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dently repaired to Paris, imagining, what he had done raife thefe four Sieges, and draw all his Troops toge- ■'•
in England was ftill a Secret. But at his firft Audience^ ther, which were ftill inferior to the French. The two "J^'ftT"
he found what lie was to expect from the King; who Armies remained, the beft part of the Winter, encamp-,
plainly told him, he had no Pretenfions to Bretagne, ed near each other, but fo well intrenched, that neither 1, '' '
and reproached him for his Homage to the King of of the Leader (bowed any inclination to engage. The
England. Montfirt confefled he had been in England to Duke of Normandy was unwilling to run any hazardj
fee his Friends, but denied the Homage. But Philip becaufe havin doi what he wanted^ he was in hopes
being better informed than he imagined, commanded him of ftarving hii Enei i Edward < ired as little I ■•

tare a Battfej unlefs forced, igainft an Army mue.
> : ' >ng a i his own. Whilft thefe two Princes lay , ,
thus encamped* two Legates from Clement VI, the new Tr»,', ,..
Pope, had time to arrive, and negotiate between the two ,ln *'"''



Montfort

withdraws
fr i Paris.
Bretagne «/■
judged to
Charles de
Blois.
Froilftrt.
I. i.
c. 74—77.



not to ilir from Paris, and appointed a Day for the
Judgment of the Procefs. It was cafy for Montfirt to
fee, what danger both his Caufe and Perfon were in.
So, taking a hidden Refolution, he made his Efcape from
Paris, difguifed like a Merchant, and repaired to Bre-
tagne. This did not hinder in his Abfence the Deciiion
of the AfEtir, in favour of Charles de Blois, who was de-
clared Duke of Bretagne, and forthwith admitted to Ho-
mage. It is pretended, that in this Judgment 'the Peers



Crowns a Truce for three Years' (4), wherein all the v.',".
Allies on both tides were included. The' made ti e • .' .
two Kings Iikewife promife to lend Ambaffaddrs to Avg- '
run, to tr.at of a Peace by the Pope's Mediation (5).

Whilft Edward was employed in his Wars with jifairs cf



obferved not all the Formalities requilite in Caufe, of this France, the Scots improved that Diveilion to try to re- Sl ''■"■'■



nature, and that their Proceedings were not altogether
regular. As to the main of the Affair, though this De-
ciiion was directly contrary to That in the Cafe of the
Earl of Ariois, they pretended, the diverfity of the Cuf-
toms of the two Countries was the Reafon ; for in Bre-
tagne, Reprefentation took place, but was not received in



Since Edward quitted Scot.'./:,', a ■. p b.



Philip eon-
Jtjiatei the
Earldom of
Montfort.
Act. Pub.
V. p. 2S0,
199.



The Ear! of
Montfort.
taken Pri-
for.er.

His Wife
rianages hi s
jiffairs.
Froiflart.
]. I. c. 77.

She renews

the Ircaty
•witb Ed-

W'.irJ.

AX fob.
V. p. 331.



cover their Liberty.

King David's, Adherents had (rained great Advantages \
over Baliol, who commanded the Englijh Army, but had
not fufheient Forces to flop their Progrefs. Robert Stuart, Jim 1-539.
Regent of Scotland for King David, maintained, by his ' ''" "■'
Valour and Conduct, the Intcrefts of the young exiled ,.,.,,' , ,
Prince. He was bravely feconded by //' '•llmm Douglafs, Path in
with the Earl of Montfirt, for doing Homage to the King and fome other Lord*, who ftill retained an inviolable i* 3 ?"
Oi England, confifcated the Lands of Montfirt; but to Fidelity for their lawful Sovereign. Though a Body
make up this Lof., Edward gave him in England the commanded by Douglafs, received a fad Lofs, Robert
Earldom of Richmond. Shortly after, John, eldeft Son ftill continued to keep his ground. He even faw himfelf,

fhortly after, in a condition to befiege Perth, or St.
Johnjlon, the ftrongeft Place the Englijh had in Scotland.
The Siege lafted three Months, by reafon of the Be- Knighton,
fiegers great want of Ammunition.. But a feafonable
Supply from France enabled them at length to takt
Place. This Lo: ; obliged Baliol to quit the Center of the
Kingdom, and retire to the Borders* where he (heltered
himfelf, by means of the Places he had reiigned to the
Engajlj. The Truce conclude J before Taurnay, wheiein
Scotland was included, obliged Sit, art to lay down his
Arms for fome lime. But no fooner was the Truce and Staling
broken, on account of the Affairs of Bretagne, hut the "< ij+w
Scots re-affcmblcd and beiieged Sterlings of which they



Artois. Be this as it will, Philip being highly provoked



of Philip de ['alas, being commiffioned to execute the
Decree given in favour of Charles de Blois, entered Bre-
tagne, at the head of a powerful Army, and Montfort re-
tired to Nantes, where he was immediately befieged.
Quickly after, the City being taken, and Montfort made
Pnfoner, he was conducted to Paris, and committed to
the great Tower of the Louvre.

This Event would doubtlefs have ended the Quarrel
between the two Candidates ; but Margaret of Flan-
ders, Wife of 'John de Montfort, undertook to fupport
her Husband's Interefts, in fpite of the ill fituation of
his Affairs. She came to London with her Son, a Child
of four Years old, and renewed the Earl her Husband's



Alliance with Edward. By this new Treaty fhe pofi- became matters, after numberlefs Aflauks without any In-
tively engaged, to put into the hands of the Englijl) all termiffion.



1342.
Fan rard
Sendi Robert

d' Artui^ in-
t-< Bretagne.
Ad. Pub.
V. p. 291,

Knighton.

m h ft he is
killed.



Edw .1 1 gees

■ I'

Bj

an 1 hi t e ps

fa ■ 1 -e- .

Ail. Pub.

V. p. 304,

3 ••': •

Kr:i; iiton.
Wajfing-



the place., ftill in her power ; and to be better allured of
the Aflifrance of England, concluded a Marriage be-
tween her Son, and one of Edward's Daughters, and
left the young Prince at the Englijh Court, to be edu-
cated, or rather to be an Hoftage. This Treaty pro-
curing Edward an entrance into Bretagne, and by that
means, an opportunity of attacking Philip from that
quarter, he forthwith difpatched Robert d' Artois thi-
ther (1). Robert quickly became matter of Pannes, and
then ordered Renncs to be befieged. Whilft his Troops
were employed in the Siege, the Heads of the contrary
Tarty, knowing he ftaid at Vanmes with a few Troops,
inverted the Town, and carried it by Storm. Robert
being mortally wounded, with great difficulty cfcaped to
Hennebond, where he died of his Wounds. Edward re-
ceived the News of his Death with grief. He fwore to
revenge it; and kept his Oath but too punctually. Ro-
bert eP Artois's Expedition into Bretagne, gave Philip oc-
cafion to complain, that Edward had violated the Truce,
and to be even with him, he caufed Hofiilities to be re-
newed in Guienne. Thus the two Monarchs prepared a-
gain for War, by mutually accufing one another of break-
ing the Truce.

The Earl of Northampton (2), who had taken the
Command of the Englijh Troops in Bretagne, after the
Death of Robert cT Artois, was unable to make any Pro-
grefs with fo fmall an Army. Mean time, it was of
great moment to Edward, to become mailer of that
Duchy. And therefore he refolved to go thither in Per-
fon with more Forces (3). Upon his Arrival, he befieged
at once, Nantes, Rennes, Vannes, and Guingamp. Philip



This Progrefs convincing Edward of his miftahe, in Edwaril
imagining that Kingdom was difabled from giving I
any Trouble, he refolvcd to in\ ade it once more i .
and Land. To t! at purpofe, he repaired to the Fron- ,
tiers (6), where he waited for his Fleet, which was to A<%
join him at N vcajlle. But a violent Storm, which lafted )' p ' '°>
feveral days, rendered his Ships unferviceable for the rei'ryV.f, ;
of that Year. This ftd Accident hindered his entring/J
Scotland, as it deprived him of the Provifions and Am-



Se.i

I



munition, on board his Fleer. He could not expefl to Buchan.
find any in the Enemy's Country, becaufe the Scots
themfelves deftroyed them, to deprive his Army of the
means of fubfifting. However, their Ignorance of his
State freed him from his prefent Difficulties. As they
faw themfelves much interior to that Prince, wh "at-
ned their Country with utter Defelation, they humbly
fued for a Truce, which the" thought themfelves very
happy in obtaining. Edward took care not to refufe it; Ilrp-ants
kit taking advantage of their Terror, would grant it ' ' ' J
only upon tins condition; That they fliould own him A "i ' Pul) _
for Sovereign of Scotland, and renounce their Allegiance v. r. ; oj.
to King David, in cafe that Prince came not in Perfon ^'"t : "' n »
into that Kingdom before May next enfuing, w : th an
Army ftrong enough to give Battle. This Condition
put the King of France under a Neceffity of aflifting his
Ally, better than he had hitherto done, for fear of be-
ing deprived of the Advantages, procured by the frequent
Di\erlions of the Scots. Wherefore, he furnih.ed KingDiridni,
David with Men and Money, and fent him into Scot- ■■-"' "
land (7), where he levied a very conquerable Army, |^^1 f
confuting, as it is faid, of fixty thoufand Men, Scots,!



■ C4 73'
Buchon*

(1) Wiih William de Rohun Earl of Nortbamflm, Hugh Ccurtncy Ear] of Deitonjhire, and the Lord S-'aJ/irJ, William ii .\f ntaetiti Eirl of Sdlisbirj, Re- '• 9-

l-rt Je Utfc-rd, Esil of fin folk, Sec. JroijJ'att. 1. i. c 96.- Theic Foroes were lint into Bretagne, by Advice of a Parliament, or gieat Council, hetfat

/; eftminRer about the End of April. Sot. Clauj. 16 E<iw. III. M. 38. Dcrf.

lz) Wiiliam de B<- tun.

(3) He went thither about the beginnine of Othber. See Rimers Feed. Tom. 5. p. 34.2.

(5.) Rafin by miftake (ays/or nvi. It was to be from the beginning of February till the Michaelmas enfuing: And from that time it wis to be till the Si:-
chaelaiai come three Years. See Rymer's Fad. Tom. 5. p. 357, 367. H'n/f. p. 159. This Truce was frgncJ "famiarj 19, 1343.

( ) King Edward returned to England, March 2. and landed at Wcym uth. Rymer's Feed. Tom. c. p. 357.

(6) He came to Tiri about the beginning of September, and from thence marched loon after to Berttlicti Fnijj'art. 1. 1. c. 70.

(- He landedi n Juneihz 3d at Innerbervey in Scotland. Bu.ban. 1. 9.



No. XXII. Vol. I.



SO



French,



422
1343-

takes Dur-
ham, and
retired •
Knighton.



>x repuljcdat
Werk.



lie H1STO RT of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



Edward
•vijlts the
Count ejs of
Salisbury.
Froiilart.
1.1. c.Si.



He concludes
a Truce for
ttuo Years
ivlth David.
Acti Pub.
V. p. 279.



Edward calls
a Parlia-
ment.

Knighton.



Statute of
Proviibrs.



Aft. Pub.

v - P- 377;

382,355.

Knighton.



lb. p. 392.



French, Danes, and Korivegians. With thefe Troops lie
marched towards the Frontiers of England, and pene-
trated as far as Durham, which he beiieged. In a few
days, he took the City, and put all the Inhabitants to
the fword. He would have proceeded, but, upon Ad-
vice that Edward was haffening to give him Battle, he
refolved to retire; his Generals reprefenting to him, that
he could not ftay any longer in England, without ex-
pofing himfelf to the hazard of a Battle, which might
a fecond time endanger his Kingdom. Whilft he was
marching back to Scotland, the Garrifon of Werk Caftle,
belonging to the Counted of Salisbury, falling upon Come
of his Troops that ftayed behind, he was fo incenfed,
that he refolved to take the Caftle. He ftormed it fe-
veral times, but was bravely repnlfed by the Countefs's
People, who was herfelf in the Place. This Refiftancc,
and the News of Edward's Approach, made him defift.
He could not retire more feafonably, fince Edwardczme
that very day to the Cattle. He paid a Vifit to the
Countefs of Salisbury (1), which has given occafion to
fome Hiftorians to fay, he fell defperately in Love with
her. It would be eafy to confute what they ground lef-ly
advance ; but as his Love, whether true or falfe, pro-
duced no remarkable Event, it will be nc-edlefs to fay any
thing of it. Next day, Edward continued his march in
queft of the Enemy, but being informed, the Scots were
retired to Gcdeour's (2) Foreft, he ceafed his Purfuit. As
his Affairs were not yet in a good pofture in Scotland,
and this War was very unfeafonable, with regard to the
meafures he was to take with France, he fent David an
offer of a two Years Truce, which was accepted with
Philip's Confent. This Truce helped the King of Scot-
land to fix himfelf more firmly in his Throne, and gave
the King of England time to think of his other Affairs.

Edward's Thoughts for many Years were fo wholly
engrofTed by Military Affairs, that he had not been able
to find time to redrefs feveral Grievances complained of
by the People, and which highly deferved a particular At-
tention. When the Truce with France and Scotland
afforded him fome Refpite, he called a Parliament (3)
to confult of means, to fecure the Welfare and Tran-
quility of the Nation. During this Seffions, which Iafted
good part of the Winter, the Parliament made it their
chief Bufinefs to enact divers Regulations, very benefi-
cial to the People, and not oppoltd by the King. On
the contrary, Edward very folemnly confirmed all the
Liberties contained in the Magna Charta ; fhowing there-
by, .that he had no lefs at heart the Good of his People,
than his own, or that of his Succeffors. Among the fe-
veral Acts parTed in this Parliament, one of the mod
important was the Statute -of Provifors, that is, an Act
againft thofe who brought Provilions from the Court of
Rome for Benefices. The former Popes very much a-
bufed the Power they a/Turned, to difpofe of the Bene-
fices of the Kingdom. Nay, without flaying till they
were vacant, they frequently conferred them on Perfons,
who were to take poffeffion upon the death of the pre-
fent Incumbents, which raifed loud Complaints from the
Patrons. Clement VI, proceeding, in this refpecl, far-
ther than any of his Predeceffors, the Parliament was
forced to complain of it to him, but to manner of pur-
pofe. Inftead of reforming this Abufe, which was the
more intolerable, as all the Benefices were beftowed upon
Foreigners, the Pope exhorted the King in a Letter, to
withdraw the Complaints againft the Provifions, which,
in his Opinion, were an undeniable Prerogative of the
Holy-See. This Letter fhowing, it was in vain to expect
any Redrefs from the Pope, the Parliament refolved to
provide againft this Evil by their own Authority. To that
end, the fore-mentioned Statute was parTed, whereby it
was Death (4) for any Perfon, to bring for the future, the
like Provifions into the Kingdom. Though this Statute
extremely difpleafed the Pope, he thought fit to be lilent,
being informed that the King and Parliament were re-
folved to fupport it, and contemn his Cenfures, in Cafe
he had recourle to them. However, not to fuffer his pre-
tended Right to be entirely loft, he feigned to take no
notice of the Statute. But although he afterwards grant-
ed, from time to time, feveral Provifions, it was with
fuch Caution, that the Abufe was confiderably leffencd
during this whole Reign. On the other hand, the King,



who had no mind to break entirely with the Court of 1343.
Rome, was content with leaving tfte Statute in force,
without a rigorous Execution. But in procefs of time',
under Edward's Succeffors, the Popes returning to their
former Courfes, there was a neceflity frequently to renew
this Statute, which was called the Statute of Praemunire,
containing, belides the Prohibition of Provifions, feveral
other Cafes concerning the Difputes with the Popes (5).

In this Parliament the King created Edward his eldeft Prim Ed-
Son, Prince of Wales, and inverted him with a Coronet, ward cr "" al
and a Ring of Gold: This Prince was then thirteen wife
Years old, and gave great hopes of what he would one
day prove.

Whilft Edivard feemed wholly employed with do- Edward/h-j-
meftick, he neglected not foreign, Affairs. His Mind^;^ ;i
was continually on the rack, to find means to renew France,
the War with France, the moment the Truce was ex-
pired. He appeared however inclinable to Peace, and
continued, at the Court of Rome, Negotiations, which
daily met with frefh Obftacles. But, whether his View
was only to amufe his Enemy by thefe Negotiations,
or he expected them to be unfucceisful, he neglected not
his Preparations for War. He had found fo little Ad- A& - p " b '
vantage in his Alliances with the Princes of Germany, V ' p " 409 '
and the Lbxo-Countries, who had caufed him to confume
fuch immenfe Sums to no purpofe, that he refolved to
take another Courfe. To that end, he difpatched into
the Low-Countries and Germany, Agents, with Power to
treat with all forts of Perfons, that were willing to fup-
ply him with Men or Money. Belides that all thefe
Aids, when drawn together, would produce the fame
Effect with much lefs Expence, he hoped to be able to
difpofe of his Troops more abfolutely, than he had done
thofe of the Princes. Moreover, his aim was to render
Philip's intrigues more difficult, whereby he wat perpetu-
ally endeavouring to corrupt his Allies. For the better
accomplifhing his Dcfign, and to draw into his Kingdom
Multitudes of foreign Lords, with whom he might in
Perfon negotiate, he bethought himfelf of an Expedient,
which could not fail of Succefs, becaufe it was entirely
agreeable to the Tafte of that Age. He ordered Tour- tbcVraHat
naments to be publifhed, and gave an honorable Reception IZ'tT'
to all Perfons of Distinction, that were pleafed to be Waiting,
prefent, carefling them in fuch a manner, that they could
never fufficiently admire his Politenefs, Magnificence,
and Liberality. To render thefe Entertainments the <n<,R -» m '
more folemn, and withal to free himfelf from the Cere- ™'
monies, to which the Difference of Rank and Conditi-
on would have obliged him, he caufed a circular Hall of
Boards to be run up at Wind/or, two hundred foot in
Diameter. There it was that he feafted (6) all theD'A"'/
Knights at one Table, which was called the Round ,u r """
Table, in memory of the great Arthur, who, as it is "*
pretended, inftituted an Order of Knighthood by that
Name. Next Year he caufed a more folid Building to be
erected, that he might continue yearly the fame Diverfi-
011s. During that time, he treated with thefe feveral
Lords about the Aids wherewith each could furnifh him,
in proportion to his Forces. The Collection of the Pub-
lick Ails, is full o( the Treaties with private Perfons,
managed either by himfelf, or his Agents. Philip could
not fee without Jealoufy, Spaniards, Italians, Germans,
Flemings, and Frenchmen themfelves, flock to England to
aflift at the Tournaments. He fufpected fome hidden Philip pj,.
defign in thefe Entertainments, and to break Edward's 9r?" ,ht
meafures, caufed the like to be publifhed in his Domini- wlVmg.
ons (7). This way of oppofing his Enemy was in it-
felf juft and honorable ; but foon after he ufed another
means that was not fo generally approved, and was at-
tended with great Confequences. It is affirmed, that ha- Ik heheads
ving drawn to Paris, under colour of a Tournament,^?g'' / - z ; c ' i5
Oliver de Cliffm, and ten or twelve other Lords of Bre- FroiflS
tagne, who attended Charles de Blois, he commanded 1- »■ e. 106.
their Heads to be cut off, without any Formality of Juf- y^' p " b '
tice. But it appears by a Letter from Edward to the
Pope upon this occafion, that Philip did not allure thefe
Lords to Paris, but apprehended them in Bretagne. As Explanation
this Action was the Caufe of breaking the Truce, it will £'/"' ^'
be neceffary to explain it ; for there is no other way
of knowing who was Author of the Rupture. Oliver de
C/iffim a Lord of Bretagne, having ferved Charles de Blots






Jair.



(1) Her name was J tin. She wn Sifter to John Plantagenet, Earl of Kent, and DaughtcT of Edmund late Earl of Kent, King Edward's Uncle.
jf. Barnes, p. 2c I .

(2) So it is called by Trwjfart. 1. I. c. Si. But by our Englljh Hiftorians, Ycdwertb. Sec Tyrrell. Vol. 3. p. 465.

(3) This Parliament met April 23. Rot. Part. 1 7 Edw. HI. N. 7, 8/9. There was another Parliament held this Year, but when and where is not
mentioned. See Nctltta Partiarnentai:

(4) The Act makes it not Death ; but in cafe any Perfon was convicted, he was to abide in Prifon till he had made Fine and Ranfom to the King at his
Will, and Satisfaction to the Party that ihoulil Icel himfelf aggrieved ; and likewife find fufficient .Surety not to do [he like in time to come. ic. Edit.: III.
See the Statutes.

(5) See the Notes in the State of the Church at the End of the Reign of Richard II.

(6) Thefe Feaftings began on January I. Waif.

(7/ And ilfo gave his SubjeiU fret ieart w tut down Timber in his Fwefts, and build Ships that he might be abl» to beat the Englifj at Sea. Wall. p. 16+.

during.



Book X.



ii. E D W A R D 111.



•343-



Waiting.

Aa. Pub.
v.p.453.



»344-

Edward
fends IVord
to tbe King
cf France
that the
Truce is
i, .

Act. Pub.
V. p. 448,
4.50.



tie fends a
Defiance to
Philip.
Jl>. p. 449.



during the War, was taken Prifoner by Edward, who
having probably gained him, confentcd he fhould be ex-
changed for an Englijhman (1). Whether Philip had
Proof of his having changed Sides, or only fulpected it,
he ordered him to be apprehended in Bretagne, with ten
<? r twelve Lords and Gentlemen, and conducted to Paris,
where their Heads were {truck off. I believe I may ven-
ture to affirm, thefe Lords were apprehended in Bretagne,
becaufe the Pope in his Anfwer to Edward's Letter, and
in his vindication of Philip, to the utmoft of his Power,
laid not a word tending to the contrary. But perhaps
Iodic of thefe Lords or Gentlemen were feized at Paris,
and the reft in Brctagne, by Order of the King. What



4M

'344.



tors Patent, either to recover his Eftate, or give him an
Equivalent in France or England. Shortly after, he pub-
lished a Manifefto, concerning all the Injuria received
from Philip de Vakis. After fetting forth, be exhorted
the French to own him for Sovereign, promifing to ex-
empt them from Taxes, and govern them according to
the Laws and Cuftoms obferveJ in France, under St.
Lewis his Predeceffor. He forgot not to write to tiie Aft. Pub.
Pope, to inform him of his Rcafons to renew the War. V- P-+53>
But the Pope's Anfwer plainly fhowed him to be a partial' 1 ' 5 "
Mediator. He not only excufed Philip's Proceedings a-
gainft the Lords of Bretagne, and charged Edward with
being the firft Violator of the Truce, but threatned alfo



makes it fo difficult to judge rightly of this Action of to exert his Apoftolick Authority againft him. This



Tl:e Ear! of
Derby begins
tbe VFar in
Guienne.
FroilTart.
1. 1. c. 107.
Walling.
Edward re-
<ei r ues tbe
Homage of
Montfort
and Har-
court.
Argentre.
A&. Pnb.
V.p.4,5*,
460, 465.
Froillkrt.
1. i.e. 118.
Buchanan.



Philip's, is, that according to Froiffart, Argentre, and all
the French Hiftorians, thefe Lords had all along efpoufed
the Quarrel of Charles de Blois, and yet Edward in his
Letter to the Pope, calls them his Adherents (2). They
muft therefore have changed Sides, either publickly or
privately, after the Truce, and this is difficult to know
precifely. It feems however, Edward would have had
110 reafon to concern himfelf fo much in this Affair, if
thefe Lords had only been his private Adherents, whilft
outwardly they continued all along attached to the Inte-
refts of France. Tlu's, added to Edward's Letter to the
Pope, feems to prove at leaft, fome of thefe Lords openly
declared for the Earl of Montfort. Upon this Suppofition,
there is no doubt that Philip violated the Truce, in com-
manding them to be feized in Brctagne. But, on the
other hand, if thefe Lords are fuppofed to have been
only Edward's fecret Friends fince the Conclufion of the
Truce, the two following Queftions may be put. Firft,
whether Philip had a Right to caufe them to be feized
in Bretagne, during the Truce ? Secondly, whether as
Sovereign Lord of Brctagne, he might exercife fuch a
Power over thefe Lords, efpccially as the putting them to
Death in (o illegal a manner, was rather a Murder than
an Act of Juftice ? Be this as it will, Edward pretend-
ed that by this Action the Truce was violated, and Phi-
lip maintained, that Edward ufed this wrong pretence to
break it.

Edward was fo enraged at the tragical Death of the
Lords of Bretagne, that he was going to behead the Bre-
tagne Prifoners of Philip's Party, which were in his Pow-
er. But upon the Remonftrances of Henry of Lancajler,
he altered his Refolution. However, he fent for Henry
de Leon, one of the Prifoners, and told him with great



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 178 of 360)