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them in breath, well knowing they had to deal with
formidable Enemies, who in making Truce with them,
had not departed from their Pretentions. Thefe are the
moft probable Reafons of this Rupture, which Buchanan
juftifies only by faying, it is to be fuppofed that Robert
was fwayed by powerful Motives. Be this as it will,
he put the Earl of Murray (3), and Sir "James Douglafs
at the head of twenty thoufand Men, and ordered them
to ravage the Borders of England (4). Edward could not
hear the News of this Irruption, without an eager delire
of fignalizing himfelf in the Defence of his Kingdom.
Though they who governed in his Name had no great
Inclination for War, they did not think it for their Inte-
reft to fuffer fuch an Infult. Their Authority might have
been ftiaken, if on this occafion they had fhewn any fign
of Weaknefs or Cowardice.

The Opinion of the Council being agreeable to the
King's Defires, an Army of fixty thoufand Men was
raifed, including the Troops brought by John de Hai-
naidt into England. The whole Army being come to
York, Edward was juft going to head them, when a
fudden Quarrel arofe between the Englijb and the Hai-
naulters, wherein many were ilain. As the Englijb were
the Aggreffors, Juftice could not be done to the Foreigners,
without difpleafing the Army. So the Court was forced
to ftay longer at Tori than was at firft defigned, in or-
der to find means to compofe this Difference, before they
took the Field. This Delay gave the Scots time to pafs
the Tine between Carlijle and Newcqjlle, and to ravage
in a barbarous manner the Country on this fide the
River. They had four thoufand Men at Arms. The reft
of the Troops were mounted on little fwift Horfes, in
order the more eafily to make Incurfions and retreat.
This News haftened the King's Departure. Though he
did not know exactly where the Enemies weie, he
marched in queft of them, guided only by the Fire
jnd Smoak of the Houfes ftill burning in the Road.
What fpeed foever he made, he could not poffibly over-
take them. As they had no Infantry, nor were encum-
bered with much Baggage, they made fuch extraordinary
Marches, that not only they were out of the Reach of
the Englijb Army, but even at fuch a diftance, that there

was no tracing them. The Uncertainty of the Place i-.

where they were retired, caufing the King to c :

of meeting them, he called a Council Cf War. i

confufed Advices making it thought, tha tl d

not yet re-palled the Tine, it was refolved I

beyond the River, near the PI

they would pafs in their n me. 'I ...

was put in execution. But the English Army hid no

(boner palled the Tint, than they were forced ; ■ | 1 1 '•

again, not finding North of the River wherewithal td


During the time fpent in thefe Marches and Counter-
marches, Edward, having never received certain intel-
ligence of the Enemy, was extremely uneafy. As he
knew not which way to go in (lurch of them, he or-
dered it to be proclaimed in tfife Arm. 1 , that whoever
fhould bring him certain New; of the Scots, mould he
made a Knight, with a Penfion of a hundred Pound
Sterling. The Hopes of fo good a Reward, fee f> many
People to work, that it was not long before he had the
dehred Information (;). But it was not without fome Con-
fulion that he heard the Enemies of Whom he was la. ' I'i
eagerly in queft, were not above two Leagues off. He, M r..i
marched immediately towards them, in expectation of/
fighting that very Day. But he did not long enjoy the
Pleafuie of that Expectation. The Scotch Generals; J. B
who were not ignorant of his Approach, had en ,:n. ped
over againft Stanhope Park, on a Hill, at the foot ol I
which runs the River IFcre, (hallow indeed, But full of
Rocks, which rendered the Paffage very difficult. I low
defirous foever Edward was of righting, he was fcnfible,
to his great Sorrow, that he could not attack them
without expofing his Army to manifeft Danger. It was a
fad thing for a young Prince, greedy of Glory, to fee
the Enemies fo near, without being able to give them
Battle. He did not however quite defpair of fuccce ..'in. r .
As he judged of their Courage by his own, he fiint therrj
word, if they would come over the River to him, he
would retire at a convenient diffance, and give them time
to pafs, and chufe what ground they fhould think proper,
or elfe on the fame Terms he would come over to them.
The Scotch Generals anfwered, That the Englijh Army
being three times ftronger than theirs, it would be great
Rafhnefs to accept the Propofals : That they were bent
upon keeping their Port, and it was the King's Iiufinefs
to diflodge them, if he thought it for his Ari vantage" to at-
tempt it. However, as they were apprehenfive, ~thzt Ed-
luard, in amufing them with his Offers, intended to pafs
the River at fome other Place, they retired in the Night,
and encamped in a more advantages Port than what they
left. Belides, that they had ftill the IVere'm their Front,
their Flanks were defended by inacccffible Mountains
and Bogs, which removed their Fear of being attacked,
though the Englijh had palled the River eifewhere. Ed-
ward having notice of their Motion, followed them,
with the Were between him and the Enemy, and having
found them pofted in that manner, made them the fame
Offer as before, to which they returned the fame An-

Whilft the two Armies lay in fight without being 1
able to engage, the Lord Douglafs, one of the Scotch Ge-
nerals, parted the River at fome diftance from the tv. i
Camp:?, with only two hundred Horfe. With this little ^ n I '
Troop, he ftole into the Englijli Camp, and penetrated
even to the Royal Tent, where he gave a terrible Alarm.
Probably, his Defign was to carry off the King; but not
fucceeding, he retired without much lofs. At length, af-
ter both Armies had kept their Ports a fortnlghtj the Scots'"
decamped in the Night, and by fpeedy Marches, Which
prevented the Englijh from purfuing them, retired into their
own Country. They were now fo far off, when Edward
was told of their Retreat, that he did not think fit to
follow them. Several afcribed then to Mortimer the ill
Succefs of this Campaign, and fufpected him of ho!din°-
Intelligence with the Enemy, to facilitate their r~
without fighting. Edward having nothing more to tear
from the Scots, returned to York, extremely mortified at
not being able to revenge himfelf. Upon his Arrival at Act i
that City, he disbanded his Army, and after magnificent IV - ■ >"<
Prefents, fent back John dc Hiinault to his own Coun-
try (6).

Whilft the voung King was employed in this Expc- ~-
dition, his Father, ftill clofely confined in Kmektorlh °"
Cartle, led a melancholy Life, not being differed fo take {,' '
the leaft Diverfion, He wrote from time to time to his

(0 And reflored to his Brother Henry all his Eftates. Kj'mw's Feed: Torn. IV. p. 4-:r.
(-) fc 'K P- 39 6 - - II ■.■•■: ,•''.

(.id February 2. they endeavoured to iHrprit; the Crafllc . A ham; but tie -Governor.' Sif R:b-rt Mtr. -• - - nVitt r. and put tl*

ii.lt to the S'.vori.

(5) It was brought by Sir TtSolBai BMHlf. Barries.

(6) About the middle of Auguji. See %.•*,-• s Feed. Tom. IV. p. -04.. He had returned back to FlasJer far ■■-.-•-•
upon thelseMb Invauon, was fent tor back again. Sec Fmil/'art, 1. 1


Or?? -

AC 8

• s^r-


Vol. I.

Wa Ting.

De b M.

De la M.


De la M.

re la M.

Queen, intrcating her to render his Imprifonment more
eafy ; but nothing was capable of moving that inexorable
Prir.ccfs, in favour of a Husband, whom fhe herfclf
had reduced to that wretched Condition without his de-
fcrving, at kail: from her hands, fuch' barbarous Ufage.
If fhe had dared to follow her Inclinations, fhe would
have left his Letters unanfvveied. But as it was her In-
terft to deceive the Publick by this Correfpondencc, fhe
■was very glad to continue it. She fent him now and then
fome Linen, and Cloaths, and other little Prefents, to
perfuade the credulous People, me facrificed her Ten-
dernefs to the Good of the State. It was not fo eafy
to deceive Edward himfelf, feeing he could not but be
convinced, that fhe was the fole Caufe of his Misfor-
tunes. Accordingly, fhe never had the Face to appear
in his Sight. She would not fo much as permit the King
her Son to pay his Duty to his unhappy Father ; for fear
he fhould learn what fhe defired he might be ignorant of as
long as he lived. So, though the imprifoned King ardently
wifhed to fee them both, and frequently asked why they
were fo unkind as to deny him that Comfort, he could
never obtain it.

Mean time, the rigorous Ufage of that unfortunate
Prince, began to excite Compailion in the Breads of
the Englijh, who are naturally generous. Henry of Lan-
cajler himfelf, who had the cuftody of him, relented
daily to fuch a degree, that he gave him fome fmall
hopes of recovering his Liberty. Another Motive, be-
iides that of Generofity, influenced the Earl ; and that
was, the irregular Conduct of the Queen, and the
great Credit of Mortimer, whofe Arrogance rendered him
odious to all. As he took no care to hide his Senti-
ments, the Queen and Mortimer fufpecled him of a De-
fign to reftore the old King. The Sufpicion, whether
well or ill grounded, produced a fatal Effect, by deter-
mining them to prevent the imagined Danger. To

And indeed, the words afcribed to him, are capable of 1327.
both thefe Senfes, according to the difference of the Poirt-
■ n g(5)- Thefe Orders were no founcr come, but the
two Keepers, knowing what they were to do, entered
Edward's Room to put them in execution. He being A"*
then in his Bed, they laid a Pillow on his Face, to pre- ,'•'.'
vent his being heard ; and then, with a Cruelty not to be
parallelled, thruft a horn Pipe up his Body, through which
they ran a red-hot Iron, and burnt his Bowels. In this
horrible manner did that miferable Prince expire (6),
amidft fuch violent Pains, that in fpite of the Precaution
of his Murderers, his Cries were heard at a diftauce.
To conceal this execrable Deed, the two Executioners D ■ '■> M.
fent for fome cf the Inhabitants of Bnjld and Ghcefier ; '" '-"""•s-
who examining the Body, and finding no ligns of a
violent Death, concluded, he died a natural Death. This
account, which was carefully atiefted by Witneffes, was
immediately difperfed over the whole Kingdom, that it
might be known unto all.

The Misfortunes cf this Prince, whom his Enemies (o
cruelly perfecuted, began to raife the Pity of the En-
glijli, after ceafing to be formidable to them. But this
Pity was unactive, whereas their hatred never fufFered
them to reft till they had entirely ruined him. Indeed it
would be difficult to juftify his whole Conduct, but they
cannot be charged with being prejudiced in his favour,
who allure us, his Faults were difproportionate to his Pu-
nifhment. He was a Sufferer himfelf for not having the
Refolution to punifh his Favorites. An important Leffon
for all Princes, but which few are fu wife as to learn.
The Compaflion for his Sufferings, which could not always
be concealed, rofe to that height, that after his Death he
was reverenced as a Saint; fo eafily do the People run

from one Extreme to another. His Body was immediately Aft. Pub.
buried without any funeral Pomp, in the Abbey Church j
at GUtefter. However, fome time after, the King his


that end, they refolved to take the captive King out of Sen ordered a irately Tomb to be eiecled for him in that

the hands of his Keeper, whom they fufpefted, and Church. So far were his Murderers from receiving for

entruit him with fuch as they could depend upon(i). their Parricide the reward they expected, that they were

Sir John Maliravers, and Sir Thomas Gnrney, both of forced to fly beyond Sea to avoid Punifhment. The very

fo brutifh a Temper, as was requifite for the Defigns Perfons that employed them, affected to caufe diligent

of thofe that em.ploy.^4 them, had orders to remove Ed-
ward from Kenelworth, to Berkley Caftle. It was hardly
poflible for the unfortunate Prince to fall into worfe
Hands. At firft they carried him to Corfe, then to
Brijlol (2), and afterwards. to Berkley (3) Caftle, which
was to be his laft Prifon. In the Journey, they made

fearch to be made after them, to cover the fhare they had
in the Crime. Three years after, Gurney was feized at Curney
Burgos, and by order of the King of Cajiih carried to '?\'\ a f
Bayonne, from whence Edward commanded him to be con- De'laM.
veyed to England. But by fome practices, not fully cleared Walling,
in Hiirory, he was beheaded at Sea (7). Maliravers fpent

him fuffer a thoufand Indignities, even' to the caufing him h:s Days in Exile, in fome place in Germany where he had

to be fhaved in the open Field with cold Water taken retired. But divine Vengeance flopped not at the Punifh-

from a ftinking Ditch (4). What Firmnefs foever he ment of thefe two Villains. The Queen, Mortimer, and

had hitherto- fhewn, he . could not, on this occafion, their Accomplices felt likewife its Effects. Perhaps too we

help lamenting his Misfortune, and difcovering his Grief, are to confider as Confequences of the fame Vengeance,

Amidft his Complaints and Reproaches againft thofe the violent or untimely Deaths of almoft all the Defcen-

who ufed him fo barbaroufly, lie told them, that in dants of EdwardlH, as well as the Civil Wars wherewith

fpite of them, he would be fhaved with warm Water;
and at the fame time he fhed a Torrent of Tears.
His Enemies hoped, the Vexation and Fatigue he was
made to endure, would put an end to his Day's. But
though they weie ferved with a barbarous Zeal by thefe
mercilefs Guards, who, for that purpofe, ufed the moil

1 • : ■

England was afflicted, in the Reigns of that Prince's Po-
flerity, as will be feen hereafter (8).

The Death of Edward II, fuppreffed all the motions
which began to be obferved in the Kingdom. Tli j :
his Son finding himfelf more eafy, fince by the deaih ol !:
Father which he believed natural, he was cured <
cruel, as v/ell as infolent means, yet the Goodnefs of Scruples upon his account, took this opportunity to folem- ■■
his Conftitution prevented them from fucceeding. Thefe nize, with Philippa of Hainault, his Marriage concluded "'
Wretches, finding their Cruelties had not fo fpeedy an by the Queen his Mother at Valenciennes. Trie Ceremony -.-.
Effect, fent for frefli Inftructions, for which they were was performed at York (9), where the King came in his 1- 1- <.
not made to wait long. They received precife Orders Return from his Campain. Shortly after the new (^ueen
to put that Prince to death, who, though overwhelmed was crowned with the ufual Solemnities (ro).
with Mifery, caufed continual Fears in the Authors of Alter the Rejoycings for the King's Marriage and the Til ■
his Calamity. It is faid that Adam Orleton, Bifhop of Queen's Coronation were over, Edward called a Parlia-
Hereford, one of the Queen's Minifters, fent with thefe ment at Northampton ( 1 1 ), to confult about two very mo-.
Orders a Latin Letter, wherein by a fhameful Equivoca- mentous Affairs. The firft concerned the Regency of< ■,

France, which he claimed after the Death of Charles the : J< J b
Fair his Uncle, who died in the beginning of this Year. Aft. Puh,

IV.,. vo-


tion, he advifed them at the fame time to murder Ed-
ward, and exhorted them to refrain from fuch a Crime.


(1) Akut the beginning of April. De fa Moor.

(2) Where he remained till it was found out, that fome of the Citizens had formed a Refolution to afiiit him in making his Efcape beyond S
fa P.lj'.r, p. 60a.

(3) Tbomat Berkley. Lord of the Caftle, treated the King with abundance of Refpeet, which Maltravtri and Glirtiey obferving, they would no I
1 ' 1 him to have . .ecei's to the Kind's Pcrfon. De la M»r, p. be;. Waljinv. p. i-~.

(4) That he might be thereby the more difguifed, arid not known to any they fhould meet with, they made him likewise ride in the Night, with
very thin Clothes, and without any covering on his Head; would never fuffer him to lleep ; crowned him with Hay, and ottered him a ill

pities : They ail'o attempted more than once to poifon him, but the Goodnefs of his Conltitution rendered all their wicked purpofes wefieftuaL D. la
Moor, p. 602.

(5) Edwardum ccciderc nolite timne, bonum eji.
Edwardum ueidere nolite, t:me>c binum eji.

(6) In OSlth. Rafin. It was Sfterr.i. 22. See Of fa Mar, p. 603.

(7) For fear he mould aceufe thole great Perfons that had let him to work, as Sir Tnimai Moor well obferves, p. 603, and Walfing. p. IiS.

(5) A Parliament was held this Year at Lincoln on September re.. Ry/rer's Feed. Tom. IV. p. 301. and another at h . tier 13, befides

that mentioned above, wherein the King rtftored London to its antient Liberties, that had been forfeited, it feem . I unto tl late In'airreci-on,

V. herein Walter dt Stapleton was beheaded ; and granted it new ones. IValjing. p. 123. Namely, That the Mayor of Lona r tht Tune be-iig, fll Mild

all Places within the Liberties, as the King's Chief Juitice ; and that every Alderman, who had been Ma) . , fthould be always juf.A, r th(
within his own Ward. He alio -grimed unto the Citizens, the Fee-farm of'Lonaon for three hundred Pounos per yinn. Anu that die law ui Franchifes
ol the City fhould nut be leized intn the King's H.ine's, but only on occafion of Abufe or Mifufe, or tor Treafon or Rebellion, counttn-nced or done by me
whole City. Farther he ordained, that SoutbwerA fhouid be under the Government of the City, t-7.. 'J. Bjrr.cs, p. 23.
(9) i'"«'.»21. Kr.^bt-jn, c. -2552.

Ijo) The Sunday before April 29. 1330. Ryner's FxJ. Tom. IV. p. 419.

(ijj Kitigbton fays it was at Ytrk, He fays moreover, that the Laity granted to th; King this Year a Twentieth, and th; Clergy a Tenth, in a P^rlia-
~Sffent.it T.tiafter. Ibid,

4 I fhall

Book X.



1323. I fhall fpeak of this afi'air in another place. The Second
was the Peace with Scotland propofed by King Robert.
Queen Ifabella and Mortimer, who held the Reins of the
Government, believing a War was againft their Interefts,
were very eager for a Peace. On the other hand, the
King of Scotland perceiving he was no longer able to bear
the hardships of War, defired to fpend the refiduc of his
days in Peace. Befides, as his Infirmities warned him of
his approaching Death, he was very glad to prevent, by a
Peace with the Engii/li, the Accidents which a War might
caufe, during the Non-age of his Son David who was but
feven Years old. The Parliament being entirely in the
Queen's Intereft, it was not difficult to obtain their Con-
fent, to enter upon a Treaty, which both Parties were
equally defirous of concluding. The Queen-Mother, and
Mortimer in behalf of the Englijh, and Douglas in the
Name of the King of Scotland, were the Managers of
Peace be- this Affair. A Peace was quickly made and confirmed by
ru«n En B - the Marriage of David, Prince of Scotland, with Jo-
land and ama 1 , ) s\j\ er f Edward, though they were both Chil-




The Englijli, for the molt part, were very uneafy to

Act. Hub. f ee a treaty begun, which in all appearance could bring

P 3 them no Advantage. However, their Uneafinefs would

have been removed, by the hopes of the Repofe it was to

procure them, if, to haften the Conclufion, Ifabella and

Mortimer had not given up to the King of Scotland fuch

Advantages, as he could not have expected, even after

Edward quia the gaining of many Battles. By their Advice, Edward

all clam to renounced all his Pretenfions to Scotland, both with re-

Scutland. gard to the Sovereignty and the Propriety (z). At the fame

At\. Hub! time he reftored to Robert, all the Charters and Inftru-

1V - P- 337- ments which might prove the Sovereignty of the Kings

Buchanan. f £,jrr/ t j n d ver that Kingdom. Among thefe Inttru-

Knignton. « , r . ^ ,, , ,, , r, n r 1

ments, was the famous Act, called Ragman s Roll, Itgned

by 'John Baliol, and all the Barons of Scotland ; wherein
were contained the Rights of the Crown of England.
Hercjlms This was followed by the Reftitution of the Crown,
at/ thai Ed Scepter, Jewels (3), which Edward I, had carried away
7a"t /hwT ^ om Edinborough, and oif every thing in general which
Scotland. might any way teftify the Sovereignty of England over
J. Barnes. Scotland. Had all this been done from a Motive of Ju-
ftice and Equity, to repair, in fome meafure, the Injuries
done by Edward I, to the Scots ; far from being thought
ftrange, fuch a Chriftian Conduit mould have been
highly commended. But as People were fully convinced,
that the Queen and Mortimer acted not from fuch a Mo-
tive, and befides were prepoffefled in favour of the Sove-
reignty eftablifhed by Edward I, every one was extreme-
•/!., Englith ly difpleafed with this Reilitution. They faid, " This
murmur. " was dearly purchafing a Peace, neither honorable nor
" neceffary ; that by this fhameful Treaty, all the Mo-
" ney expended, and all the Blood fpilt, in the Con-
" queft of Scotland, were rendered entirely fruitlefs: That
" the Queen, who under colour of the King her Huf-
" band's Incapacity, had diverted him of his Authority,
" plainly difcovered, how unable fhe was herfelf to go-
" vern the State ; and that the Faults committed by Ed-
" ward II, during his whole Reign, were nothing in
" comparifon of what fhe had done the very firft Year
Buchanan. " of her Adminiftration." Notwithstanding all thefe mur-
A(\. Hub. rnurs, the Queen and Mortimer had Credit enough with
IV. p. 3S4. tng p ar ii ament ^) 5 t0 caufe the Peace to be confirmed,
and the Sum of thirty thoufand Marks, which Robert pio-
mifed to pay within three Years, to be confidered as a fuf-
ficient Compenfation for whatever was reftored to Scot-
land. Thus it frequently happens, that the very Perfons
who pretend to reform the Government by extraordinary
Methods, (hew afterwards, that they had nothing lefs in
view than the publick Good, which ferved them for a
Nuptiah of I n confequence of the Treaty, the Nuptials of Joanna
etc fnncefi the King's Sifter was folemnized at Berwick^). Shortly
Joanna. a j- ter J[4 0r timer, a s a Reward for his late pretended Ser-
Knightu'n. vice to his Mafter, was made Earl of March in full Par-
liament (6), John of Eltham, the King's Brother, was
created Earl of Cornival, and James Butler, Earl of Or-

Henry of I.n ncajhr, and fome other Lords (7), came 1328.
not to this Parliament. They were dillatisfied that the
Queen-Mother and Mortimer ufurped all Authority, con-
trary to the Intent of the Parliament, that nominated K .:..
twelve Barons to manage the pubhek Affairs. The tra-
gical Death of Edward 11, and the late Treaty with
Scotland, furnifhing them with a plaufible pretence to com-
plain, they had now begu-n to hold private Conferences,
and project a Reformation of the Government. As Se- Y
crecy was very difficult, in a Confederacy where they de
figned to engage a great many Perfons, the Queen an I
Mortimer had foon notice of it. The Earl of Lancajlei ,
whom they confidered as Author of the Plot, and Head D
of the Male-contents, was the firft Victim they refolved £ ! "
to fucrifice to their Safety. An Accident that happened i, \,
fhortly alter, afforded them an opportunity, which they
believed they ought to embrace, to accomplifli their De-
fign. The Earl had a private Quarrel with the Lord
Holland (8), whom he looked upon as a mortal Enemy
to his P'amily, and one of the principal Authors of the
Death of Earl Thomas his Brother. Some Threats he let
fall againft his Enemy, induced Sir Thomas Wytbers, one
of his Domefticks, to revenge his Mafter. An opportu-
nity offering prefently after the breaking up of the Parlia-
ment, JVythers killed the Lord Holland, and took Refuge
in the Earl's Palace at Eancajhr, from whence repeated
Orders from Court were not able to forte him. The
Queen and the Earl of March were not forry, their Enemy ' ag ahji b, m
gave them fo plaufible a pretence to exafperate the King
againft him. They reprefented to the young Prince, of
what Importance it was, not to fuffer a Subject, of what
Quality foever, to take upon him to protect Criminals,
and flop the Courfe of Juftice: That it was acting the
Sovereign, and there was danger, that thofe who affumed
fuch a Power, intended to enlarge it at the expence of the
Royal Authority, and were contriving to difturb the

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