M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

The history of England : written in French (Volume 1) online

. (page 174 of 360)
Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 174 of 360)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

Vol. I.

Philip /*«-
m&nj Edward
to do Homage*
I. 1. c 25.

"Edward pri-
vately p*c-
tcjis againj}
the Homage,

a a. Pub.

IV. p. 3 8 3)


1. I.e. 25.

Homage d.ne
by Edward
to Philip.
Aft. Pub.
IV. p. 390.
J. Barnes,

began to take meafures in order to war againft him. His
Alliance about this time with the Duke of Brabant, and
feveral Lords who engaged to fupply him with Troops,
is a clear Evidence he was meditating Come grand Deiign,
and his Letters to the Lords of Guienne fhew it was
againft France. In thefe Letters, dated September 1 6. r 32S,
he pofitively faid, his Intent was to recover his Mother's
Inheritance. Now at that time, he had no Quarrel with
France, wherein the Queen his Mother was particularly
concerned. The Inheiitance he mentioned, concerned
therefore the whole Kingdom of France, fince his Contefts
with Philip about Guienne had no Relation to Ifabella's

Philip de Valois being engaged, in the beginning of his
Reign, in a War with the Flemings, was in no hafte to
demand Edward's Homage for Guienne and Ponthicu. It
was not till April 1329, that he caufed him tobefummon-
ed (1) to appear and do Homage in Perfon (2). In Ed-
ward's prefent Difpoiltion, he would have gladly been ex-
cufed from paying Homage to a Prince, whom he con-
sidered as an Ufurper of his Right. But his Council re-
flecting on his Youth, and the State of the Kingdom full
of Male-contents, could not think of approving a Refufal
which probably would throw him into great difficulties. On
the other hand , the Queen his Mother and the Earl of
March did all that lay in their Power to prevent a Quar-
rel with Philip. They reprefented to him, that he would
infallibly lofe all his Dominions in France, if he unad-
vifedly difcovered his Pretenfions to that Kingdom, before
he was ready to fupport them. But thefe Remonftrances
would perhaps have had little weight with him, if for his
fatisfadtion there had not been devifed an Expedient, unbe-
coming indeed the Sincerity Kings ought to profefs, but
which his Youth and PalTion permitted him not to examine
too nicely. It was fuggefted to him, that by protefting
beforehand againft the Homage, it would be no Detriment
to his Claim. Purfuant to this Advice, he made by a Pro-
curator, the following Proteftation before his Council :
" That for any Homage whatever to be made to the Lord
" Philip de Valois, (now bearing himfelf King of France)
" by King Edward of England, for the Dukedom of Gui-
" enne, and Earldom of Ponthieu, he did not thereby in-
" tend to renounce his Hereditary Right to the Realm of
" France, or any ways derogate from the fame ; even
" tho' Letters thereupon fhould be figned with either of his
" Seals. And he did farther proteft, that he would not
" do any Homage to the Lord Philip, of his own free
" will, but only for the juft fear he had of lofing the faid
" Duchy and Earldom, and becaufe he was afraid that
" he could not avoid other great Dangers and irreparable
" LoiTes(3)." This Declaration was figned by the King
and Council, but was not communicated to Philip's En-
voy. He only receiv'd this general Anfwer, that the King
would perform as foon as poffible what he owed the Crown
of France.

How great foever Edward's Unwillingnefs was to do
this Homage, the Confequences whereof he fo much
dreaded, he refolved upon it, for fear of making known
by his Refufal, a Defign which it was not yet proper to
difcover. To make himfelf Amends, in fome meafure, for
the mortifying Step he was forced to, he ordered a great
Number of Lords to attend him, and with a very fplen-
did Equipage, and a Retinue of a thoufand Horfe, came
to Amiens, where Philip expected him. On the day ap-
pointed for doing his Homage (4), he appeared before
the King of France, in a Robe of Crimfon-Velvet, em-
broidered with Leopards of Gold, his Crown on his
head, his Sword by his fide, and gold Spurs on his heels.
The King of France received him fitting on his Throne,
his Crown on his head, his Screptre in his hand, and a
Robe of blue Velvet, powdered with Flower-de-Luces of


Gold. By him were the Kings of Nauarre and Major-
ca ( 5), all the Peers and principal Lords of France, whom
he had exprefly fent for, to be WitneiTes of this authen-
tick Homage. Before Edward's Arrival, Philip pretended
this fhould be a liege Homage (6), as indeed it ought to
have been. But in the Conferences held on this account, Aft. Pub.
before the Ceremony, matters were otherwife fettled. Ed- Iv - P- 3*4"
ward protefting he was not perfectly informed of the man-
ner of the Homage, offered to do it in general Terms.
However, he promifed upon his Honour, that if, upon Froiffart,
confuiting his Records, he found the Homage to be Full, ibid -
he would give Letters-Patents of it, under his Great Seal!
Upon that condition, Philip confented to receive the
Homage in general Terms. This was really the manner
wherein Edward did it, whatever fome French Hiftorians Serres.
may have faid to the contrary, who, doubtlefs, were milled
by bad Memoirs. Edward's Hiftorian fays likewife, upon Bames,
no better grounds, that the King of France was juft go-
ing to order him to be feized, but that the Bifhop of Lin-
coln gave his Matter notice of it, who withdrew without
taking Leave. This cannot be true, fince Philip could
not have taken this Refolution, but upon Edward's refuf-
ing to do full Homage, and yet it is certain he was very
willing to receive it in general Terms: Nay, they had
feveral Conferences together, after the Ceremony. Before
they parted, it was agreed, that Edward fhould fend Am-
bafladors to France, to finifh what the Jate Treaty had left
undecided (7).

As Edward flood difpofed with regard to the King of 1330.
France, he was not very forward to fend the promifed s >;«e/ «f tie
Declaration. On the contrary, he tried to gain time, f[ J ' r! /
by Propofals of a double Marriage of his Erother and WriFrana.
Sifter with the Son and Daughter of Philip. He even Aft. Pub.
kept at London almoft a Year, on divers Pretences, Am- lv " p - 3 ? 2 '
baffadors fent to prefs him to perform his Promife. Dur- £»£ + ' 3 '
ing that time, Edward was very urgent in his turn with
the King of France, to end their Differences about Gui-
enne, as was agreed at their late Interview. It was eafy
to fee Edward fought only to delay. Accordingly Philip,
who impatiently bore all thefe Delays, fent him word (8),
that he would not be his Dupe. He difpatched into Gui-
enne the Earl of Alcnzon his Brother (9), who took and
demolifhed the Caftle of Xaintcs, and plundered that
Town. Thefe Hoftilities, which Edward did not expect, lb. p.437,
produced a new Treaty between the two Monarchs ( \ o). *«■ 443-
Edward pofitively promifed to fend the Declaration of
Homage, to pay the fifty thoufand Marks Sterling owing
to France, and fixty thoufand Parifian Livres for the Af-
ilgnment, made him by the King his Father, of Guienne.
Moreover he promifed to fee the Caftles demolifhed, be-
longing to the Gafcon Lords condemned in the Reign of
Charles the Fair. Shortly after the Conclufion of this Edward
Treaty (11), he fent the King of France Letters-Patents * chra ,be
under his Great Seal, to confirm and fpecify the Homage "Hm. "
he had done at Amiens. He exprefly declared the Homage Aft.Vub.
was to be deemed full ; and that the Homages which lv - * 47 s -
he himfelf or Succeffors, Dukes of Guienne and Earls offjf^
Ponthieu, performed hereafter, fhould be done in the fame
manner, and with the fame formalities, as the King of
France had expected. In thefe Letters there was a Pattern
how the Homage was to be performed. After he had fent New Agree.
this authentick Declaration, he took a Journey to France m ""*>*™«*
under colour of performing a Vow (1 2). He faw Philip, % tm
and obtained of him an Abatement of thirty thoufand Li- Aftf Pub.
vres Tournois, for the Damage done to the Town and IV- P- 4 So *
Caftle of Xaintes , and an abfolute Pardon for the con- D^TUkt.
demned Gafcon Lords. Let us leave a moment Edward's p.47.
Affairs with France, to fee what paffed in England during
thefe Negotiations. We final] foon have occafion to re-
fume the Sequel of thefe Affairs, which are the principal
Subject of this Reign.

(i) P. Darnel fays, he caufed King Edward to be fummoned twice ; firft, by Peter Roger, Abbot of Fefcamp, who was afterwards Pope, by the name of
Clement VI. but he had no Audience from the King, only from the Queen-Mother, with whom nothing could be agreed on. .So that, .Tier the Embaffa-
dor's Return, Philip de Valois feized the Revenues of Guienne and Ponthieu. Soon after that, he fent four other Erobafladors to renew the Summons. Thefe
King Edward received very civilly, and promifed to come over to France in a fhort time. Which he accordingly did, about fix or ftven Months alter
Vol. IV. ad An. 1328.

(2) In a Letter, dated at Wallingfrd, Apr!! 14. which contains his Anfwer to Philip's Summons ; he tells him, that he intended Ion- ago to have
come over to France, and paid him his Dury, but had been hindered ; however, he would come and do it with all convenient Speed. Ry men's Fad. Tom IV
p. 38 1.

(3) Informal. Edward, ad Papam Benedift. Tom. VI. Pcfi Epijlcl. Secret. 302. in Bihlictb. Vatican. Ord. Rayneld. This is more fully tranfiated than in
the French.

(4) J""' 6 - Hc liiW from Dover, May 26. and appointed his Brother, John of Eltbam, Earl of Comma!, Regent in his Abfence. Rymer's Fud
Tom- IV. p. 3S6, 3S7, 390. He came back to Dcrvrr, Jure n. Ibid. p. 390.

(5) And Bohemia. (6) Full, or Liege Homage, was done bare-headed, and Sword ungirt.

(7) Belides the Parliament mentioned above, there was another at New-Sarum. See Notitia Perliamentaria.

(8) By his Ernbaffadors, the Bifhops of Cbartres and Beaumois ; Lewis de Clermont, Duke of Bourbon; the Counts de Haraiirt, and de Tar.iertiille &c.
rrotffart, 1. I. c. 25. *

(9) Taking occafion of fome Hoftilities committed on the French Territories, by King Edward's Subjcfts, who fortified themfelves in the Caftle of
Xaintes. Contin. IVangn.

(10) But before that, King Edward called a Parliament at Eltbam, in the beginning of this Year, to take the Affairs of Guienne into confident'
There it was refolved, that he mould proceed with the King of France by way of amicable Treaty. The Laity then promifed him an Ad it a Ru r '
fhould happen with France ; and he writ to the Clcigy, Marcb 18. to obtain the fame Grant from them. See Rymer's Fad. Tom IV n „ >'-' ,•,. ™i" e
was another Parliament at Wmcbefter, March II. Ibid J P'* 2 "' +J 3- There

(11) This Treaty was concluded at Bois de Vincennes, May 8. 1330. Ibid. p. 144. The Letters Patents here mentioned are dated at Eltbam Ma 'h
3331. Ibid. p. 478. ' ' 3°"

(12) He failed from Dcvcr, April 4. and returned to England the 30th, Ibid, p. 480, 4S7. His Brother John was left Regent in his Abfence, Ibid


Book X.


4 r 3



(Qu/0 lii-

hflla i""/

five" the

t. 24,


Aft. Pub.
IV. p. 4^2
feizes Mor-
timer, tffi</
yiWr A/m r&
the Tower.

Hi calls a

renti Par-
Ibid. p. 453

It was loon after his Return from Amiens, that Edward
began, as 'tis fuppofed, to be fufpicious of the Queen his
Mother's Conduit (1). When it was perceived at Court,
that the King grew weary of being under the Guardianfhip
of his Mother and the Favourite, their Enemies failed not
to do all that lay in their Power, to make him jealous of
them. So many things deferring his Attention were in-
finuated to him, that he refolved at length to have perfect
Information of his Affairs. Thole to whom he applied,
caus'd him to obferve, " That the Karl of March affected
" to out-fhine his Sovereign, by a Magnificence too fplen-
" did for a Subject : That he difpofed of all the Offices of
" the Kingdom to his Creatures : That he was abfolute
" mailer ot the Fortune of the Englijh, carting down fome,
" and raifing others, according as theyappearedyir or again/I
" his Intereft : That by his private Orders Edward J I,
" was murdered: That the Earl of Kent loft his Lile by
" his fecret Practices : Finally, That very probably the
" Queen and herMinifter had formed theDefign of lecur-
" ing the Royal Authority, by keeping him always a
" Minor." Someadd, that it was intimated to him, that
the Queen his Mother was big with Child by Mortimer.
What they fay is not unlikely, fince, according to the
Teftimony of Froijfart, the Report of her being with
Child was fpread over the whole Kingdom. Thefe Infor-
mations entirely convinced the King, of what he had hi-
therto only fufpected. He called to mind the fudden
death of the King his Father ; the Beheading of the Eail
of Kent his Uncle ; the difhonorable Peace he was made to
conclude with Scotland ; the extravagant Dowry of the
Queen his Mother, the Credit, Riches, and Pride of the
Earl of March, and abhorring the Wickednefs of thofe
who made the Publick Good a pretence to gratify their Paf-
fions, he refolved to punifh them. However, he carefully
concealed his purpofe, till an Opportunity offered of ailing,
without danger of ruining himfelf. To execute his Defign,
he chofe the time the Parliament was to meet at Notting-
ham (z). The Court being come to that Town, Queen
Jfabella and the Earl of March longed in the Caftle, with
a Guard of one hundred and eighty Knights (3), whilft the
King, with a fmall Retinue, was lodged in the Town.
In fpite of thefe Precautions, which feemed to fhew that
the Queen and the Favorite were not without their Unea-
finefs, Edward, having gain'd the Governor (4), enter'd
the Caftle through a fubterraneous Paflage, and came into
his Mother's Apartment, accompanied with Montacute,
and fome other Officers, all bent to lofe their Lives in
his Service. There was at firft fome Noife made, and
two Knights of the Guard were killed, who having lefs
refpect for the King than their Companions, offered to re-
iift. The Earl of March was apprehended, and notwith-
ftanding the Queen's Cries, and Intreaties to fpare the gal-
lant Mortimer (5), he was carried out the fame way the
King came in, and conducted under a ftrong Guard to the
Tower of London (b),

This mafter-piece of Policy fucceeding fo well, the
King diffolved the Parliament, and fummoned another (7).
As the late Parliament had not regarded fo much the
Publick Good, as the Interefts of the Queen and the Earl
of March, the King bitterly complained, in his Summons,
of the Members, and took occafron to exhort the People,
to chufe Reprefentatives who had the Good of the
State more at heart. The Parliament met at London,
with Difpofitions very different from thofe of the for-
mer. Moft of the Members, overjoyed to fee the King-
dom freed from the Tyranny of the Earl of March,
aimed only at the Reformation of what was amifs in the
Government, and the Punifhment of the Favourite, ac-

cording to his Crimes; the common Fate of Favourites 1330*
and Miniflers who abufe their Power. How great foever
they may be, they mull expect to fee themfelves a-
bandoned by all whenever their Affairs begin to de-

In his Speech to the Parliament, the King complained
in general of the Queen and Mortimer. After which, he
faid, that, with the Confent of his Subjects, he defigned
to affume himfelf the Reins of the Government, tho' he
was not yet arrived at the Age prefcribed by the Law.
The Parliament gladly contented ; all the Members being
equally ready to fecond his Defigns (8).

Edward being thus freed from his Governors, his firft The %?"• '
care was to feize the exorbitant Dower of the Queen his"'i /W "'
Mother, and reduce it to a Pennon of three thoufand wlmng.
Pounds a Year (9). At the fame time flic was confined to
her Houfe at Rifmgs (10), left by her Intrigues flic fliould
excite new Troubles. Alezerai was miftaken, when he Abr ■ /
faid, that Edward halrened his Mother's Death. It is A "" 1 - z '■
certain, flic lived twenty-eight Years in her Confinement,
where the King her Son vifited her once or twice every
Year, more out of Decency than Affection.

As for the Earl of March, he was treated with the T>. Ear

utmoft Rigour.

His Impeachment, brought before the M Kh "

Parliament, contained divers Articles of which thefe were ali?x,'e,,t,d.
the principal: That he had fazed the Government of Knighton.
the Kingdom without Authority, and contrary to the ex- Col. *ssfc
prefs Regulation of the Parliament : That he had placed, Wj: ' ,: '< i -
about the King, Spies upon all his Actions, that he might
not be able to free himfelf from the Subjection he was
kept under : That he had procured the Death of Ed-
ward II by his exprefs Orders : That he had contrived
a treacherous Plot to take away the Life of the late Earl
of Kent, the King's Uncle : that he had appropriated to
his own ufe, the twenty thoufand Marks paid by the King
of Scotland: Laftly, that he had Jived in a too familiar
manner with the Queen- Mother. For all thefe Crimes,
which were affirmed to be notorious, and for proof where-
of, no Evidences were fo much as heard, he was con-
demned to die ( r 1 ). His Sentence, which ran, that he
fhould, as a Traitor, be drawn and hanged on the com-
mon Gallows at Tyburn (iz), was executed without the
leaft favor. There was This remarkable in his Sentence,
that he was condemned without being heaid, as he him-
felf had ferved the Spencers. But this irregulaiitv proved
advantagious to his Family. For Roger his Grandfon ob-
tained afterwards an Act to reverfe- this Sentence, as
erroneous. We fhall fee in the Sequel of this Hif ory,
his Defcendants by the Female-Line mount the Throne
of England. The Article of his Impeachment concerning Frolflirt.
his Commerce with the Queen, is a clear Evidence, how '■ ,- *■ 2 + -
much the whole Kingdom was offended at their Famili-
arity. If it had not been notorious, there is no likeli •
hood that the Parliament would have wounded that Prin-
cefs's Honour fo deeply, which could not but reflect on
the King her Son. They who have endeavoured to vindi-
cate her, by the little probability, that a Princefs of (o
high a Rank fhould fo far forget herfeif, did not confider
that a few Years before, the three Daughters-in-law of
Philip the Fair were as regardlefs of their Reputation, by
the Confeffion of all the Hiftorians (13).

Thus Edward began betimes to wipe out the Blemifhes Birth of
which had fullied his Minority, and in taking upon him
the Government, gave happy Prefages of the Glory and ^ iv2 ' i '
Profperity of his Reign. For a farther Addition to the
publick Happinefs, Heaven Welled the young Monarch
with a Son, whom the Queen brought this Year into
the World ( 1 4). He was called Edward after his Father,

(1) It is very probable he was fufpicious of her, before his Journey, as appears by an Order he gave Ralph de Ktvil to array the Militia, Rimer's Fed.
T.IV. p. 44S.

(2) Fifteen Days iter Michaelmas. Rot. ClattJ. 4 Edw. III. M. 23. Dor/. Knighton, Col 25^1;.

(3) The Queen had the Keys of the Caftle brought to her every Night, and laid them under her Pillow. Stow.

(4) He ilfued out Warrants to all the Sheriffs, for apprehending the Earl of March, Sir Oliver d: Ingham, and Sir Simon dc Beref-.rd, bearing date
Cclob. 20, at Nottingham. Rymer's Feed. Tom. IV. p. 452. And on Nomemb. 3. fummoned all Perfons whatfoever, that had any Complaints to make
againft Mortimer and the reft, income and lay them before the Parliament. Ibid. p. 453.

(5) Her Words were, Bel Fiti, Be! Fitz, ayez fitit du gentile Mortimer.

(6) This was done on the 19th of Octob. Knighton, Col. 2556. Befides Sir William de Montacute (afterwards E irl of Salisbury) there were with the
King, Sir Humphry de Bohun, Sir Edward and Sir William, his Brothers; Sir Ralph dc Stafford, Sir William di Clinton, Sir Join Ncvilot Hornby, Sir
William Eland, &c. The Paflage under Ground is ftill called Mortimer's Hole. The two Knights that were killed were, Sir Hugh de Turp.'ington, Stewa:d
of the King's Houlhold, and Sir Richard Monmouth, according to the Fcedcra, Tom. IV. p. 475, 505. but according to bugdale and Baincs, Sir Jtbr..
For this piece of Service, the King granted Si William de Montacute, one thoufand Pounds per Ann. Rot. Per. Knighton, Col. 1566. Sir Job I
two thoufand Marks per Ann. in Land ; namely, the Manors of Lodres, Phelipflon, More, Up-Wynburn, and Wmterburn-Houton in Dorflllbiri ; and Chc'-
reie in Berk/hire. Rymer, ibid. p. 4S7. Robert dc Bohun, four hundred Marks ; Robert de Ujford, three hundred, and John dc Anil, two hundred. Rot-
Par. 4 Edw. HI. n. 13.

(7) To meet at Wej'tminjler, Ntrvcmb 25. Rymer's Ford. Tom. IV. p. 453, 454.

(S) At the fame time, the King relumed into his Hands, all the Crants that had been made during his Minority. Rymer's Feed. Tom. IV. p. 476.

(9) Rapin by miftake lays, rive hundred Pounds. See Knighton, Col. 2556. He moreover granted her afteiwards, vix. Septemb. 4. 1334. the Ear!d:rr.
of Ponthteu and Montreuil, during her Life. Rymer's Feed. Tom IV. p. 633. (10) Near London.

(11) The Earl of Match left four Sons, of whom Edmund his eldeft died in the Flower of his Age, and left his Son Roger, who was reflored to his
Grandfather's Eftates and Honours. The Earl had alio feven Daughters, Katharine Wife of Thomas de Beauckan.p, Earl or II 'a' wick, Joan married to
James Lcrd Audley ; Agnes to Lawrence de Hafimgs Earl of Pembroke ; Margaret to Thomas Son and Heir of Maurice Lord Berkley : Maud to John Son
and Heir of "John de Charleton Lord Fowls ; Blanch to Peter de Grandi/cn ; and Beatrix firft to Edward, Son and Heir to Thomas of Brolherton Earl Mat -
thai. Son of Edward II, and afterwards to Sir Thomas de Broofc. Dugdalc's Baron. Vol. I. p. 146, 147.

'iz) On A'ovemb. 29. Knighton. Col. 2559. Walfing, p. 130. At a Place then called Elms, now Tyburn, HisEody, after hang : ng two Days and
two nights, was granted to the Frieis Minors, who buried it in their Church, now called Chrifi. Church.

(13) In this Parliament alfo Sir Simonde Bereford was condemned; and executed in December. Rot. Par. 4 Edw. Ill I, ».

(14) He was born at Wood/lock, June 15. J. Tinmtuth, Hiji. Aur, Wal/mgi p. 130,

No. 2i. Vo 1, I,




Tie King



Vol I.

and became in his Time the moft illuftrious and moil ac-
compli/bed Prince, England had ever produced (i).

After Edward had taken upon him the Administration
of Affairs, People were impatient to fee, which way the
young Prince would turn. His Courage, his Abilities, and
Spirit, made them believe lie would not, like the
I iiig his Father, chtife an indolent Life. It was much
more likely he would imitate his Grandfather Edward I.
Francs and Scotland were equally concerned to obferve his
fir-ft Proceedings. France might be apprehenfive, he
would renew his Pretenfrons to the Crown, obtained by
Philip de i alois to his Prejudice. Scotland had no lei's
reafbn to fear, he woulJ break through the dishonorable
Treaty, wherein he was engaged by the Queen his Mother

to recover the Offices and Pods they were removed from, 1331.
after Robert Bruc/s Advancement.

Whilst Baliol was making his Preparations, Edward • ■ I -
pretended punctually to obferve the Peace with Scotland,
and ifTued upon that account feveral Orders, which were '' ' ', '^' t .
not well executed.

Art. Pub.

JV. 0. 5:9

He even published a Proclamation ind.
againft fuch as were engaged in the Service of B liol. Pub '

But this Step was taken when they were juft going, ' ' r ' ~ 9 '
and it was too late to prevent them. His fole Aim was,
t> make the Publick believe, he was not concerned in
an Undertaking, of which he indeed was the real Au-

As f.ion as Baliol was ready, he embarked his little 1332.
Army, confiding but of two thoufand five biiftdred Men,?
and Mtiftimer, during his Non-age. Though the King of and landed at Kinghorn near Perth (1,), from whence beg,^],.
Scotland was his Brother-in-law, it was known in thofe fent back his Ships. He was willing by that to ftiew his Buchanan.
Days, as well as at prefenfj that the Bond of Affinity is Troops, they had nothing to trult to but their Valour. : '" "•
not always a fufficient Bar to the Ambition of Princes. Mean while, his Preparations could not be fo privately/, ' . ..'
And indeed, Edward had in view thel'e two grand Ue- made, but the Scots had Intelligence thereof. Hardly -•< / - ••'-!•

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 174 of 360)