M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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figns. But it was not poffible for him to engage at once were his hlen landed, when he heard, that ikxandet
in two lb confiderable Undertakings. He refulved there- Scaion was coming to give him Battel, at the head of

ten thoufand Men. All means of retreat being taken
from the Englijh, they had no hopes of Safety but in
Victory. Accordingly, expecting their Enemies with a
noble Refolution, they fought with fuel) uncommon
Braverv, that the Scotch General, with an Army much
fupeiior, was fhamefully and intirely routed (4). The
Fail ot Fife, who followed Seaton with a ftill more nu-

ij Baliol I

tor/ipafs It.





foie to begin with Scotland; that he might, after fubduing
that Kingdom, attack France with the united Forces of the
two Nations which divided Great Britain.

The Peace concluded two Years before with R.obert
Bruce, feerned to lay an infuperable Obflacle in his way.
But Srril itHOiis Princes always find Pretences enough to
gratify their Paffions. Edward had one, which to him
appeared ji.fl, or at lead: fufficient to authorize his At-
tempt upon Scotland; namely, that lie was betiayed by
his Mother and Ministers in the late Treaty with Robert
Bruce. I3ut how fpecious fcever this Reafon might
feem to him, he did not think proper to ufe it, till he
was almoft. fure ot the Succcls of his Enterprize. To
«fc compafs his ends, he made ufe of the Ministry of Ed-
' ward Baliol, Son of that John Baliol, placed on the
Throne of Scotland by Edward I, and afterwards de-
pofed as a Punifhment for his pretended Rebellion. It
was now thirty eight Years, fmce his Father was de-
throned, after fo long an Interval, the Son, who, Since
the Death of his Father, led an obfeure Life in France,
little expected to fee the King of England prefs him to
profecute his Right to the Crown of Scotland. This
Hijiirt llm however, was by Edward's Order infinuated to him by
up a ajjin j^g L orc j Beaumont, who fince his Banifhment refided
and 'ficmifii in France. Beaumont reprefentcd to him, that he had a
ia aid bim. fair Opportunity to mount the Throne ot Scotland, ufurped
by the Bruccs : that David's Minority afforded him a
Juncture which would not eafily be met with again : In
fine, that the King of England was inclined to Second
his Endeavours. Baliol lent a reae'y Ear to fo flattering
a Propofal, and to be certain himfelf, how far he might
rely on the King, came into England (2), where he
kept himfelf concealed. During that time, he treated
with Edward, by the Mediation of Beaumont, con-
cerning' the Terms on which he was to engage in this
Enterprize. Edward's Hiftorian labours heartily to vin-
dicate the King, in a Proceeding fo contiary to Sincerity,
and the late Treaty with Scotland. But they who are
not concerned to defend his Reputation, will hardly deny,
that, on this occafion, Ambition was the fole or real
Motive of his Conduct:. It is but too probable, that the

J. Ban

merous Army, willing to revenge this difgrace, had no
better fucccls. After thefe two Victories, Baliol advancing
farther into the Country, met with another Body of
Scotch Troops, whom he like-wife defeated. Five days
after, he fought Nigel Bruce, who came to attack him
with ten thoufand Men. In this laft Action he gave
no quarter, becaufe he would not be incumbered with

Four Battles loft in fo Short a Space, throwing the He foams
Sc:ts into the uttermofr Con (Vernation, Baliol had time to \ : "- :cr °f
befiege Perth, called alfo St. 'John's Town, of which he^ n : - nton .
eal.lv became maiter. He found there a great Quantity
of warlike Stores and Provisions, which he wanted ex-
tremely, in order to make farther Progiefs. His Affairs
obliging him to lemove from Perth, Patrick Dunbar, Earl
of Marche, took advantage of his Abfence, and befieged
the fame Town. But upon the SirSt News of Ballot's
marching to relieve it, he haitily raifed the Siege, though
his Army was Superior in number. Such Terror had their
former Loffes ltruck into the 'Scats.

BalioFs good F"ortune failed not to produce the ufual David King
Effects. Great Numbers of Lords and Gentlemen of the /" Scotland
Country came and fwore Fealty to him. This De-'^^J""
fection, which threatned King David with a greater,
obliged the young Prince to fly with his Queen into France.,
it being unfafe to remain any longer in their Kingdom.
Mean time, to influence the Affairs of Scotland, Edward
fo managed it, that feveral private Perfons fitted out a
Fleet in their own Name, to give chace to that which the
Scots had fent to Sea, and which was their laft Refuge.
The Lofs of this Fleet, which was destroyed by the .77,; s^i,
EngUjh, quite confounded David's Adherents. The Earl Fleet diHiy-
ot Fife, who was one of the principal, fubmitted to the'''^'^
Conqueror, and his Example was followed by many Baliol

Profpect of an Acquifition, like That of the Kingdom of others. Thefe good Succefles determined Baliol to caufef«o»«f.

Baliol fr

Scotland, made him overlook his Scruples on that ac-
count. Of this I Shall hereafter give more than probable

The two Parties came to an Agreement without much
hh Difficulty. Baliol thought he could not purchafe too
Expedition, jgjjjjy a Crown, to which he would never have dared
to afpire, without being allured of a powerful Affiftance.
On the other hand, Edward, who minded his own, more
than the Concerns of Baliol, and intended to reap all the
Benefit of this Enterprize, fcrupled not to promife Still
Act. Ptb- more than Baliol durit have expected. The Articles of
iv. p. ; 36. their Agreement were no fooner fettled, but the Englifh
Nobles were privately told, that in ferving Baliol they
would pieale the King. This was fufficient to engage in
his Party thofe, who, having received Lands in Scotland
by the Bounty of Edward I, had akerwards loft them by
the Revolutions in that Kingdom. Befides this Aid,
Baliol could alio depend, in Scotland itfelf, upon the af-
fiftance of the old Friends of his Family, who found
it their Intereft to fupport him. And indeed, the
placing this Prince on the Throne, was the only way

himfelf to be crowned. The Ceremony was perform- Waifin £ #
ed at Scone, the ufual Place of the Inauguration of the
Kings (5).

The new King was no fooner on the Throne, but, xj c dtn
in order to perform his Treaty with the King ot Bng-Homageit
land, he did him Homage for the Kingdom of Scotland, f^/"
in the fame manner as his Fattier had done it to Ld- Acl p ut .
ward I, that is, with all the Circumltances denoting an IV. r- 536.
entire Subjection. In his Letters-Patent he faid ex- Knighton,
prefly, that it was with the Confent of the King of
England, and the Affiftance of the Englijh, that he re-
covered the Poffeffion of his Inheritance, of which he
fuppofed, contrary to Truth, that John his Father was
deprived by Robert Bruce. Moreover, he refigned to u , „;..„ ^
the King of England, in payment of the Supplies re- Berwick.
ceived from him, the Town and Caftle of Berwici, A* p £r
which were ftill in the hands of King David. He of- 53 j/' 5i "
feied likewife to marry Joanna, Sifter of Edward, if
that frincefs's Marriage with David Bruce could be an-
nulled. Laftly, he proir.ifed to furnilh the King his So-
vereign with Aids of Men and Money, whenever lequired.

(1) This Year the Art of «•. ', , i-Cloth was brought from Flanders into England, hyj b: Ketrpr, to »h m the King grant '

-, ind I tl • fam 1 ovei /filers, Djtrs, Sec <ee fivWo s Fad. Torn* iV. ;■• , />• A Parharu I it - : utfler on

..,■., .. Ill M. -■ ■ .

Fhe -Conduct for him to i . England, dated txWmdJhck, July zo. 1330. Rymir"s Feed. Tea-.. [V. i t \ J , 452.

I 1 In the i" .!/...>. b a . . Col. 2360.

fought at Gtedefm -■, neii ii.J.bn's Town, on the nth >t ' _
(5) On the i-jih af Septemitr. Wn


: >a9-


Book X.



1352. AH thefe Circumftances plainly (hew, Edward was but
too far concerned in this Expedition, how much foever
his Hillorians may labour to clear him (1 ).
Edward Whilfl Baliol was employed in pufhing his Con-

quers in Scotland, Edward called a Parliament to de-
fract i mand a Subfidy (2). His Pretence' was, certain Trou-
1 bles in Ireland, which he reprefented as fo dangerous, that
Ireland;, t } Kre was a neceffity of /'eliding an Army timber (3).
The Subbdy was readily granted, But whilft the
Troops dcfigned for this Expedition were marching to
imbark, they received Orders to advance towards the
htfifdtit Borders of Scotland. Edward reprefenting to the Par-
"*' > liament, that it was dangerous to leave the northern
IV. 0.523 Counties defencelefs, whillt their Neiglibours were in
j. Arms; and affirming, his Ptefence was necefTary in thofe
Parts, it was refolved that the Jr'tjh Expedition mould be
deferred to fome other time. Probably, the Parliament
did not fuffcr themfelves to be deceived, but were willing
to (hut their Eyes voluntarily, not to obftruft the King's
1333. Mean time, Edward finding, that by the Rapidity

of BaliaPs Conquefts, his Project fucceeded to his VV.fli,
! immediately pulled off the mask. He began, upon fri-

it, 7 icny f/volous Pretences to complain, that the Scots had violated
the Treaty of Peace. He muft needs have been in great
1 1. c. ±6- want °f good Reafons, fince he ufed one fo very un-
Aft. Pub. likely in the then Circumftances of Scotland. The Re-
iv. p. 55*1 gent left by King David In Scotland, fpared neither Excu-
ses, nor Intreaties, nor Submiflions to divert the impending
Ibid. p. 564, Storm, but all to no purpofe. Ed-ward, who had formed
5* 6 " the Defign of taking Berwick, foon after befieged that Place.

He prefled it fo briskly, that he obliged the Governor ^4)
to fign a Capitulation ( c; ), promifing to furrender the Town,
Beitenus unlefs relieved by fuch a Day. During that time, the
Mafitroj Regent, feeing Berwick could not be faved without exert-
tte Battle o/'' n § n ' s lltm °ft levied an Army, and was advancing with
Halydun. ' all fpeed to give the EngliJI) Battle. Edward, who
Ibid, p- ^7' • was informed of it, expected him at Halydon-Hill, where
Buchanan. was fought a bloody Battle, which ended in the entire
I 9- Rout of the Army of Scotland. Seven Scotch Earls were

flain on the Spot, with nine hundred Knights, and four
thoufand Gentlemen, befides thirty two- thoufand common
Soldiers, if we believe the E nglijl) Hiltorians. But the5«rj-
own but ten thoufand, which doubtlefs is neareft the truth.
This Victory was followed by the furrender of Bcrivick,
which the King annexed for ever to the Crown of Eng-
Baliol bol&t The fuccefs of this Campaign anfwering Edward's ex-
i/«jfr/i Par- perflation, he returned into his own Dominions, leaving
lament at w j (n Baliol a Body of Troops to complete the Reduction
rough. °f a " Scotland. Strengthened with this Aid, Baliol took

Aft. Pub. feveral Towns, after which he held his firft Parliament
lv „ P' 57 6 > a t Edenborougb (6). He caufed whatever had been done
to 605, 614. in favor of the King of England, to be confirmed and
Walling. ratified. Moreover, all the Eng/ijb Lords who had ferved
ulfral" " f n ' m ' recoveret l l ^e Lands they had loft in Scotland, or
Plam to acquired others. All the Acts of Parliament paffed in the
Edward. Reign of Robert Bruce were annulled, as wanting a Iaw-
Ibid.p. G14.. ful Authority. Baliol was not fatisfied with (hewing his
Gratitude to Edward, by the Ceffion of Berwick, and do-
ing him Homage, but refigned to him likewife Rox-
burgh, 'Jedburgh, Selkirk, Dumfries, and the Caftle of
Edenborougb, in reward, as he faid himfelf in his Letters,
for the Affiftance received from him to recover his Do-
1334. minions (7).
Tie Scots This voluntary Homage, and thefe extraordinary Alie-

teM againft nations, made him forfeit the Efteem and Affection ot
Buchanan. n ' s new Subjects. It was eafy for them to fee, that H alio I
Berth. was but Edward's Inftrument to render himfelf Matter

Wailing. f Scotland. In this Belief, they refolved to fhake off the
tTkhfur- Yoke of their new King, who fo vifibly betrayed the
priiudmd Interefts of the Nation. Some of the great Men (8),
driven tu /improving this general Difpoiition, headed a Body of
Male-contents, and went in queft of Baliol, who ex-

pected nothing lefs than to be attacked. They furprized 1334.
and defeated him, forcing him to fly on an H without
a Saddle to Carli/le, from whence he fent Lis Protector
word of the Misfortune befallen I m.

About the fame time Edward fummoncd a Parlia- *J Murim.
ment (9), and communicated his Defign, as he faid, ol '■.. '' J 2 b j
going to the Holy-Land with the King of France, and " ' '
feveral other Chriftian Princes. But the news of theEdwaid
Revolution in Scotland, made him altei his pretended Pro- "" ni ' '"".
jecL Having obtain'd the Aid of Money he demanded, %£g? '£
he marched towards that Kingdom, at the head of ai
numerous Army, and penetrated without 0| ofition to tin
Northern Counties, whillt the Scotch Arm) kept in P
where it was not poffihle to attai I til in. So for want
of Enemies to engage with,, he left Scotland, and returned
into England. Hardly had he reach'd the Borders, when
Dunbar, who commanded the Scotch Army, fallying out
of his Retreats, retook fome Plai ■ from the Englifb.
As the Seafon would not permit the King to go in queft
of his Enemies, he fent his ITroop into Winter-Quarters,
and that lie might be at hand, refolved to pais the Win-
ter at Roxburgh.

In the Spring he attacked Scotland by Sea and Land. 133c.
He even advanced as far as the Northern Ocean. But he
reaped no great Advantages from this Incuriion, as the'
North Parts of Scotland could not be kept without an \ \. pjb.
Army always there, fuperior to that of the Scots : So, iv.p- 6=0.
finding he could not allure them to a Battle, he fL.id
fome time at Perth, whillt the Earl of Cornwall his Bro-
ther ravaged the Weftern Counties of that unfortunate
Kingdom. It is true, the Scots gained fome Advantage
over five hundred Englijh Archers, who fuffered themfelves lb. p. fi-4.
to be furprized. They took likewife the Earl of Namur, 6 ^' 6 5 8,
and the Prince his Brother, who ferved in Edward's Army.
But this laft Advantage proved fatal to them, as it occa-
fioned the Lofs of the Earl of Murray, Regent of the T '< Regent
Kingdom. This Earl, who was fo senerous as to give 5 ',

i_- n •/- 1 • r 1 • , . rt . ... - 6 tahnbf the

his two Pnfoners their Liberty, carrying his Civilities a^
little too lar in waiting upon them himfelf to the Frontiers, lb- p- 660.
had the misfortune to be taken by a Party of the Gar- ' 7C • 6ii '
rifon of Roxburgh. This accident added to the LoiTes
already fuftained by the Scots, that of a good General,
and a very able Regent.

Mean time, the Pope and the King of France were 77,, P p c and
ftrongly ufing their Inteieft, though indirectly, for Kino- King,/
David, by endeavouring to turn the Englijh Arms another '' '""£?'"
way. Whilft Edward was at Perth, he received Am baf- wluifem
fadors from France, who, jointly with the Pope's Nuntio, ' ; '"-'
prefled him to perform his Engagement to carry his Arm
into Pale/line. He ealily perceived, their fole Intent was a ■'. Pub.
to divert him from the War with Scotland. So, to avoid all ' v '- r- °55»
farther Sollicitations, he plainly told Philip's Ambafladors, ^
that by God's Grace he was in a condition to make
War againft the Infidels, without their Matter's Aid, as •
foon as he had finifhed the Conqueft of Scotland. This,- ,.,
Anfwer convincing the Scots that he was fully refolved not ca&fXmt
to end the War till he was abfolute Matter of the King-
dom, the greateft Part voluntarily fubmitted, plainly per- K ™ u ' , n ;

• rt-t 1 r 1 fn r . ' Cu '* 2 -.00.

ceiving, it was not poflible tor them to refill any longer.
They who took this courfe obtained very favourable Terms,
but there were others who chofe rather to be expofed to
the laft Extremities, than fubmit to the Yoke of the En-
glijh, after the Campaign was over. Edward returned #-. retar „ sU
in Triumph to England (to), having order'd Perth, Eden- England.
borough, and Sterling to be refortified, and left the Go- ** p " b '
vernment of Scotland to the Earl of Athol.

The new General, who, though a Scotchman, had joined . r . nnelirt*
with Edward, in order to revenge fome Affronts received a,e beaten,
from his Countrymen, had no fooncr the Command of the
Englijh Arm)-, but he went and laid Siege to Kddrummy.
Dunbar and DouglaJ's, who commanded the Scotch Forces,
haftened to its Relief, and though their Army was not near
fo numerous, they defeated and flew the Earl of Athol,
and relieved the Town. This Succefs reviving the Cou-

(1) Thefe Letters arc dated at Roxborougb, Nwemb. 23. 1332. Pymer's Feed Tom. IV. p. 538.

(2 1 This Parliament was held at York, the 2d of December, Ibi.i p. 539 There were three other Parliaments held this Year at ll'cjim-.nflcr ; one
en the Monday sixer March 12. the fecond April 27. and the third on September 9. Ret. ClauJ. 6 Ed~.c. III. M. 35. D^rf. and Ret. Part. No. I. 3.
This laft granted him a Fifteenth of the perfonal Eftates of the Prelates, Lords, and Kjaights of Shires j and a Tenth from alt Cities and But-
rcughs. Ibid.

( 3 ) He ordered it to be railed about the beginning of Oclob. 1331. Rymer T. IV. p. 533.

(4) William de Ketb. Ibid. p. efib.

(5) July 16. 1333. Bid. p. 563.

(6) Febr. to. 1334. To which King Edtvard fent his Commiffarie^ i'iz. EJll'ard de Bcbutt, William de Mcrtacute, Uer.ry de Percy, Ralph de Nevite,
St.v.-ard of his H.mlhold, and Geoffrey de Scrope, Chief- Juftice. Ibid. p. 5S8, 591.

(7) A Parliament was held this Year at Turk, on the Monday in the 2d Week in Lent. Walfing. p. 133. Some time after King Edward, by his
Letter <i ited Oclob. 6. at Havering, defired the Clergy to grant him an Aid for his War with Scotland' Rymer\ Feed. Tom. IV- p. 579, 612.

(8; The Li rd Archibald Douglas, w,th the Earl of Marr, He. This happened on Decemb. 2;. at Anan. Walfing. Knighton. Col 2561.

(91 At York, rn Febr. 21. Rot. Pari. 8 Edtv. III. There Was another at Wcjlminfler, about oV/wrei. ao. Fymcr's Fetd.' Torn. IV. p. 62S. Walfing.
F- 134. This II granted the King a Fifteenth from the Lords and Knights of the Shires, and a Tenth from the Clergy, as alio from th: Citizens and
Burgd . p 134. Knighton. Col. 2565.

(10) h t 'J 'he Sects a Truce for abfiut a Month, at the Requeft of the Pope, and the Kuig of France : Which was afterwards prolonged

tlil the Sunday before Afcef/ion-Day 1336. Rymer's Fad. Tom. IV. p. 676, 6Sl, 684, 685, 690. After his retujn to England, he held a ParLament at
Tern, the Day alter the Ajcenjion. Rot. Clauf. 9 Edw. III. M. 28. Dorj.







A&. Pub.

IV. p. 69;


Ond returns.




Vol. I.

rage of the Scots, they came together from all parts under
the ConJua of thefe two Generals, who made a very con-
fiderahle Progrefs.

Edward, who thought he had fufficiently tamed the
Scots, Mil into a fort of a Fury upon the News of this frefh
Revolt. As foon as the geafon would permit, he matched

Robert, Earl of Artois, Son of Lewis VIII King of 1336.
France, had a Son and a Daughter, namelv, Robert and "'•"■ '
Maud. Robert 1 1 was Earl of Artots, and Maud married ^ , '
Otbcnin, Earl of Burgunrly, by whom fhe had two Daugh-
ters, 'Joanna and Blanch, who were Wives to Philip le
Long, and Charles the Fair, Kings of France. "Joanna

a'fourth time into the Heart of Scotland(i), and ravaged had a Daughter called Blanch, married to Eudes Duke of

in a mercilefs manner the Counties that had declared againft Burgundy. Robert II had but one Son, named Philip,

him. In his return, he burnt the Town of Aberdeen, who dying before the Earl his Father, left Robert his

and fome other Places of lei's note; and leaving a fmall Son, the third of that Name, but not Earl of Artois.

Army with Baliol, marched back to his Dominions (2), Robert III. claimed the Earldom, as Grandfon to Ro-

where he was called by more important Affairs. This was bert II, and the next Male-Heir. But Maud his Great

Edward's laft Expedition into Scotland. It was time for Aunt, maintained, that the Succeffion belonged to her,

that unhappy Kingdom to enjoy fome Repofe. Since it as Sifter of Robert II, and nearer by one degree than


a ainjl

was firft invaded by Edward I, fo much Scotch Blood had
been fpilt, that it is very furprifing, after fo many Lodes,
the People of that Country fhould ftill be able to contend
for their Liberty {>). . , , .

Edward's four Expeditions into Scotland gamed him no
doubt a great Reputation. But it feems that part of his

1. i.e. 26.

Robert III. The Court of Peers decided the Affair in
favour of Maud, whofe two Daughters were married to
the two younger Sons of Philip the Fair. Robert d' Ar-
tois fubmitted to the Sentence during Philip's Life, and
all the Reign of Lewis Fluiin, but took Arms in the
Regency of Philip le Long, and got poiTeflion of Artois.

Glory mifht have been difputed, by the confideration of When from Regent, Philip was become King, the Af-
the Superiority of his Troops, more numerous, better fair of Artois was again brought befo e the Court of
difciplined, and more amply provided with all things ne-

celTary, than thofe of the Scots. He was willing therefore
to demonftrate in a larger and more noble Field, that he
was not afraid to face thegreateft Dangers, and to contend
with more formidable Enemies. So, from henceforth
neglecting Scotland, which he believed fufficiently fubdued,
and which afforded him no more Lawrels ; he refolved to
attack France, the moft powerful State of all Europe, and to
ufe his utmoft endeavours to wreft the Crown from Philip
de Vahis. I have already mentioned his claim to that
Kingdom, from which he was excluded by virtue of the
Salic-Law. As he pretended this Law was mifunder-
ftood, and as that was the Origin and Caufe of a long

Peers, and decided once more in favour of Maud his
Mother-in-law. After the Death of Charles the Fair,
Robert d' Artois was of ali the great Men of France, the
Perfon that acled with the gieulcft warmth, to procure
the Crown for Philip de Valois his Brother-in-law, and
maintained the molt ffrcnuoufly the Authority of the
Salic-Laiu. He hoped thereby to eftabiifh a P-eccdent
in his favour, with iega:d to the E~rid';iii oi Artois, and
that the Salic-Law being admitted, with refpett to the
Crown, ali the Fiefs thereof would be r uh;:it to the
fame Law. So, depending upon this Precedent which
made for him, and the Advantage of being Broihci in-
law of the new King, he revived the Procefs, and pro-

arid bloody War, which frequently brought France into duced certain Charteis under the Great-Seal, to confirm
extreme Danger, there would be a fort of Neceflity, be- hir Right. But Philip caufed the Charters to be cxa-
fore we proceeded to particulars, to fnow the real Foun- mined fo ftricrly, that they were difcovered to be coun-
dation of this War. But as this matter cannot be briefly terfeit, for which a Gentlewoman of Artois, who had
explained, I muft beg the Reader's leave to refer him to forged them, was feverely purrifhed, Thefe Charters,
the DiiTertation at the End of this Reign, that the thread on which Robert founded his Claim, being rejected, the
of the Hiftory may not be interrupted. It fuffices here Earldom of Artois was adjudged to Blanch, Daughter of
to fay in a word, that Edward pretended, the Salic- Philip de Long, by vertue of the Right fhe had from
Laiu, in excluding Females from the Succeffion to the
Crown, did not exclude their Male-Blue ; from whence
he inferred, that the next Male-Heir ought to fuc-

The Colleclion of the Publick Acls contain feveral Pieces,
clearly fliewing, that although Edward feemed to fubmir.
to the Judgment given againft him in France, he was medi-
tating fome great defign, and that againft France. Amongft
others, there is a Letter to the Inhabitants of Bayonne,
pofitively promifing them never to make Peace with France
without their being included, though he was not then in
War with that Crown. It was not therefore Robert d'
Artois, expelled France, and fheltered in England, that in-
fpired him with the Thoughts of invading France, as all
the Hiftorians unanimoufly affirm. I do not deny how-
ever, that Robert d' Artois, difpleafed with Philip de Valois,

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 175 of 360)