M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Emotion, that though the Death of his Countrymen be-
headed at Paris, was a fufficient Reafon to ferve him in
the fame kind, he was unwilling to follow fo bad an
Example, or to revenge himfelf on the innocent, but
intended to punifh the Author himfelf of that Barbarity.
Then he faid, though he might demand of him a Ran-
fom of thirty or forty thoufand Crowns, he would re-
leafe him for ten thoufand, on condition he would go in
his Name and defy Philip, and declare to him, that hav-
ing violated the Truce by this bafe Action, he muft pre-
pare for War.

Thefe were not fruitlefs Menaces. Edward, in his
Refolution to pufh the War with more vigour than ever,
ordered a Commiffion to be drawn up, conftituting the
Earl of Northampton his Lieutenant-General in France;
commanding him at the fame time to defy Philip, and
declare War againft him by Sea and Land. Shortly af-
ter he fent into Guienne, Henry of Lancajler Earl of
Derby (3), to begin Hoftilitie , till he fhould be able to
go thither himfelf, defigning to exert himfelf molt in that
Province. Mean time, he fent for John de Montfort into
England, who had made liis efcape from Paris, and re-
ceived his Homage for Bretagne. He received likewife
the Homage of Jeoffrey de Harcourt (4), for his Lands in
Normandy confifcated by Philip j and promifed by Let-

was fufficient to convince Edward, he could expect no
Favour from the Pope. Accordingly he addrcfled him-
felf to him no more, but only for Form fake, and to
keep a Decorum (5).

Whilft thefe things were tranfacting, Philip was try- fsr.
ing to difmgagc the Flemings from the Intereft of Eng- Edward g-.es
gland. Edivard hearing of thefe Practices, fuddenly pallid "" oF1 - ,n * : '-
into Flanders (6), where he ftayed but three Weeks. Jj/' 4?2 '
At his Return, he pretended to have prevented the Mif-
chiefs, he had reafon to fear from the Inconftancv of the
Flemings. But the Sequel fhowed, he had flattered him-
felf too much, or the Flemings had deceived him ; fincc it
is certain they never more gave him any Affiftance.

Mean time the Earl of Derby made a confideiable Pro- Pngnfi tf"
grefs in Guienne, where he carried by Storm the Town '■!" r: " rl °J
of Bcrgerac, which was given up to be plundered (7). f, *',.
Hiftory ought not to omit making honorable mention of c
the Generofity of that General, feldom imitated by ,f bit.
thofe of our Days. Whilft the Engli/h were bufy in Walling,
plundering the Town, a Weljh Knight chanced to light
upon the Receiver's Office. He found there fuch a Quan-
tity of Money, that he thought himfelf obliged to acquaint
his General with it, imagining fo great a Booty naturally
belonged to him. But he was agreeably furprized, when
the Earl told him with a pleafant Countenance, that he
wifhed him Joy of his good fortune, and did not make
his word to depend upon the Greatnefs or Smallnefs of
the thing promifed (8).

This Year the Scots, at the Inftigation of the King of Walfiaj.
France, made an Inroad upon the Borders of England.
but were repulfed by Edward's Troops in the northern

John de Montfort, who took the Title of Duke of Knighton.
Bretagne, died in September, leaving to the King of England
the Guardianfhip of his Son, and to Alargaret his Du-
chefs the Management of a very important War (o).

Whilft thefe things paffed, Edward loft the Affiftance , u 6
of a powerful Ally, by the Death of James d' Arteville, The' Duke of
who was torn in pieces bv the Flemings ( 1 o). His Death Norrni >ndy
entirely changing the face of Affairs in the Low-Conn- 7ro"Sf«
tries, it was by no means proper to attack France from Guienne.
that quarter. For this reafon Edward refolved to carry Froiffart -
the brunt of the War into Guienne. The Duke of Nor- ii,. C ' "^
mandy had now entered that Province, at the head of fixty
thoufand Men (11), to ftop the Progrefs of the Earl of
Derby, and compleat the Conqueft thereof. Upon the
Approach of this formidable Army, the Earl left the
Field, and retired to Bourdeaux. His Retreat givincr the
Duke of Normandy an opportunity of retaking feveral
Places, he was at length engaged in the Siege of the
Caftle of Aiguilhn, feated upon the Confluence of the
Gironne and Lot. This Siege was very remarkable, as The fam-us
well for the vigorous Aifaults of the Befiegers, who for a S "£"/Ai-
whole Week, ftormed thf Town three times a day, as u^"'
for the brave Defence of the Befieged, who were not to be
difcouraged by fo frequent Aflaults. To relieve thefe brave
Men, Edivard haftened his Preprrations, determining to go
in Perfon, and oppofe the Duke oi Normandy s Proffref>( 1 1 1,


(1) He was exchanged for the Lord Stafford. Froiff. 1. i. c. 104.

(2) Sfuorundam ncbilium, n-bis Adbeerentium, captotum in Britannia. Rymcrs Ford. V. p. 4C3.

(3) Along with him was fent Richard Fitz-Alan Earl of Arundel, as joint Lieutenant ; and alfo Laurence Ha/linrs Earl of Pembroke, John de fere Earl of
Oxford, the Lord Staff. rd, Sir Walter Manny, lee. together with three hundred Knights and Efgufres, fix hundred Men at Arms, and two tLoufand Ar^hcn
They landed at Baycnne, June 6. Froiffait.l. I. c. 107. Knighton, IValfmg.

(4) Brother of the Count of Harc.urt : He was a very confiderable Nobleman, Lord of St. Sauz-eur le VScomptc, and feveral other Towns in Normandy. He
was banilhed from France, upon account of fome Jealoufy conceived of him by King Philip. Froiffart. 1. 1. c. 11S.

(5) This Year a Parliament met at rVeffminfier, June 7. which granted the King a Tenth for three Years. And the Commons granted the King, bo-
fides, Two Fifteenths of the Commonalty of the Land ; and two Tenths of the Cities and Burroughs. After which the Commons granted another Fift-enth.
Rot. Pari. iS Ee%>. III. N. 5.- — 10. Waif. p. 164.

(6) He failed from Sandwich, July 3. and came back the 26th. Ryrer's Faed. Tom. 5. p. 472, 474.

(7) Alter this they took the Towns of Beaumont, Le Lac, and Manageret ; 2nd attacked the Caftle of Peligren ; but before it could be token the GarriforJ
rallying out, carried the Earl of Oxford away Prifoner. Soon alter, on Augufi 10. the EngUJh defeated the Count de Laille, who was befieging Auberxhc, in'
which Action feven thoufand of the French were flain. Froiffart. 1. I. c. 109^—117. Knighton. Col. 2585.

(S) Mr. Tyrret thinks it molt probable, that this happened at the taking of Monflrevtl it& Bcnnin : Vol. 3. p. c.32. but it might have been at the taking of
Bcrgerac; il, as Kmgbton relates, that Town was lb full of Riches, that the Earl cf Derby got there a Pipe full of Gold. Col. 2585.

(9) This Year, in July, died the famous Adam de Orleton Bilhop of Wincheftcr, fo often mentioned. H'alf. p. 165.'

(10) He had formed a Project, in order to raile his Family, utterly to d'lir-.Herit Levis Earl of Flafders, and to put the Government of it into the Hands of
Ihe King of England ; on condit on he would beftow it upon Prince Edto trd his Sen, with the Title of Duke. ' Ace -rdingly, King Edivard went over abou*
Midfummer, to Sluys for that purpole. But the Populace dilliking A' : t-//.''s Propofal, one of them llew him outright. Froiffart, '.. 1. c. 1 la.

(n) Froiffart lays, he had with him about one hundred thoufand Men. c. 122.

(12) But firft held a great Council at TVeJiminJier, where, by their Advice, he took into his hands all the Pevenues in Eng land enioyed by alien Ecclefiafticks "
and the Caldinals of the Front Faction. Knighton Col. 2585. Rymer'i Feed: Tom. 5. p. 490,


42 4


Vol. I.


dward >»:-
barks for
Ad. Pub.

V. P . 5 , 7 .

1. i. c. 124
Knj' luon.

Every tlwng being ready for his Departure, he came to
Southampton, bringing with him the Prince of Wales
his eldeft Son, about fix teen Years o!d (1 ), who was to
make his firft Campaign. Before the Imbrication of the
Troops, he aflembled his principal Officers, and " ex-
" horted them fo to behave, as fhould rentier them wor-
" thy of his Eftecrh, and the Rewards lie defigned for
" thofe that difcharged their Duty. He declared his Inten-
" tion was to fend back his Ships the moment he arrived in
*' Guienne, and therefore it would be in vain to hope to
" fee their own Country again, unlefs they returned vic-
" torious. He added, if any Man's Heart failed him,
" he need only fpeak freely, and he mould inftantly have
'' his Leave to ftay behind. " This Speech being fpread
in the Annv, the Soldiers cried out with one voice, they
were ready to follow their King wherever he was pleafed
to lead them. So fudden and univerfal a Refolution, in-
fpiring him with great hopes, he imbarked his Troops
H- puts back with defign to fail for Guienne : But the Wind proving
contrary, he was forceed to put back twice (2). Gecjfry
de Har court, who attended him, madeufeof this Juncture
to perfwade him to land in Normandy, a very plentilul
Country, which had been long exempted from the Cala-
1 mities of War. Edward following his Advice, landed at
la Hague in le Cotentin, where he was by no means ex-
petted (3).

The moment he fet foot on Shore, he knighted the
• Prince of Wales his Son, and feveral other young
Lords (4), after which, he headed his Army, coniifting
of thirty thoufand Foot, and two thoufand five hundred
Men at Arms. He divided his Troops into three Bodies,
who marched feparately in the Day, but commonly re-
joined in the Evening, in order to encamp all together.
"tlxCnat" '" tneir ^'" : rnarc ' ics '> tne " revenged in a terrible man-
Mezerji. ner, the death of the Lords beheaded at Paris. Valogne,
Froiirart. St. L:, Carentan, Harflcur, were the firft Towns that

I2C. C *" 5 ' felt tlltt FU, '>' ° f tlle E "i U f" AmiS - Ral P h EaH ° f £ ">

Knighton. Conftable of France, then at Caw, offering to oppofe the
Englijh, with the Militia of the Country, ferved only,


Aft. Pub.
V. p. 522.

He lands !.

He knights

tie Prince 5,
lb. p. 5

ftich a Paffage, in the Face of the Enemy, for an Army 1 547,
which cannot enlarge its Front beyond the breadth of the
Ford, and is obliged to march through the Water, and
at the fame time handle their Arms. But all this was
not capable of flopping the EngliJ)?, who, in the Sight
of their King, Witnefi of all their Adtions marched
through all thefe Obftacles, as to a certain Victory. It
was not poflible for the French to fuflain fo furious an
Attack. After fome endeavours to repulfe the Englijh,
they were forced to abandon that important Paflage,
through whicli Edward immediately marched his whole
Army. The fame Evening (6) he encamped at Crejfy,
whilft Philip palTed the Somme at Abbeville, but three-
Leagues from thence.

Edward feeing himfelf fo clofely purfued, and per- He flays for
ceiving it would be impoffible to avoid fighting, flopped Philip at
fhort to expect his Enemies, and chofe an advantageous F "|]fj"
piece of Ground, where he drew up his Army. Philip 1. ,. c . s - 9 ,
being perfuaded, that Edward's Retreat was the effect of '3^ & c-
his Fear, did not queftion, if he could but come up with n ' E ""
him, he fhould quickly vanquifh him. Accordingly, not
to afford him time to retire any further, he marched next
day from Abbeville with defign to attack him. The
Englijh Army was divided into three Bodies, of which
the Prince of Wales commanded the firft (7). The fc-
cond was led by the Earls of Northampton and Arundel (8)
and the Lord Rofs. The King kept at fome diftance
with the third (9), to affift thofe that fhould want it.
Philip could not come in fight of the Enemy till tlu"ee Battle „f
in the Afternoon, having marched that Day three Leagues, C^ffy-
fo that it was almoft four o' Clock when the Battle be- J^*
gan. He had likewife divided his Army (10) into three Knig.hr.on.
Bodies, the firft whereof confifted of Genoefe (11), under Walling.
the Command of Antonio Doria, and Carolo Grimaldi.
As the chief Strength of his Infantry lay in thefe Troops,
he would have them charge firft. juft as the Battle was
going to begin, a great and fudden Rain flackening the
Strings of the Genoefe Crofs-Bows, they became unfer-
viceable. However, as they were now too far advanced,


Ad Murim.




Edward re-
tires ir.co
1. j . c. 121

Th forces a
Pafs defend-

J.!, c. 129.

by his being defeated and made Prifoner, for a happy they faw themfelves expofed to a Shower of Englijh Ar-
rows, which made them give ground. Charles Earl of
Alenfo/i, the King's Brother, who fupported them with a
great Body of Horfe, feeing them give way, without
knowing the Caufe, imagined there was Treachery, and
immediately ordered the Horfe to fall upon them, by
which rafh Aclion he began to put the French Army in
Diforder(i 2). Mean time, the Earl never troubling himfelf 72,, Bcdj .
about the Genoefe, nor minding what palled behind him, commanded
S, me and the Oyfe. Had this Project fucceeded, the En- attacked the firft Body of the Englijh, commanded by ^^ r ° n '
glijh Army would have been unavoidably ruined. But the Prince of Wales, and was received with a Firmnefs
Edward perceiving his Intent, though fomewhat of the he little expeded. He continued however his Endeavours,
lateft, decamped from Poiffi, in order to pafs the Somme, which only caufed him to lofe his Life, valiantly fighting,
and take Shelter in Ponthicu ; knowing his Enemy was By his Death the Body he commanded began by degrees
advancing with an Army of a hundred thoufand Men. to ftagger, and as they could not be fpeedily fupported,

by reafon of the Diforder caufed by themfelves among thi

Prefage of their future Victories. After the defeat of the
Conftable, Edward continued his march through the
Bifhopricks of Lificux and Evrcaux; burning and plun-
" dering whatever came in his way. He halted not till he
arrived at Poijji, where he flayed fome Days to pro-
voke Philip to engage, by fending a Herald to him with
a Defiance, which was not accepted. Philip had ano-
ther defign, and that was to inclofe him between the

He marched a good way down the Somme, without find
ing any paflage. At laft, he was fo happy as to difcover
the Ford of Blanchetaque, by means of a Prifoner (5), who
was perfectly acquainted with the Country. Though
this Difcovery feemed at firft a great Advantage, he
quickly found the difficulties of his Retreat were not
much leflened. Philip forefeeing, the Enemy might take
that Rout to retire, detached Gondemar du Fay with a
Body of twelve thoufand Men to guard that Ford, on
which depended the Succefs of his Deligns. Edtvard faw
himfelf therefore under a Neceffity, either of forcing the
Paflage, or fighting with great difadvantage his Enemy,
who was clofely purfuing him. Being come to a Refo-
lution, he ordered his Troops to advance, who, being ani-
mated by the Prefence of their King, caft themfelves
into the River with fuch Intrepidity, that they began to
vanquifh their Enemies before they came to the Charge.
One may eafily imagine the difficulties which occur in


Genoefe Troops, were at length put to Flight.

The Prince of Jl'ales having fo great an Advantage
in this firft Onfet, Philip ordered a numerous Body of
Horfe to advance, to repair the diforder caufed by the
Defeat of the firft. Thus the French had always the
Superiority of Number, though the Englijh ftill kept
their Ground. In all appearance the young Prince,
who fought with an heroic Courage, determined to con-
quer or dye, would have been overpowered by Numbers,
if the Earls of Northampton and Arundel had not come
to his Relief. Their Approach drew thither more French
Troops, the fmall extent of the P'ield not permitting the
two Armies to engage all at once. So the Fight was
very obftinate. The Valour of the Prince of Wales, The p r incr
which filled the Englijh Generals with Admiration, made ?f Wales
them at the fame time extremely uneafy with regard to %£^
his Perfon, becaufe of the fuperior Number of the Ene- FroilTart.

1. 1. c. I3S»

(i) He was but thirteen Year;, and a Month old.

(2) He lit Sail July 4, but was driven lack on the Coafi of Cornwal. Froif. 1. 1. c. 124. Waif, p. 166. His Army confiftedof four thi
Men at Aims, ten thoufand Archers, twelve th 11 fan : 1/ i f/b Footmen, and fix thoufand Irifh. Bolides great Numbers of the chief Nobility, whole Names
lie in FroiJ/art. 1. 1. c. 124. Knighton fays he had one thoufand fix hundred Ships, great and fmall. Col. 25S5.

(3) This he might do by way of Retaliation, foi a Project formed by the People of that Country and their Duke to ccme and invade £
See Rymer's FosJ. Tom. c. p. ^04. 507.

(4) William de Mont acute Earl of Salisbury, Roger Lord Mortimer, (stc. Chron. Eiefh.
(,) A Yeoman's Son of Normandy, called G bin Agact. Fnif. 1. 1. c. 12S.

(6) Which was on Friday, Augvjl 2.5. Ibid. c. \->o~

(7) And with him were joined, Thomas Beauehamp Earl of Warwick, John Vert Earl of Oxford, Geoffrey Harcoxrt ; and the following Lords, Ralph
Stafford, John de la Ware, Thomas It land, R - -.'..' Cobbans, Bartholomew Burtuafb, John Mohun, Robert Bourchicr, John I < .. C.-i-

'. and Sir Robert Neville $ thi* Body confifted of eight hundred Men at Aims, four thoufand Archers, and one thoufand, or, according toothers,
rix thoufand Weljhnten.

(&) Richard Fitx-Alan E.irl of Arundel, and William Bobttn Earl of Northampton. Together with the Lord John Willoiighby, the Lord Ralph
of Sapcote, the Lord Mutton, S:r Llti'.i Tufion of 'Toieton. TJiis Bwiy conliiled of eight hundred Men at Arms, two thoufand four hundred Archers,
and ti'Ui thoufand Pill-Men.

(9) Who had with him, John Lord Mowbray, Roger Lord Mortimer, Thomas Lord Dagnvorth, Sir Richard Glldesbonugb, Sir Richard Damnry,
Sir Well Lc,ir:g, Sir Hugh Haflings, Sir John But to ell. This Body confifted of feven hundred Men at Arm^, lix thoufand Archers, and five th
three hundred Bill-Men, hi all twelve thoufand Men : And the whole Army amounted to thirty thoufand rompleat. J. Barrel, p. 354. Fr.iJJ'art.
1.1. c. 130.

(10) It confifted of near one hundred thoufand Men. See Fnif. c. 122, 129. The French Army began the Attach, it fecmr, afainft the King's
Order | and engaged in .1 very confuted and difjrderly manner j and belides had the Sun in their Faces. Ibid. 1. 1. r. 1 3 1 .

tit ' ; is laid there were no lei's than fifteen tbuuiand Genoejc. Ibid. c. 132.
(12) In this manner the French Hiftoriaro fucak of the beginning of the Engagement. It muft He that the Str'ngs of the Gcrcej'e Crofs-Bows.
Vtereof a different Nature from thofe of the£ng/ijh, knee t.e Rain had no Etleft oa thefe laft. Rffin, It ftcms the Englijh Bows were kept covered
;a theii C'-n


Book X.

1 1


The A'V
leaves the
Honour of the ~ .
Day to bis

his Banner
I. I. c. 131

1346. mies. Apprchcnfive that fome Misfortune might happen
to him in the end, they fpeedily fent the King Word,
that it was time to come to the Prince's Relief, who was
like to beopprefled by Numbers. Far from being moved
at this Mellagc, Edward asked, whether his Son was
alive ? and being told, he was not only alive, but
fighting with an aftonifhing Valour, replied to the Mef-
fenger, Tell my Generals, that as long as my Son is alive,
let them fend no more to me, for the Honour of this Day
/hall be his, and he miijl now merit his Spurs. This An-
fwer infpiring the Prince with frefh Courage, lie broke
through his Enemies v/ho were ready to furround him.
His Troops imitating his heroic Bravery, feconded him
fo well, that the French began to give ground, and at
length to difperfe in confufion.

Philip had one Body left which had not yet engaged,
at the head whereof he was himfelf. Towards this Body
the Prince of JVales directed his Steps, after routing the
Other two ; and in this laft Action it was that he acquired
the greateft Honour. Philip, inraged to fee his two Bo-
dies routed and rlifperfed, performed Wonders, to fnatch
the Victory from the young Heroe before it was corn-
ice Xmjo/ pleat. The King of Bohemia, who, though blind, would
Bohemia De p re f en t at the Battle, caufing his Horfe's Bridie to
be tied to thofc of two brave Knights, was flain accord-
ing to hisWifh, in righting for France. His Standard,
on which were embroidered in Gold, three Ojlrich-Fca-
thers, with thefe Words, I C H D I E N, that is
/ S E R V E, was taken and brought to the Prince of
Wales, who, in memory of that Day, bore three OJlrick-
Feathers for his Creft (1), with the fame Motto. Mean
time Edward, who flood with his Troops on a rifing
Ground, watched the proper time to charge, being un-
willing however to make too much hafte, for fear of
robbing the Prince his Son of part of his Glory. But
in this flatc of inaction, he failed not to flrike Terror
into the French, who faw him ready to fall upon them
with Advantage. Philip for his part, after many fruitlefs
Attempts to repulfe the Englijh, rallied fome of his No-
bles and Men at Arms, and threw himfelf into the midft
of the Battle, in order to animate his Troops by his
Example. It muft be confefTed, that on this occafion
he gave fignal Proofs of an undaunted Valour. It was
not till after being twice difmounted, and wounded in
his Neck and Thigh, that he fuffered himfelf to be led,
though with extreme Pain, out of the Field of Battle.
His Retreat quite difcouraging thofe of his Men that (till
maintained the Fight, they were entirely routed with the
reft of the Army. Then it was that a dreadful Slaughter
enfucd of the flying Troops, who were purfued till the
Night was far advanced. It is affirmed, that in this
memorable Battle, the EngHJIi began for the firft time to
ufe Cannon, a thing yet unheard of in France. Four
Pieces, planted on a little Hill, did great Execution a-
mong the French Troops, and ftruck them with fuch
Terror, that the Succefs of this Day is partly afcribed to
the Surprize of the French at this Novelty. France loft
in this Battle, the King of Bohemia, the Earl of Alcnfm

for the Victory he was plcafed to give them. On the




naliz.es him-


Vie Englifh
gain a com-
pleat Vi3a-

Cannon ftrjl
itfed by tbe

paifes bis

J. 1. c. 133

MoJeJIy of

tbe Prince.

morrow, fome Troops, fent to pufue the flying Ene- An.ther
my, meeting a Body of Militia, who, without knowing g/J^'V '
what had happened, were marching to Philip's Camp, France,
flew (even thoufand. "It is faid, the lofs Franle fu- lblJ *
ftainted on the fecond Day, was greater than that of the
Battle, as well by the defeat of the Militia, as by the
Slaughter, or taking of the Soldiers, who in flying, were
difperfed in the Country (-2 J.

Edward continued fome Days near the Field of Bat- Edward lr ■
tie, to bury the dead, and take care of the wounded, as^^ 1 "
well thofc of the Enemy, as his own. Then marching]. ,. c . , 35 ,
through le Bouhnnois, he approached Calais, in order to Knighton,
befiege it. This Place, which was exceeding ftrong, A ^.'pui,.
was no lefs incommodious to the Engli/li, than Dunkirk v. p. 52.
has been in our days. In becoming mafter of it, he not
only freed himfelf from a very troublefome Neighbour-
hood, but alfo opened a way into France. He inverted
it on the 8th of September, and fummoned the Gover-
nor to furrender, thrcatning, in cafe of refufal, to put
the Garrifon and Inhabitants all to the Sword. John
de J'icnne, the Governor, anfwered, He owned no other
King of France but the Perfon that committed to him
the cuftody of the Town, in whofe Service he was rc-
folved to live and die.

The King having taken an exact view of the Forti-
fications of Calais, found it would be very difficult to
accomplifh the Siege by force ; fo from the firft, refolved
to reduce the Place by Famine. For that purpofe, he
drew round the Town four Lines of Circumvallation, with
regular Fortifications, refolvedly bent not to rclinquifh his
Enterprize till accomplifbed. The Governor, who faw the FroifTart.
Preparations, forefeeing the length of the Siege, took care
to fend away all ufelcfs Mouths, that he might not be ex-
pofed to the Danger of wanting Provifions. Though, ac-
cording to the Maxims of War, Edward was not obliged
to take pity of thefe Wretches, who were to the Number
of feventeen hundred, he received them however into the
Camp (j), and gave them leave afterwards to go where
they pleafed (4).

Meantime, Philip, who was very uneafy concerning 1347.

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