] ee p]y concerned in this Plot, when it is con-
"b^Kivglf fidered, that from him came the firft Propofal of fending
France Jjabella to Paris. This gives occafion to prefume, he was
aBidm Author of the fecond too, which tended to draw Prince
tbi ihtcn Edward there alfo. And indeed, if he had not fome pri-
hisHijicr. vate View, what Advantage could the Change propofed be
to him ? Was it not more honourable, to fee the King of
England at his feet, than his Son ? And yet, inftead of
appearing to have made any objection on this account, it
Afl. Pub. is feen in feveral Places of the Collection of the Publick
jv. p. 163, Jft Si that he very readily came into it, by the great hafte
wherewith this Agreement was maile. The 21ft: of Au-
gujl, Edward had ftill thoughts of going to France. The
24th of the fame Month he writ to Charles, to be excufed,
upon a pretended Fit of Sicknefs, from meeting him
at Beauvais on the day appointed. The 2d of September,
he abfolutely refigned to the Prince his Son the Earldom of
lb. p. 165. Ponthicu (4). The 4th of the fame Month, Charles fign-
ed Letters Patent, confenting to the Subftitution of the
Son in his Father's room, on condition King Ed-

ward would refign to his Son whatever he held in 1125.
France. But this condition was already performed in
England two days before, with refpect to the Earldom
of Ponthieu. Hence it is plain, this Negotiation was be-
gun and ended between the 24th of Augujl and the 4th of
September, which doubtlcfs will feem too fhort a time, if
the Court of France is fuppofed not to be already deter-
mined, to grant what fhe well knew was going to be de-
manded. If the Son's Subftitution in the Father's place,
had been attended with no Conlequence, there would have
been no occafion to take much notice of it; the thing in
itfelf being of little moment. But it was ncceflary to
relate the Circumftanccs, in order to fliew it was a Plot
contrived long before by the Queen, and a Snare laid by
her for the King her Husband, and at the fame time that
fhe adfed in concert with the King of France her Bro-
ther. For, it is very hard to believe this Princefs fo
politick, as to draw King Charles into her Project, without
his or his Council's perceiving it. It is therefore very
likely, that before Jjabella left England, flic had intimated
to the King her Brother, that fhe wanted to throw off the
Dependence fhe was kept in by the Spencers, and free her-
felf from the ill Treatment fhe received, by their Inftiga-
tion, from her Husband. So, it may be very probably
prefumed, it was in order to fcrve the Queen his Sifter,
that Charles caufed to be made indirectly the Propofal of
fending her to Paris. That it was moreover in profe-
cution of the fame Defign, that he fo readily came into
the Treaty heconcludcd with her, when he might realon-
ably expeel to become mafter of Guienne. In fine, that it
was with the fame View, that he confented to receive the
Son's, inftead of the P'ather's Homage. It is fcarcely to
be doubted, that the prolonging of the Term of the Ho-
mage, without giving the Reafons, was a Confequence of
the fame Project. It was believed, without doubt, there
would be need of more time, to prevail with Edward to
fend his Son to Paris, to which it was imagined he
would make fome Objections. To all thefe reafons may
be farther added, that afterwards Charles permitted the
Queen his Sifter to flay in France, notwithftanding the
repeated Inftances of her Husband to the contrary. More- Mczeral,
over the French Hiftorians own themfelves, he had pro-
mifed her Affiftance. Add to this, Ifabella's Hatred of
Spencer the younger, and her Paflion for Mortimer, which
fhe took no further care to conceal, when fhe had the Prince
her Son in her power. Moreover let the Readinefs becon-
fidered, wherewith all the Englijh Lords declared for her,
when it was time, as we fhall fee prefently. From the
Connexion of all thefe Circumftances it is demonftrable,
that Ifabella's Plot was formed before her Departure from
England, and that the King her Brother was not ignorant
of it. I have dwelt the longer on thefe particulars, be-
caufe the Hiftorians feem to me to fpeak very obfeurcly of
the Caufes of the Revolution I am going to relate.

The two Kings being agreed upon the expedient pro- Pr ma Ed-
pofed,- Prince Edward departed for Paris on the 1 2th of wari " ma
September 1325 (5), after receiving from his Father the ab- ^ ft p S u ',,_
folute Grant of the Duchy of Guienne and Earldom of Pa;;- IV. p. 16?.
thieu. In a few days after his Arrival (6), he did Homage lb - P- ' 6 5>
to the King his Uncle, who actually reftored him Guienne, J t '„■„, '
but kept Agenois, of which Edward the Father greatly llmagt.
complained. He pretended, that by the late Agreement
Charles was obliged to reftore all Guienne to his Son.
Charles, on the contrary, maintained, that the reftitution
he had promifed, had relation to the late Treaty, whereby
he referved Agenois for himfelf. This Conteft difpleafed
not the Queen, who wanted a Pretence to ftay at Paris,
from whence me did not intend fo foon to depart. After WaTing.
the Arrival of the Prince her Son, all the Englijh who had
fled for refuge into France, or been banifhed their own
Country, came to her. Roger Mortimer was of this num- Dc U M.
ber, and became her chief Counfellor. From thencefor-
ward Edward's Anibafladors had but little accefs to the
Queen, and were no longer adviled with, concerning the
Affair of the reftitution of Agenois. On the contrary, fhe TU^gia't
held frequent Councils, where none were admitted but the ^^""fy,
profeffed Enemies of the King her Husband, and of the Uufband.
Spencers. Nay fhe had fecret Conferences with Mortimer, H" P"JJiim
which occafioned many Sufpicions. In fine, fhe came to'"
life fo little difcretion in her familiarities with him, that vValtng.
Edward's Servants at Paris were extremely offended
thereat. On the other hand, her Return to England was
deieired from day to day, on divers pretences, notvvith-

[ 1) She paffed over to Calais, in the beginning of 'July, attended only by the Lord John Cromzi'cl, and four Knights. Weljitagbam, p.
(2) T.Iay 31. See Bymr's Ford. Tom. IV. p. u6.

(4) The Articles whereby King Edward refigned Gmemi to his Son, were agreed upon at Dover, September 9. with the Confont nf the
great Men there prrlent. Two of the Articles agreed upon at Dntr, were, That if Prince Edtuard died belore his Father, the Lands in
.„,n tr. hi. r.i.l Ka.h.. k-;„„ pj,„,..i. an j [j,,, t ] le K. ing afFnua flwuld neither marry, nar provide the young Prince a Ciu.rd.m.

turn to his laid Father King Edward 3

T"m. IV. p. 165, 166. Waljingbam, p. 121. De la M'.cr, p. 597.

(5) Attended by William Billif p of Oxfird, and other ^teat Men.

(6) September 21. Waljir.gbam, p. 121.

Prelates, and other

Guienne fhould re-
bee Rjmer'i Feed*





Vol. I.

1325. {landing the repeated orders of the King her Husband to
bring home bib Son ( 1 ). All the Hiftorians unanimoufly
affirm, fhe was in love with Mortimer. Some fay, her
Paffion besan ft Paris : But much more probably, it com-
menced (as was laid j in England before Mortimers Impri-
sonment. However this be, the Queen's fecret Confe-
rences with a Fugitive fhe ought to have baniihed her
prei'encc, as an Enemy to the King, opened at length the
Eyes of the Bifhop of Exeter, one of Edivard's Ambaf-
TbiBijhy of fadors. The Bifhop plainly perceiving his Mailer was
1 betrayed, privately withdrew from the Court of France! 2),

f be . , ■ l - J 1 c n- rt it

;. ,j lit. to inform him of what was tranlaCting at farts. Heac-
Waifing. quainted him, not only with the Queen's fcandalous Be-
haviour with regard to Mortimer, but allured him aifo they
were contriving fome Plot againil him. He very juftly
built his Sufpitions on their frequent Councils with the
Exiles, without fufteiing the Amballadors to be prefent.
At! PuL. Edward had already thought it very ftrange, that after the
iv. p. lSc - Homage was done, the Mother and Son fhould ilay fo
long in France, and had often writ to recall them. The
Biihop of Exeter's late Information entirely opening his
eyes, he began from that moment to perceive his great er-
Cc la M. ror in fending his Son to Paris. This made him repeat
cli ". f ; his Inftances for their Return, and pofitively command the

iV. \ 6 .*d" : . Queen to bring his Son with her, without Haying one mi-
nute for the Reafons file had hitherto alledged. His Orders
The '■■■•• were fo urgent, that Ifabclla was obliged to feek other ex-
'/ cufes. She caufed the King her Brother to fend him
S ' '"' '' word, fhe could not think of returning to England, with-
out being full fecured againft the Treatment fhe was
Edward'i apprehenhve of from Spencer the Son (S). Edward, in his
Letter to ani'wer to this Letter, juftified Spencer's behaviour to the
S"' f '/L( Qyeen^ by her own Letters to that Favorite, full of
Matter. Friendfhip and confidence, fince her being in France.
Aft. Pub. Moreover, he allured the King his Brother-in-law, that he
lv - p- '"°- would never fuffer Spencer or any other Ferfon, to be want-
ing in the refpectdue to his Queen. He further reprefentcd
to him, that if he had not entirely relied on his Sincerity,
he Should never have lent his Son into France, and deftred
him to remember his promife, and fend him back with all
lb. ;-. 1S1, fpeed. He writ in much the fame manner to the Queen
'"■■ and Prince: but his Letters were all to no purpofe.

Ifabella was determined to purfue her point, and whilft
ihe was taking meafures at Paris to accomplifh her defign,
The Slum her Friends were effectually fervingher in England. The
:•"'!! '','"■''.' Heads of her Party were Henry of Lancajlcr, Brother of
DolTm!' 3 ' him beheaded ztPonlftail, and the Bifhops of Lincoln and
g- Hereford. They did not find it very difficult to form a
Strong Party againft the King, confidering the Difpofitions
of the Barons fince the late cruel Executions.
1 326. Charles the Fair, as the French Hiftorians are forced to

Ifabella own, had promifed the Queen his Sifter fome Affiftance,
""'e™,"'"- but W2S unwilling it fhould appear he was concerned in
HaJijauk, 4 her Plots (4). It was necellary therefore for Ifabella to
find a Protector, who would not fcruple openly to fupport
Fro'flart. her Interefts. To that end, file applied to the Earl of
Waifing. Hainatdt, from whom fhe believed fhe fhould be able to
procure fome Troops, to ftrengthen her Party upon her
W hkUi Arrival in England. But as fhe could not expect to gain
a Marriage t i lat p r i nce , without making it turn to his advantage, fhe
P^«" concluded with him a marriage between her Son Edward
Edward and and his Daughter Philippa, as if it had been in her power
tuDaugkter. tQ jlfpofe of the young Prince. Several pieces in the Col-
lection of the Pttblick Ails plainly Shew, this marriage was
in hand whilft the Queen was yet at Paris. Amongft
Aft. Pub. others, there was a Letter of King Edward to his Son,
IV. p. lij-. ex p re fly forbidding him, to enter into any Marriage-In-

gagement without his Knowledge.
c - ■ .: : Mean time, the King of France ftill permitted Ifabella to
rd's continue at Paris, and read without any Emotion, orAn-
tt'J'sZl, fwer > Edxvard's Letters, upbraiding him with Breach of
*mi uTstm. Faith. The Information Edward received from the Bi-
fhop of Exeter ; the Queen's frivolous Excufes to defer her
Return ; and King Charles's connivance, troubled him ex-
tremely. He plainly faw, fome Plot was contriving againft
him at Paris, tho' he could not tell what it was. But he
was very fenfible, the confequences were to be dreaded,
as long as the Prince his Son was in the hands of his Ene-

mies. Moil of the Hiftorians affirm, the Contempt 1326.
fhewn by the Mother and Son for his Orders, induced him Waning,
at length to banifh them the Realm. But a Letter, he A ^-P"b.
fent the Pope on that Subject, manifeflly Shews, it was IV ' p ' 20C *
only a falfe rumour fpread in France, on purpofe to juftify
the Queen's (lay. In the Letter Edward told the Pope,
That he had never fuch a Thought : That the tender Age of
his Son freed him from all Imputation of Difobedience, of
luhich the Queen alone was guilty, and that he had too great
an Affciiion for both, to treat them Jo inhumanly. After try- tit aeatfa
ing in vain all the ways he could devife, to obligethem to J' ^ h 'Jl" m
return to England, he turned his whole Fury upon the Am- varhatim.
bafladors, who affifted the Queen in the negotiation of the lb- p- "93-
fatal Treaty, and refolved to make them refponfible for
the Blue. He par ticularly charged the Bifhop of Norwich and
Earl of Richmond, with prevaricating in the execution of
their Orders (5), wherein he committed two egregious Er-
rors: Firft, as he increafed thereby the number of his Ene-
mies, who were already too numerous. Secondly, as he
dilcovered his Incapacity to govern his Kingdom, fince,
as a minor King might have done, he calf on his Minifters
the blame which he himfelf had incurred, by ratifying the
Treaty. This Conduct could not fail to give his Enemies lb. p. 19S.
a great advantage ; whofe chief aim was to perfuade the
People, the King was very unfit to govern. To this im- H; dahra
prudent Proceeding, he added another, no lefs impolitick, W*rmtk
in declaring War againft France, without being in any iJT^lie
readinefs to maintain it; and in giving Charles 2. plaufibleaiS.
pretence openly to fupport his Sifter's Interefts (6).

As Ifabella's project to dethrone the King her Husband Charles rfflh
has fomething deteftable in it, the French Hiftorians would hi ' S J -
fain inSinuate that Charles the Fair her Brother was no
way concerned in it. On the contrary, they affirm, that
when he came to know it, he expelled her his Dominions,
and forbid his Knights to give her any affiftance. They
would have (poke the whole Truth, if they had faid, lie
did not do this, till Ifabclla had taken all her meafures with
the Earl of Hainault, and was upon the point of executing
her defign. Mezerai could not help difcovering his Mcaerai,
thoughts, when he faid the Spencers were (b liberal oi their
Money at the Court of France, that Charles, gained by
Prefents, or awed by the Threats of a Rupture, prohibited
his Subjects from affifting the Queen. It is true he adds,
that becaufe Mortimer, w ho had made his Efcape out of
the Tower, was come to Queen Ifabella at Paris, Charles
deteftrng their fhameful Proceedings, would not fuller her any
longer in his Dominions. But it is eafy to fee, the French
King was not fwayed by that Motive, fince it is not true,
that Mortimer followed the Queen into France, where he
had been two Years before her. On the contrary, it is
certain, Charles fuffered his whole Court, above llxteen
Months, to be witnefs of the Familiarities between his
Sifter and Mortimer. And if he fent her afterwards out
of his Territories, it was purely on account of the Un-
certainty of the Blue, and to avoid the Blame of ha-
ving approved of her Conduct, in cafe fhe did not Suc-

Ifabclla leaving the Court of France, palled fome days The £>»?«
at Abbeville, from whence fhe came to Falenciennes. embarks at
Upon her Arrival, fhe ratified the Treaty concluded be- !?"''
tween her and the Earl of Hainault, and contracted her 1. Im c . 9 .
Son Edward to the Princefs Philippa. A few days Willing.
after, fhe repaired to Dort, where fhe embarked the K - nl s ht0Ita
Troops fupplied by the Earl of Hainault, who were all
ready there, with Ships to tranfport them. John de
Hainault, Brother of the Earl, had the Command ; and
the Queen, as a Singular favour, gave him leave to ftile
himfelf her Knight. Some reckon thefe Troops but
three thoufand Men (7). Others fay, they were much
more numerous. But fhe did not rely fo much upon
thefe Forces, as upon the Difcontents of the Englijh, and
the many Adherents procured her by her Friends in
England. She landed on the twenty fecond of September jy c Ia M-
[at Oreivcll] in Suffolk, where fhe was joined by Henry Hie land, in

oi Lancajlcr, and ieveral other Lords (SJ. At the fame f"^'" 4.
Enemies of the Spencers were very bufy in le- ,b! Mak-
ops to come to her affiftance ; and her Army

foon became fo numerous, that fhe ftruck Terror into n .

time, the Er

: ttentt.

Act. Pub.

(1) The King fent for her, and his Son, again fonn after Micbaelmafs. Walfir.gbam, p. 122.

(2) Having been difmilTed from being or her fecret Council, he left her, and returned to England. Ibid.

(3) It was then reported, whether true or falfe, That the Defpenfen had procured the King's Conlcnt to make away the Queen his Wife, and PrmceEJ-
BwrrfiisSon. Walfingbam, p. 113.

(4.) Fret/fart relates, That as Ifabella was providing for her Voyage, Hugh It Dcfpenfer having notice of it, contrived with with Prcknts to buy ofl the Fratck
Kinc; inf much that he forbid, under i>am of Binilhmint, any of his Subjects Irom aiTifting the Queen. Vol. I. c. S.

(5) And thereupon feized their Lands and Goods. See Rymer\ Feed. Tom. IV. p. 209.

(6) At the fame time, he iffued out his Orders, dalcd at Gaywod, February 8. to all the Sheriffs in England, to fummon all the Earls, Bartns, Knights,
and others holding by Knight's Service, Arraiers of Foot-Soldiers, light H. rl'e-men, &c. to get themfelves in a readinels: As alio to J:bn 1 Etturmy Admiral
of the Nortb t to Nicholas Kyricl, Admiral of the South Seas, and to Ka.'pb Bajpt of Drayton, Conltable of Dover Callle, and Guardian oi the Cinque-Ports,

to oppofe the Landing of any of the King's Enemies. Ibid. p. 1S9. Not long alter, -viz. April 18. he renewed his Father's Orders confirmed by the

Parliament, againft thofe that fpread falfe Rumours, in order to fow dil'cerd between the King and his People; the Penalty of which was imprilonment. IbitL
p. 202.

(7) Two thou&nd feven hundred and fifty feven Men at Arms, fays tl'alfmgban. p. 113.

(S) Particularly Aymeric de Valence, Eaji of Pembroke, the Earl ot LeicdUr, with the Bdhops of Hereford, Lincoln, Ely, and Dublin.

i thole

Book IX.




thofe who were defirous to ferve the King. That unfor- Sincerity. She not only haJ no intention to re-inflate 1326;

tunate Prince, who had received timely notice that a Plot the King, but very well knew he never would venture

was contrived againft him at Paris, had, according to to place any Confidence in her, after being fo cruelly

cuftom, employed himfelf in feeking ineffectual Remedies treated.
f. 194, 210, f or the impending Evils. Inftead of railing an Army, Whilft the Queen was at Ghcejler, a Report being IbeR '■■

2l1 ' and equipping a Fleet, which might have quaftied the i )e- fpread that the King was Come where concealed in Wales, '

figns of his Enemies, he had ojily writ to the Pope and Henry of Lancafler was detached in quell of him. His CionmoutKi

t.he King of France, Letters which were to no manner of Diligence, and a Reward of two thoufand Pounds pro- I

Edward it- purpofe. Wherefore, upon the Arrival of the foreign mifed by the Queen, to any Perfon that fliould t:ike )''' 1 '' r ^j

i"" d hy ""' Troops, he was deferted by all, and unable to withstand Spencer the younger, foon gained him intelligence of the

APt. Pub his Enemies. In vain did he pubhfli a Proclamation, com- Place, where the unhappy king thought to be con-

p- -I 1 ' rnanding his Subjects to fall upon the Foreigners, and cealed (6). Me had with him only Spencer, Chancellor

fet a Price upon Mortimers Head(i); not a Man ftirrcd Baldoc, Simon de Reading, and a few Domefticks, ail

to obey him. The Earl of Kent, his own Brother, the reft forfaking him in his Misfortunes. As the Ab-

fided with the Male-contents, and went over to the Queen, bey of Neath was no proper place to keep the Pri-

In this Extremity he refolved Jo retire into the Weft, foners, Henry of Lancafler carried them to Monmouth

with the two Spencers, the Earl of Arundel, Chancellor Caftle till farther Orders (7). When the Queen heard

Baldoc, Simon de Reading, and a few other Adherents of that the King her Husband, and her principal Enemies

the Favorites. were in her Power, flic held a Council, to know how fhe

Mean time, the Queen, whofe Army daily increafed was to behave at this juncture. It was refolve 1 in the * <> I ' ■'

by the Troops brought her from all Parts, publilhed a Council, that the Bifhop of Hereford fliould be fent to de- "Ji? '.''"

Manifefto in her own, as well as in the Names of Ed- mand the Great-Seal of the King; as well to hinder him



De la M.

The Queen
fublijhes a

Art. Pub.



X. Scriptor
Col. 2764.

ivard her Son, and the Earl of Kent, fetting forth the from u ling it againft the Queen, as to be able to call a Al Pubi

Reafons of their taking Aims. They pretended, their fole Parliament, without which nothing could be done but IV ' p ' * 37 "

Aim was to free the Church and State, from the Op- what would want a lawful Authority. If what had hi-

preflions to which they were liable, by the Male-Admi- therto palled, difcovered to the King the Defigns of his

niftration of the King, and the Tyranny of the Spencers. Enemies, this laft Circumftance fully convinced him, he

Adding, thefe unworthy Favorites and their Adherents fliould be no longer regarded, fince by taking from him

ought to be deemed Enemies of the State, fince by their the Great-Seal, he was deprived at the fame time of the

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