M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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pernicious Counfel, and Abufe of the Royal Authority, Exercife of the Royal Authority. He delivered it how-

they unjuftly deprived, fome of their Lives, others of ever, without (hewing any Reluctance, and gave the Queen

their Eftates and Liberty ; without any regard to the and the Prince his Son Power to ufe it as they pleafed,

Laws of the Land, or the Privileges of the People. This even in matters of mere Grace. This was the laft Act of lb ; P- -V>

Manifefto was pubiifhed at Wallingford, October the fit- Authority performed by this Prince, who fliortly after was W '"'""-'

teenth, whilft the Queen was marching in purfuit of the conducted to Kenelvjorth Caftle.

King. When the Queen had the Great-Seal in her poffe.Tion, A Variia.

Tic Kiirr Edward was then little able to withftand his Enemies, ftie ufed it ta her own Advantage, as well to order the "'".

'""^j^-* All his Endeavours to raife Troops had proved ineftec- Payment of her Debts, as to call a Parliament in the

tber at Bri- tual: No body would expofe himfelf to the Queen's captive King's Name. She had not patience to flay till AG



11. ,1


, and


thinks of


rcti


ring


Ire]


and.


W.i


lfing.


fc\


la M.



Refentment, or hazard his Life and Fortune for an
unhappy Prince, who was now looked upon as loft. In
this Extremity, finding no remedy in England, he re-
folved to retire into Ireland, and leave Spencer, the Fa-
ther, in Brijlcl. He fancied, the Siege of that Piace would



the meeting of the Parliament, to be revenged upon 1V ' p ' 2+2,
Spencer and the reft of her Enemies. The Earlof Arun- Tti Ear! of
del (8) had now loft his Head by her Orders at Hereford ; , A !"";", ! j
where fhe had a mind to facrifice the others to her Ven- wiLig!
geance. She marched to that City, ordering the Pri-
fo long employ the Queen, that he fhould have time to foners to be conducted in a moil ignominious manner,
take fome meafures. Purfuant to this Resolution, he to expofe them all the way to the Infults and Curfes of the
went on board a fmall Veffel, and fet fail for Ire/and. People. As foon as fhe arrived, fhe caufed Spencer and Spencer '*&
Bit's drhn g ut j )e was driven by contrary Winds on the Coaft of Simon de Reading to be brought to their Trials ; ofwhom^'T de
S Wales, Wales, where he was forced to land, and lie concealed the firft was hanged on a Gibbet fifty foot high, and the ban ! if
tuber* be in the Abbey of Neath, till the Wind became fair, or other ten foot lower. As for Chancellor Baldoc, as he Kn 'f nton »
itdabimftlf. jjg cou id f orm f orne ot j ler Defign. Whilft this unhappy was in Holy Orders, and it was not fafe to proceed againft n-'i'"^
Prince could hardly find in his own Kingdom a Place him in the fame manner, he was delivered to the Bifhop
of Safety, the Queen over-ran the Counties with a of Hertford, and carried to London. But in entering the Baldoc dies
wonderful Rapidity. Every one was eager to fupply her City, the Mob fell upon him, and terriblv abufino- him '" N « w e>*i
The Queen Army with NecelTaries. At length ihe came before threw him into Newgate, where he died of the Blows he



takes Briftol, Brijhl, where Spencer made but a faint Refinance.
The City furrendring after a few days Siege, the old
Gentleman, aged fourfcore and ten Years, was imme-
diately hung up [in his Armour,] without any Forma-
lity (2).

Mean while, the Citv of London following the Ex-
ample of the reft of the Kingdom, declared for the Queen.
In vain did [Walter de] Stapleton, Bifhop of Exeter, whom



end if
Spenc?r tbo
Fitter.
De la M.

London de-

fiaicl t lr



had received.

The Favorites and Miniftcrs having thus received the 13Z7.
Reward of their Pride and Cruelty, the Queen came rbt P" 1 '"-
to London, to take new meafures concerning the Parlia- w^rT"'
ment which was to meet. She entered the City in tri-
umph, amidft the Acclamations of the People, who called
her their Deliverer, and exprefled their Thankfulnefs, for
the pretended Service fhe had done the State. The



the King had left Guardian of the City, endeavour to keep Parliament meeting in January (9) 1327, the firft thinf

it for his Mafter. His Efforts ferved only to excite againft taken into confederation, was the depofin^ of the King,

him the Fury of the Populace, who treating him with for which every one was now fo prepared, that the unfor-

great Indignity, at length cut off his Head (3). The tunate King had not fo much as a Angle Advocate to

-Citizens likewife, enraged againft the King, became ma- plead for him. It was unanimoufly refolved, the King Edward »

Iters of the Tower, and releafed all the Pnfoners confined fhould be depofed, and his Son Edward made King in his d f-!" , > ani

by the Spencers (4). room. The Heads of the Charge exhibited againft him, &,'*"&£*"

At Brijhl, where the Queen ftaid fome days, fhe were digefted into feveral Articles, of which fome were

was informed of the King's being embarked for Ire- very much aggravated, and others only bare Repetitions, in

land. As he had hot committed the Government to order to fwell the Number. In general, he was acculed, X Scriptnr.

IV. p. 257. any Perfon, the Lords who attended the Queen, ufed

that pretence, to name for Guardian, or Regent of the



Tie Bifiop
tf Exet. r
belaid, d.
Walling.



Prince "Ed-
ward chafe
Regent.
Act. Huh.



of not having governed according to the Laws of the iv. 1 ; ~"°>
Land ; of having made ufe of ill Counfellors, and reject- '" S '



ing the Advice of his faithful Subjects. [The Articles at
length were (10):

" I. Firft, For that the Perfon of the King was not
" fufficient to govern ; for in all his time he was led and



Kingdom, Prince Edward ( 5), who took upon him the

Adminiftration. This done, the Queen came to Glo-

cejler, where the Gates were opened to her. Here fhe
The Shim pubiifhed a Proclamation, inviting the King to come and
tyPnelama- re f ume the Government : but herein Arc acted not with

tion tnnjites
the King ta
rtturn. (') A thoufand Pounds. Rymir's Feed. Tcm. IV. p. 133. This Prcclamation is dated at the Tower of Lender, Sept. iS.

(2) October t.j. Knighton, Col. 254-1-

(3) He was a great Benelaflor to Uxjcrd, founded and end wed Exeter College, and built Hart Hall. The Reafun of the Mob's Fury againft him was.
Tint being Trealurerot the Kingdom, he had perfuadcri the King' s Council to caute the itinerant Jurtices to lit in London, who rinding that the Citizena
had offended in many things, deprived them of their Libert e! ; fii J fine, and inflicted orporal Puniihments on others- Walfing. p. 12+.

(4) They alio took 'John Matjkall, Servant to Hugh It D , -..-. er junior, and, without any more ado, cut off' his He..d, and "plundered all his Goods.
Wtljing. p. 124. ( t ) Oaoadtr 26. Rymer' i Fad. Tom. IV. p. 237.

(6) The King was taken November 16. Waljing. p. 125.

(7) This was done on bltrvcmbtr 20. Ry mr's Fad. Tom. IV. p. 237.

(5) Edmund Fttx-AUn defended rroiri a Daughtei of the Family of th fft/'ni Earls of Arundel. He was mortally hated by Mortimer. It was laid to his
Charge, that having married his Son and Heir to the Daughter ol Hugh it Deffenftr, he had been privy to his Counlels, and had d. ne the Queen much Pre-
judice in her Abfence; and befrdes, had procured the Death of Thomas fate Earl of LjncJjier, with that of Gor.domar de Faience Earl of Pembroke. Kr.i^bl.n.

(9) January 7. Walfing. p. 126.

(10) The Articles are here ini'eited at l«ngth, becaul'e it wai thought they might be more latisfaclory to the Reader, than the Abftraft given by Rapin.

No. XXI. Vol. I. 5 I » governed



402



tte HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



1327.



Pretended
Horrtiv of
the %,yk.
Walfing.



e th Ptir.ce
would not
accept the
C'lOtvniviih
our tbeKing,
Confenr.
Willing.



'The Parlia-
ment obliges
the King to
Tejign bis
Cr'Jiun
De la M.
Knighton,



" governed by others, who gave him evil Counfel, to
" the diflionour of himfelf, and deftrudtion of Holy
" Church, and all his People ; not confidering or know-
" ing whether it was good or evil ; nor would remedy
" thefe things, when he was requefted by the great and
" wife Men of his Realm, or fufter them to be amend-
" ed.

" II. Alfo, in all his time he would not give himfelf
" to good Counfel, nor take it, nor to the good Govern-
" mentof his Kingdom; but always gave himfelf to Works
" and Employments not convenient, neglecting the Buii-
" nefs of his Realm.

" III. Alfo for want of good Government he loft the
" Kingdom of Scotland, and other Lands and Dominions
" in Gafcogne and Ireland, which his Father left him in
" Peace and Amity with the King of France, and many
" other great Perfons.

" IV. Alfo, by his Pride and Cruelty, he deftroyed
" Holy Chuich, and the Perfons of Holy Church, put-
" ting fome in Prifon, and others in Diftrefs; and
" alfo put to fhameful Death, and imprifoned, banifhed,
" and difherited many great and noble Men of the
" Land.

" V. Alfo, whereas he was bound by his Oath to do
" Right to all, he would not do it, for his own Profit,
" and the Covetoufnefs of him and his evil Counfellors
*' which were with him; neither regarded the other Points
" of the Oath which he made at his Coronation, as he
" was obliged.

" VI. Alfo, he abandoned his Realm, and did as much
" as he could to deftroy it and his People ; and what is
" woife, by his Cruelty, and the default of his Perfon,
" he is found incorrigible, without hopes oi Amendment.
" All which things are fo notorious, they cannot be gain-
" faid.J

This Aft paffing Nemlne Contradicente, young Edward
was proclaimed King in IVcJlminJler-Hall, by the Name
of Edward III. Then the Archbifhop of Canterbury
pleached a Sermon on thefe words, The I Vice of the Peo-
ple, the Voice of God; wherein he endeavoured to vindicate
what the Parliament had done, and exhorted the People to
pray to the King of Kings for their new Sovereign.

When the News of this rigorous Sentence was brought
to the Queen, (he feemed to be extremely moved, even
to the burfting out into Tears. But her outward Grief
little agreed with all her Proceedings to dethrone her
Husband ; much lefs with her PalTion for Mortimer, of
which (he gave fuch publick Marks, that it was impof-
fible to be miftaken. The Prince her Son, whofe Youth
made him lefs fufpicious, was perhaps the only Perfon
that was affected with her counterfeit Tears. Urged by
his generous Inclinations, he folemnly vowed not to ac-
cept the Crown during the King his Father's Life,
without his exprefs Confent. This Vow fomewhat broke
the meafures of the Parliament. They were afraid Edward
the Father would perfift in keeping the Title of King,
though ftript of all his Authority. In this Perplexity, it
was deemed abfukrtely neceffary, to oblige him to refign his
Crown to the Prince his Son. Purfuant to this Refolution,
the Bifhops oi Lincoln and Hereford were fent to prepare
him. Then the Parliament nominated twelve Commif-
fioners ; namely, three Bifhops, three Earls, two Ba-
ron*, two Abbots, and two Judges ( 1 ) ; to whom was
added Judge TrtiJJ'el, as the Nation's particular Procura-
tor, to declare to him, that the People of England were
no longer bound by their Oath of Allegiance, and to re-
ceive his Refignation. Nothing fhewed fo much their
Refentment againft the unfortunate King, as their Choice
of the two firft Bifhops (2), whom he had all along look-
ed upon as his Enemies, and who indeed difcharged their
Commiffion very rudely. Inftead of giving him Confo-
lation, they infulted over his Misfortunes, in endeavour-
ing to perfuade him, he was depofed for his own Good,
and to eafe him of the great Weight of the Government,
that he might live more happily than he had hitherto
done. But as their malicious Difcourfe made no great
impreffion upon him, they plainly told him, unlefs he com-
plied with the Parliament, his Condition would be rendered
more unfortunate: Adding, his Obftinacy would be a great
Prejudice to his Family ; for, if he refufed to refign the
Crown to his Son, the Nation was refolved to elect a King,
not of the Royal Family. Upon thefe words, they with-
drew, in order to give him time to confider of his Anfwer
to the Commiffioners, who were coming to receive his
Refignation.



At the Arrival of the Commiffioners, the unfortunate 1^27.
King came out from his Bed-Chamber in a Mourning- ^ad state
Gown, with Looks demonftrating his inward Trouble. ^ Z ^ v '^ i '
As he was acquainted with the occafion of their coming,
the fight of that formidable Power, which had juft de-
fpoiled him of Royalty, made fuch an impreffion upon
his Mind, that he fell into a Swoon, from whence he
could hardly recover. As foon as he came to hiirUMf,
the Commiffioners told him their Meffage, and lepreferTt-
ed to him, the ill Confequences of his Refufal. Then, Walfing.
the unhappy Prince, with a Sadnefs that could not be ^w^?""
feen without Pity, anfwered, " That he fubmitted to tube uL
" whatever was required of him, with the greater refig-^*""'
" nation, as he acknowledged, his Sins were the fole
" caufe of his Misfortunes." He added moreover, " that
" he could not behold without extreme Grief, the Aver-
" fion his Peopie had for him ; but if his Sorrow could
" admit of any Comfort, it was from the confideration
" ot his Subjects Goodnefs to his Son, for which he re-
" turned them Thanks."

After this Anfwer, he proceeded to the Ceremony of He " r 'g"
his Refignation, by delivering to them the Crown, Seep- '"en"- 1 '!"'
tre, and the other Enfigns of Royalty. Then Sir JVil-
liam Truffel, addreffing himfelf to the King, fpoke in
this manner, making ufe of a Form of his own, in a
cafe where there was no Precedent to follow. / William A ve-w Pn-
Trullel, Procurator of the Prelates, Earls, Barons, and' '' <lurt '"
People in my Procuracy named, having for This full and p,'i yc hron.
fujfeient Power, do Jurrender unto you, Edward, late King 1 i- c. 42.
of England, the Homage and Fealty of the Perfons afore- Kni hton.
Jaid, and do acquit the jame, in the hejl manner the Law
and Cujlom can give it, and do make this Protcflation, in
the hiume of all thofe that will not be in your Fealty or Al-
legiance for the Juture, nor claim or hold any Thing of you
as King, but account you as a private Perfon, zuithout any
manner of Royal Dignity (3). Alter thefe Words, the
High-Steward, [Sir Thomas Blunt] broke his Staff, and
declared all the King's Officers difcharged from his Service.
Thus ended the Reign of Edivard II, in the forty third
Year of his Age, having latted nineteen Years, iixMoaths
and filteen Days.

This Prince had a very mean Genius, which per- cbaraBer «/
mitted him not to diltinguilh what was for his Advan- rdWitd i4 *
tage, from what was hurtlul to him. He followed his
Humour, without troubling himfelf about the Confe-
quences, and without being able to remedy the Misfor-
tunes he thereby drew on himfelf. Though he had
many Failings, he may be affirmed to be more weak
than wicked. To fum up his Character in a few Words,
he was exceeding like his Grandfather Henry ill. Ed-
ward his Father, a much wiler Prince than he, and
taught by the Misiortunes of the two Kings his imme-
diate Predeceilors, ever avoided, as a molt dangerous
Rock, all occafion of Quarrel with the Nobility ; chu-
flng rather to give way a little, than hazard his quiet to
gratify his Relentment. The Son had not a lufftcient
Capacity to follow fo good an Example, or to improve by
his Inftructions. He gave up himfelf entirely to his Fa-
vorites, and chofe rather to forfeit the Affection of his
People, than deny himfelf the Satisfaction of heaping Fa-
vours on thofe he loved. His Weaknefs and Incapacity
drew on him the Contempt of his Subjects, which was
foon changed into hatred, when he was feen to faenfice
all to his Paffions. He had the Misfortune to have a De U M.
beautiful and amorous Wife, who giving way to an in-
famous Paffion, compleated his Ruin, for fear perhaps of
being herfelf prevented. Certainly, he was treated too
feverely by his Subjects, whole Infolence increafed in
proportion to their Sovereign's Weaknefs. One cannot
obferve without wonder, that there was not a iingle Per-
fon willing to draw his Sword in his Defence. I fhall
not undertake to determine how far, in thofe Days, the
Rights of the People, with regard to the King, might
extend. I fhall only fay, there was no Precedent to fol-
low; for this is the firft Inftance, in the Englijh Hiftory,
of a King depofed by his Subjects, at leaft lince the Con-
queft. Echvard II is taxed with being given to drink.
Some fpeak of his Fondnefs for Gave/ion, fo as to make
it believed very Criminal. Others, on the contrary,
commend him for his Continency. And indeed, we do
not find he had any Miftreffes or Baftards, like fome of
his Predeceflbrs. He founded Oriel-College and St. Mary-
Hall in Oxford {jl), and built a Monaltery for Friars on
his Eftate at Langley.

He had by lfabclla of France two Sons, and two H7j IJ*t,
Daughters. The eldeft of his Sons was Edward III, his

Suc-



(1) Walfirgbam fays, that it was three Bifhop?, two Earls, two Abbot6, four Biron?, three Knights from every County, and a certain Number of Perfons
from the Cities and great Towns, chiefly Irom the Cinque-Ports, p. 126. So De la Moor, p. 600.

(2) Aiam de Orison, B ihop of Hertford, and Henry Burivaftbc, Bijhop ef Lincoln.

(3) This is trnnflated n .iter the Origmjl than in Rapin. Knigbton, Col. 2550.

(4) Tie Honour of founding Oriel-College is attributed to Edward II, though he did little more than grant Licence to Adam de Bnm his Almoner
i» I3 1 4» W build and eodgw <i College to be called St, Mary's Untie, To this Society, King Edward 111, in the full of bis Reign, gave a Tenement

called



Book IX,



io. E D W A R D II.



403



1527.



An Fursb
quake.



the Tern
pi irs.
M- Paris
p. 67.

i
p. 96.



SuccelTor. The youngeft called John of Eltham, the
Place of his Birth, died in the Flower of his Age, in
his Brother's Reign, without Iflue. Joanna the eldeft
Daughter was married to David King of Scotland.
Eleanor, the fecond, was Wife of Reynold Duke of Guil-
ders ( 1 ).

I fhall elbfe the Hillory of this Reign with two events,
v^jcli I havenot had occaflon to fpeakof elfewhere. The
nm was an Earthquake, the moll: terrible that had ever
"'/been felt in Great Britain. The fecond was the Sup-
■preflion of the Order of the Knight s-Tcrnp/ars, both in
England and all other Chriftian States. This Order was
firft inftitutedat Jerufalem, in the Reign of Baldivinl V (2),
for the defence of the Holy Sepulchre, and Protection of
the Pilgrims that reforted thither from all parts. Hugo de
Paganis and Geoffrey de St. Ademar were the Founders.
The Knights of this Older were at firft called, The Poor
of the Holy Gity. Afterwards they had the Name of
Templars, becaufe their firft Houfe was near the Temple.
Hence it is, that all their Houfes were ftiled Temples.
This Order was confirmed in the Council of Troye, 1 1 27,
and its Ride compofed by St. Bernard.

After the Downfal of the Kingdom of Jerufalem,
about the Year 1 1 86, this Order was difperfed over all
Europe, and increafed prodigioufly by the Liberality of the
Chriftians(3). Riches foon changed the Manners of the
Knights. In procefs of time their fcandalous Lives, join-
ed to an infupportable Pride, caufed them to be as odious,
as they were efteemed in the beginning of their Inftitu-
tion (4). Philip the Fair, King of France, being dif-
obliged by thofe of his Kingdom, and (5) not content
with punifbing the Offenders, attempted the Ruin of the
whole Order, by means of Pope Clement V, whom he
had artfully gained. In the firft place, he ordered all the
Templars in France to be feized (6), as well as the Grand
Majter of the Order, who refided in the Ifland of Cyprus,
and by the Pope's order, was come to Paris. Then upon
a Charge exhibited againft them, that at their reception
into the Order, they denied Jefus Chrijl, and (pit (7)
upon a Crucilix, he caufed fifty (even to be burnt, among
whom was the Grand Mafter. To this accufation was ad-
ded others of Herefy, Sodomy, and other numberlefs
Crimes. To oblige the King of France, Clement V, ear-
neftly preffed Edward II, to follow the Example of Philip
his Father-in law. After much Sollicitation, he obtained
at length, that all the Templars in England fhould be
feized (as they were in France) in one day (8 J. Edward



Pureanus
Hift. de la
Cnndam. des
Tempi.



Act. Pub.
III. from
p. 30, to
292.



being prevailed with, in expectation of their Eftates, which 1 3271
were very confiderablc, held a National Synod at Land'. .,
where they were condemned. However, They were not
treated fo rigoroufly as in France. They were only 'if-
perfed in the Monafteries to do Penance, with a moderate
Pennon paid out of the Revenues of the Ord< TJ e Se-
verities exercifed upon them in France and Eng ind, would
no doubt have fufheed, if the Delign had been only to
chaftifc them: but their Deftruction was determined.
Clement V, agreeing in this point with Phil':, the Fair,
caufed ftrict Inquiry to be made, and many Witnefles to
be heard, who accufed not fomc particular Knights only,
but the wliole Order, 0/ the molt enormous Crimes. If
thefe Depofitioiis were well attcftcd, one can hardh cjn-
ceive it poffible, there could be fo deteftable a Societ y among
Chriftians. But every Body was not equally perfuaded of
the Truth of thefe Evidences, particularly" as' to what con-
cerned the Order in general. Thefe Preparations being
made, the Pope called at Viennc in Dauphine, a general
Council, where he prefided in Perfon ; and where Philip
was pleafed alfo to be prefent, to promote the Condemnation
of the Order. But they did not find the Councd difpofed
as they expected. The Bifhops could not think of con-
demning Men that were not convicted, or even fummon-
ed before the Council to arffwer for themfelves. Thefe
Proceedings of the Pope, without hearing what the Ordet
could alledge in theirdefence, did not appear fufficient to the
Council, who wifhed that things were done in a more local
manner. So the Pope was obliged to ufe the Plenitude°of
his Apoftd'cal Power, in fufpending this Order for ever,
by a Bull read in the fecond Seflion. As the Council was
not prepared for it, no Man ventured to oppofe the Bull;
and their Silence was taken for an Approbation, according
to the method now fome time eflablifhed. By the fameZto//,
the Pope referved to the Holy See, the Difpofal of the Eftates
ot the Templars ; and, fhortly after, Clement affigned them A & P( *
to the Hofpitalhrs or Knights of St. John of Jerufalem, cal- U h p ' 3 * 6>
led at this Day, Knights of Maltha. Edward II, who 95 '
had taken poffeffion of the Eftates of the condemned Or-
der, in vain oppofed the Pope's Grant to the Hofpitallers t
and infilled on the Prerogatives of his down, by which
all Confifcations were adjudged to him. The Troubles in
England during his Reign, would not permit him to keep
Poileffion (9). Thus the whole Order of the Templars
were made to fuffer the Punifhment deferved, doubtlefs,
by fome of their Members, but which, probably, was not
due to all in general.



called Lt Oriele, on .which Ground ftands Oriel-Cillcge. The prefent St. Man-Hall was a long Time the Parfonage-Houfe to the Rector of St. Mary's •
which Church bting appropriated by Edward II, to the College founded by de Brum, the Houfe came alfo in their Polfellion , and was Ion after allotted
for the Rdidence ol Students. Camd. Add. Oxfordjhire. But if Edward 11 was nut the Founder of thu College , it is certain he founded in Oxford

1313, a Houfe for Carmelites, or While- Triers. Sine's Ann. p. 21, i n 1317, February 14, died Margaret, Relift of King Edward I, and was

buried in thcQuhe of the Grey Friers Church in London. Id. p. 219.

(1) She was married to him with a fifteen fhoufand Pounds Portion, in 133;, in the fixth Year of Ed-ward III. This Earl Reyna/d, being Vice-Ge-
neral of the Empire, to the Emperor Lewis of Bavaria, he created him the firft Duke of Guelder:. Eleanor hid by him two Sons, who both died without
Illuc.

(2) In the Year Ill3. M. Paris, p. 67.

(3) They were pofleffed at their Difl'olutinn of fixteen thoufand Lordfhips, betides other Lands. Heylin's Cofmog. 1, 3.
(4/ It Was a common Saying, To drink tike a Templar. Col. Eeel. liijl. p. 507.

(5) Walfingbam fays, That Philip King of Franee had a mind to make one of his Sons King of Jerufalem ; fo that to obtain their Riches for this Son
it is probable, he caulcd that Order to be dillblved. Or elfe perhaps, that King and the Pope, envying the Riches, ^as well as Magnificence of this Orde/



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 170 of 360)