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helped by his Councils, and perhaps by the Confideration out extiaordinary Preparations, and the fupport of di- E

Maud her Grandmother. Robert, full of Indignation,
fell into a Paifion with the King, and upbraided him in
fuch a manner, as touched him very fenfib.'y. It is faid,
he proceeded to Threats, which determined the King
to profecute Him with the utmoft rigour. He ordered
him to be fummoned before o.e Peers ; and cauling him
to be condemned for Non-appearance, commanded the
Sentence to be publickly re;d in the Streets of Paris.
Robert withdrew imo Hainault: but Philip not letting Aft. Pub.
him reft there, he took the lefperate Courfe of throwing; IV. p. 7+7.
himfelf into the Arms oi rJw King of England. He found
that Monarch finiftling the War with Scotland, and medi-
tating hi. Enterprize upon France. In all likelihood, he
contributed by his Solicitations to haften the Execution of
that Project (4).

So important a War could not be undertaken, with-


of his Friends in France, to make him haften the Execu-
tion of his Project. But fince Robert d' Artois is gene-
rally reckoned the Author of this Undertaking, and of the
Calamities fuKered by France on that occafion, it will not
be improper to inform the Reader of the Reafons which
that Prince, defcended from Lewis VIII, thought he had
to complain of Philip. For that purpofe, it will be ne-
cefl'ary to know fomething of the Genealogy of the Houfe
of Artois.


, f

St. Lc-.lis
K. of France.

Robert II.

E. of Artois.


Philip of Artois

d. before his Father.

Robert III.
of Artois.

Robert I.
E. of Artois.


Otbinin E. of Bu

< "

Joanna de D.
Philip le Long.

Blanch of Fiance.
Eudes Duke of Burg.

Blanch de Burg.
Charles the Fair.

vers Alliances, which might balance the Superiority, main an AU
Francc had then over England Edward had now gained / "'"'' ™'" i
the Emperor Lewis oi Bavaria, the Duke of Brabant, Pr'rnax.
the Earls of Guelder and Hainault, his Brothers-in-law, Aft. Pub.
the Archbifhop of Cohgn, and feveral other German 'J' r ' :2 ^'
Princes: Nay, he neglected not the private Ailiftances of Fri-Wart,
divers Lords of Germany, Flanders, Holland, Brabant, 1. «■ c. 35.
Gafcogne, who were to fupply him with a number of
Horfe, in proportion to the Sums he gave them. All
thefe Troops drawn together, and joined to the Englijl),
would have made a very numerous Army. But thefe and with
Alliances were not near fo advantagious to him, as that J am " de
procured him by Robert d' Artois with "James d' Arteville, y?" ~"
a Brewer of Ghent. The Credit of that Burgher was fo
great in Flanders, that he had caufed the principal Cities
to revolt againft the Earl (5). This Prince was even re-
duced to the Neceffity of flying for refuge into France,
till Philip, who had engaged to reftore him, was able to
accomphfh his Promife. Edward taking advantage of
this Juncture, offered his Protection to the Flemings, who
gladly accepted it, apprehenfive as they were, of being
opprefled by Philip, this Alliance was the more advan-

(1) His General in this Expedition, was Hmrj Plant agena Earl of Lantajl, r . Ryrar'sFad. Tom. IV. p. 695.
(a) About the end of Autumn. Walfing. Ifodig.

(3) A Parliament was held in the beginning of this Year at JVeflminftcr, wherein the Clergy granted the King a Tenth. Syma's FarJ. Tom. IV.
p. 0S9. Another was held at Northampton, June 25. [bid. p. 701.

(4) Two Parliaments were held this Year. The firft (which was rather a great Council) at Northampton, about Whitfumide. Rymer't Fad. Tom. IV.
p. 701. and the fecond at Nottingham, on Siptmh. 25, which granted the King, for his Wars in Scotland and Gafeogm, a twentieth part from ihe No-
bility and Kavghtj of Shires ; a tenth from the Citizens and BurgelTes, a fixth from the Clergy ; befides whicli the Merchants of England were to
pay forty Shillings a Sack for all Wool tranfported, and Foreigners 3/. Sterling. Knighton, Col 2;6S. Rot. Clauf. 10 Ed™, ill M. 16. This Year
alio, about the beginning of Oliob. iMJobn of Eltham, King Edward's Brother, at Perth in Scot/and; and was buried in Weftminjlcr Abbey. IValfing.
p 134. Knighton, Col. 2563.

(5) This Man by undertaking to be Patron to the People, had all things at his Command. He never walked the Streets without futy or eigthy

I lufly

Book X.




Viclory of
the Englifh
in Flinders.

Prince Ed-
w. rd m.idt
Duke if


nvritei to tbt
Pope againi]
Ai\. Pub.
JV. p. 826.
f . 136.



Edward de-
7i:aiidi the
Crown of
France by
the Duke of
Aft. Pub.
IV. p. 818,

tagious, as befides the Supplies he expected from the Flem-
ings, it afforded him the Conveniency of affembling his
Army in Flanders, and a means to open a way into the
Enemy's Country from that quarter. 'J 'he Parliament ( 1 ),
who approved of his Delign, having granted him large
Subfidiea to carry it on, he raifed one of the fined Armies
that had ever been levied in England. Till all his Allies
were ready to aft, he fent part of his Troops to the Re-
lief of the Flemings, whom their Earl was vigoroufly at-
tacking, with the Afliftance of the French. Upon the
Arrival of thefe Troops, Guy, Brother of the Earl of
Flanders, who was ported in the Iflc of Cadfant, was
defeated and taken Prifoner. This fuccefsful beginning
of the Englijb Arms, fo broke the measures of the Earl of
Flanders, that the Cities, which till then had been for
him, declared againft him.

Whilft Edward was making his preparations for this
important War, the Objeft of all his Cares, he fummoned
a Parliament (2). The principal Bufinefs was to fettle the
Woollen-Trade, which was of very great confequence to
the Kingdom. In this Parliament, he created Prince Ed-
ward his eldeft Son Duke of Carnival, being the firft in
England that bore the Title of Duke (3).

When the King was almoft ready to begin the War, he
wrote to the Pope and Cardinals, to juftify his Enterprize
againft France. He complained in his Letters, that tho',
alter the Death of Charles the Fair his Uncle, the Clown
was devolved to him as next Heir, he was deprived of it by
a rafh and unjuft Sentence : That the Ambaffadors fent to
Paris to demand the Crown, not only weie not heard, but
were treated with that Violence as even to be threaten'd,
and put in danger of their Lives : That by taking from a
Minor the Crown, which of Right belonged to him,
the Peers of France afted like Robbers rather than Judges ;
and that he protefted againft whatever was done during his
Nonage. Then he (aid, that Philip de Valois, not content
with ufurping the Kingdom of France, had, before any
declaration of War, unjuftly feized Guicnnc and the Earl-
dom of Ponthieu, and without caufe, united thefe two Pro-
vinces to the Crown : That he had countenanced the Scotch
Rebellion, inflead of aflifting him, as he was obliged by the
Bond ol Arfini'y. Laftly, That by his whole Conduct he
had {hewn himfelf to be his mortal Enemy, and extremely
uneafy at every thing tending to the Honor of England (4).

Thefe Letters being communicated to Philip, he an-
fwered, That by the Salic Law, and the Judgment of the
Peers, Edward was excluded from the Succeflion to the
Crown of France, to which otherwife he could pretend no
manner of Right, fince he was born out of the Kingdom :
That for his part, not only all the Frent ih had received him
for King, but Edward himfelf had fubmitted to their
Judgment: That the Homage he had done in Perfon, and
confirmed by his Letters Patent, was a clear evidence, that
he was himfelf convinced of the groundlefsnefs of his Pre-
tenfions. Edward replied, That his Proteftation in the
Prefence of his Council before he went and did Homage,
prevented its being any Prejudice to him : That the P'ear
of lofing his Lands in France, was the fole Motive of it;
which, added to the Coniideration of his Minority, was
more than fufficient to invalidate whatever had been hi-
therto done. Of thefe two Reafons, the firft would hardly
have been admitted in a Court of Juftice ; but it was not
there this famous Procefs was to be decided. Mean time,
Edward willing to ftiew his Allies he was too far engaged
in the Conteft to recede, ordered the Duke of Brabant


. p. 816.


to demand the Crown of France in his Name. At the 1337.
fame time he made him his Lieutenant- General for that
whole Kingdom, with Orders to the French, whom he
called his Subjefts, to pay him Obedience.

To try to prevent the Evils, which a Quarrel of this na- 77 < F f"
ture might bring upon Chriftcncbm, Bcncd'Ut XII, who ■j''.l,.,"' lrll
then filled the Papal Throne, ufed all his Intereft with the .
two Kings. But as Edward was :hc AggrelTor, the Pope
fent firft to him two Cardinals, with Infractions co life all
po/Tible endeavours to pcrfuadc him to Peace. Thefe two
Legates difcharecd their Commiflion with great Zeal, and
were very urgent with Edward to put the Attair in Negoti-
ation. They could not however help (hewing fome Par-
tiality in favour of France, becaufe of Edward'* Alliance
with the Empeior, the Pope's profefled Enemy. Never-
thelefs the King let them know, their Mediation was agree- ,/,„, f ruct
able to him, and he would make Peace, piovided Terms Aft. Pub.
were offered anfwerable to his Rights. He even p.omifed ^j P - 8 33>
to defer the execution of hisdefigns till next March. But v. p. x, 14.
this was no great Eavour, fince it was then December. Knighton.
He fpent the reft of the Winter in preparing his Army
and Eleet, and efpecially in ftrengthning the League with
new Allies. Among whom, we find in the CcllcHion ^Edward
the Publick Ails, the Count Palatime of the Rhine, the /' iy„.
Duke of Aujlria, and the Dauphin of Viennois, who are Aft. Pub.
all three reckoned by the Hiftorians among the Allies of '^' f - "'»
France. This gives occafion to prefume they were firft 7}, Dupbid
ingaged with Edward, but afterwards fuftered themfelves <f VimnoisJ
to be gained by Philip. The Dauphin had entertained the XifLunv
Project of erefting his Dominions into a Kingdom : ,„„ a ic,„^.
Which, probably, was the Reafon of his joining with Ed- Sun-
ward, hoping without doubt that he would ufe his Intereft l ^}' '°|*
with the Emperor to obtain his delire. This Projeft not v. p. 10,99.
fucceeding, he efpoufed the Quarrel of France. The Earl ll " Eariy
of Hainault, being willing alio to enter into the League, ,).'"/,.'.,
defired, that Edward might have the Title of Fiear ef the <U Leapt.
Empire, in order to have a pretence to join Forces with
him, as General of the Emperor's Army. To fatisfy the
Earl, and in expectation of bringing other German Princes
to the fame Refolution, Edward was pleafed to demand
that Dignity of the Emperor.

When he had taken all the Precautions fuggefted to him
by Prudence, he departed from England, with a Fleet of E
five hundred Sail (5), and fteered his Courfe towards Ant- Antwerp.
zverp, where he was called by important Affairs. It was J»iy **•
neceffary he fhould be near his Allies, that he might take p r "!f i ^ R *
with them all proper meafures for the execution of his 1. ,,
Defigns. Altho' his Ambaffadors had concluded Alliances Walfing.
in his Name with feveral Princes, there were ftill many
things to be fettled with them, before they could aflemble
their Forces. This was properly what retarded feveral
Months the opening of the Campain. But this delay was not
entirely fruitlefs. During that time, Edward went and Bi " m *&
conferred at Cologne, with the Emperor (6), who ordered
a Patent to be drawn up appointing him Vicar ef the Em-
pire, according to his defire. This fort of favor was at-
tended with the Promife of a powerful Afliftance, a Pro- '
mife which was afterwards very lamely performed. The
Cities of Flanders having entered into the League by means
of James d'Artevi/le, were grown apprehenlive of being
one day abandoned to the Vengeance of their Earl, and
the King of France* It was therefore neceffary for Ed-
ward to fhew himfelf to the Flemings, in order to en-
courage them by his prefence. To that end he took a
Journey to Ghent and granted the principal Cities feveral



Vicar cf the
I. 1. e. 35.

lufty Yeomen at his Heels, who upon a Sign given them, killed every Man they met, who was not a Friend to this fames. He collected and fpent as
he pleafed the Earl's Rents and Profits j he banilhed all the Lords, whom he fufpecled to be the Earl's Friends: And in every Town he had Soldiers in
Pay, to fyy and give him Notice oi" any Poion, who hid a Defigu agninft him, whom he never left till he had bani/hed or dcltroyed. He was murdered
at IcngtJi in 134.5, by the Populace, for endeavouring to make King Edward's Son Earl of Flanders. Froijfart, I. 1. c. 31.

(1) This Parliament was held the Friday before Micbaehtafs. And in it the Community of the Kingdom granted the King a Tenth, and the Citizens
and Burgefies a Fifteenth. The Clergy alio granted a Tenth for three Yeais — 1 ■ Soon after, the King iffued out a Com million for the feizing the
Eftatea of the Lombard Merchants in England, who were grown odious on acco int of their Ufury and Extortion. He feized alio the Revenues of the Alien
Priories, efpecially of the Cluniac and djienian Order- Rx. Clattf. 11 Bdw< III. p. 2, M. 40. Dorf. Wolfing, p. 14.6. Knighton, c. 2570. Rymer'3
Fad. Tom. IV. p. 777.

(2) This Parliament was held about the middle of March ; and it was enacled, That no Wool of Engl ft? growth mould be tranfported beyond Sea 5
*nd that all Cloih-workers fhould be received, from whatever foreign Parts they came, and encouraged. Rymer's Feed. Tim. IV. p. 723, 751. It was
alfo ordained, That none mould wear any Cloths made beyond Sea, except the King, Queen, and their Children; alfo, That none ihouM wear foreign Fur*
or Sjilks, unlets he was worth one hundred Pounds of yearly Rents. A. Murimutb, Waif. p. 135, N. B. Waljingbam places this under the Year 133; ,
hut he differs from the Records and other Hiftorians by two, and lbmetimes three Years.

(3) He was inverted with this Dukedom, by a Wrath en his Head, a Ring on bit Finger, and a Silver Verge. Since which time, the eldeft Son of the
King of England is born Duke of Cornwal. At the lame Solemnity were created fix Earls, fix.. Henry de LancafUr Earl of Derby , William de M:r.:s-
tutt Earl of Salisbury, llugb de Audlty of Gfocefler, William de Clinton f Hunttngden, William de Bobun f Northampton, and Robert de Ujford of SuffilL
Waif. p. 135. Knighton, Col. 2568. Twenty Knights were alfo then created, among whom, fays Speed, was Sir 'Ibimas de la Mar t who wrote the Life
of Edivard II, and is often quoted by Rafin. He wrote in French, but has been fince tranflated into Latin y and frequently publilhed in EnglifJj by our ge-
neral Chroniclers. He treats very largely of that King's Sufferings.

(4) Walfingbam dates this Letter from Antwerp, July 16. See p. 140.

(5) He failed from Orrwell in Suffolk, July 16. Rymer % iFced. Tom. V. p. 65. Waif. p. 136. There was a Parliament held on Feb'ujry 3. in which
the Laity granted the King one half of all their Wool for the next Summer; at the fame time he took the whole of the Clergy, making them pay nine
Marks for every Sack of the beft Wool. Krigbton, Col. 2570.

(6) At this Interview, two Thrones being erected in the open Market-Place, one for the Emperor, the other for the King ; the Empercr took his Place
firrt, and King Edivard fai down by him. There were prefent four great Dukes, three Archbiihops, fix Bifhops, and thirty feven Earls ; and according
to the Heralds, feventeen thou fa nd Barons, Bannerets, Knights, and Squires. The Emperor ha%ing his Sceptre in his Right Hand, and the Globe in^Ms
Left, and a Knight of Almain holding over his Head a naked Swoid ; his Imperial Majerty did then ;ind there declare the Difloyaky, Fallehood, and vil-
lany of the King of France ; and thereupon defied him, and pronounced that he and his Adherents had forfeited the Protection and Favor of the Empire.
And then he conftituted King Edivard Vicar General of the Empire, granting unto him full and abfolute Power over all on this Side as far as Col»gn;
whereof he gave h.m his Imperial Charter, in fight of all lhat were prefent. Jof. Bamti't Life of Edward III. Kmgbtin, Col. 2571.

No. 21. Vol. I.





Vol. I.


' 339-


{ -

litrs a Peer

oj Enj lac -

Ibid. ~

Aft. Pub.

134. IS*.
1S1, 214.

He btrrtnvt
Monty from
all bar.ih.
Aft. Pub.
V. p. 101.




"the Peps' s


p. 128.


Edward en-
ter! Artois.

Philip "fferl

bint Batik.


//' accepts it,



Privileges, in order to encourage their Trade with England.
During this Interval, he proniifed the Marquifs of Juliers
to make him a Peer oi England, which he did afterwards,
by creating him Earl of Cambridge (1). His Power as
/ tear of the Empire, enabled him to creel the Earldom of
Guelders into a Duchy, and to grant the City of Cologne
divers Privileges, by which means he ftrengthened his Al-
liance with the Archbifnop. Among ail his Allies, the
Duke of Brabant gave him the moft Trouble. That
Prince fearing, the two Monarchs would be reconciled at
hiscoft, great Princes frequently neglecting the Intereftsof
the petty ones who have ferved them, was willing to fe-
cure himfelf, before he ingaged in the League. The more
diffident he was, the more Edward laboured to be allured
of his Affiftance. Belides the Money with which he pro-
(ufely fupplied him (2), he gave him hopes of the Ho-
nour of having, one day, for his Son-in-law the Duke
of Cornwal, prefumptive Heir of the Crown of England.
Morcver, to make him perfectly eafy, he was pleafed to
give it under his Hand, not to quit the Low-Countries till
the War was ended (•;).

But all thefe Affairs, though of great moment, were not
the fole Caufe of Edward's long Stay in Brabant. As his
Expence was exceflive (4), he endeavoured, during that
time, to borrow Money of all the foreign Princes. He
did not fcruple even to apply to private Perfons, and take
up fuch Sums as they were willing to lend, though never
fofmall: Nay, we find in the Collection of the Publick Atts,
that he pawned his Crown to the Archbifhop of Triers [for
fifty thoufand Florins.]

During Edward's Stay at Antwerp, his Queen was de-
livered there (5) of a Prince called Lionel. Here like-
wife he received a Letter from the Pope, reprefenting to
him in ftrong Terms, the Dangers he was expofing him-
felf to, by his Alliance with Lewis of Bavaria, who flood
excommunicated. At the fame time, he reproached him,
for undervaluing himfelf, in receiving from the pretended
Emperor, the Title of Vicar of the Empire, fo much
beneath him. But thefe Remonftrances made little Im-
preffion upon him. Though the Pope threatned to pro-
ceed to extraordinary Cenfures againft him, he chofe ra-
ther to run that hazard, than interrupt the Execution of
his Defigns.

Every thing being ready to open the Campain, which
had been retarded till September (6), Edward put himfelf
at the head of forty thoufand Men, and encamped be-
tween Marehienne and Doway. Then he marched (7) to-
wards le Cambrefis, and halted fome time before the
Walls of Cambray. Here he was informed, that Philip
was advancing with a formidable Army, to give him
Battle. As this War was immenfely expenfive, and it
was his Intereft to end it at once ; as foon as he re-
ceived this Intelligence, he palled the Schelde, in order
to meet his Enemy. A few days after, the two Ar-
mies being encamped pretty near one another, about Vi-
ronfojfe, Philip fent a Herald to offer him Battle, on
condition it lhould be on a Plain where there was no
Incumbrance. Edward accepted the Challenge, and left

him to appoint the Time and Place. The 2 2d of Oc- 1339.
tober was fixed for the Decifion of this famous Quarrel.
But whiift both Sides were preparing with equal ardour
for Battle, Philip was difcouraged by a Letter from Ro-
bert King of Naples. This Prince, who pafied for aPiilipr««i.
great Aftrologer, foretold him ill fuccefs, wherever he ^"™k s -
fought the Englijh. At leaft, this is what feveral Hi- ,f';"
ftorians affirm ; adding, that upon the Credit of this Pre- Froiflart
diction, Philip retired, not daring to venture a Battle. '" *" c ' **'
Others however maintain, with more likelihood, that this
Letter would not have induced him to take fuch a Step,
if the great Men, who attended him, had not checked
his Ardour by more prudent Counfels. It is faid, they
reprefented to him, that in the Battle which was going
to be fought, he hazarded no lefs than his Crown ;
whereas Edward ventured only Soldiers, moft of whom
were not his own ; and, upon this Remonftrance, he re-
folved, though with great reluctance, to give his Enemy
this fmall Advantage. When Edward faw there was no
likelihood of bringing Philip to a Battle, he marched into
Hainault. This is Froiffart's Account, who is accufed
by the French of being, on all occafions, too partial to
the Englijh. Kangis, a French Hiftorian, gives a quite
contrary Relation, by faying, Edward retired firft, not to
hazard a Battle. This is not the only Infiance of the
like Contradiction among the Hiftorians. It feems how-
ever, that on this occafion it is not likely, Edward, who^S^*
pafTed the Schelde to meet Philip, fhould retire for fear
of fighting. But Philip's Reafons for not venturing a
Battle are very ftrong. The Honour of a King or Ge-
neral, confifts not in fighting upon every opportunity,
but only at a proper Seafon ; and in not venturing the
lofs of a Kingdom without extreme Neceffity. Be this
as it will, the firft Campain ended without any Blood-
shed, except in Guienne, where the two Parties made
War upon one another. But as nothing very remark-
able happened, I fhall not flay to relate the Particu- ibid,
lars (8).

It was not poffible for Edward to return to England 1340.
fo foon as he defired, being detained in the Low-Countries £i*"A ^_
by a troublefome Affair, created by underhand Practices. ',}*%'£; \
The King of France, vexed to fee the Advantages hisFar.ce. *
Enemy reaped by his Alliance with the Flemings, found Aft. Pub.
means, by the help of his Emiflaries, to raife in the Cities ^ P t V 8 '
of vlanders a Scruple for taking up Arms againft their 1 1. 47.
Sovereign Lord. This Scruple, inflamed by the Eccle- Knighton,
fiafticks, moft of whom were in the Interefts of France^ Walun *'
had already made a deep impreffion on the Minds of the
People. Perhaps it would have caufed in Flanders fome
Revolution prejudicial to England, had not fames d'Ar-
teville found a fpeedy Remedy, by advifing Edward to
affume the Title of King of France. This Propofal be-
ing debated in the King's Council, it was approved as a
proper means to keep the Flemings in the League. And
indeed, Eilward reaped from it the Advantage he was
made to expect. Purfuant to this Advice, he ftiled
himfelf King of France, and quartered with his own
Arms the Flower-de-luces of France. He added this

(1) On the 7th of May, 14 Edward III. and gave him a Grant of twenty Pounds a Year, payable out of the Iflues of Cambridgcfhire, for the fupport of
that Dignity ; with a Penfion of one thoufand Pounds per Annum. But he jiever had any Summons to Parliament. He was Queen Phthppa\ Silter's Son. He
died without Male-Ifiue. Cotton 's Abridg. p. 23. Rymer's Feed. Tom. V. p. 279.

(2) He gave him July 1. 1337. fixty thoufand Pounds. See Rymer\ Feed. Tom. IV. p. 777.

(3) About this time the Earl of Huntingdon, was made Guardian or Lieutenant of Suffolk, and the Lord Robert Morlty of Norfolk ; which feems to be the firft

"Example of this kind. Knighton, Col. 2573 Young Prince Edward, who was Guardian of the Realm, held a Parliament at Northampton, July zb.

which granted out of every Town a Twentieth upon Goods amounting to the Value of twenty Shillings. They moreover granted the King all the Wool of
the Kingdom to be bought at a certain Price. An Aid was alfo given by the Clergy that held in Capite; and afterwards a Tenth for two Years by the Con-
vocation, which met Oclober 1. Knighton. Col. 2571. Polycbron. Rot. Clauf. 12 Edward III. P. M. 17. Dcrf.

(4) The Reader may judge of it by the following Account taken from Dr. Brady:

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