M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Ann. p. 146.

(2) FrcifJ'art fays, that the Governour let them in at a Poftern, the very sight King Fdivard came to Calais ; and having received the twenty thousand
Crowns from them, carried them into the great Tower of the Caitle to take polfeflion of it j but King Edward, who was in the fame Tower, ruihed upon
them, and took them Prifoners. c. 153.

(3) Three hundred Men at Arms, and fix hundred Archers, Froif. 1. 1. c. 153.

(4) Rapin by miftake calls him Henry. He was younger Son of Guy de Beaucbamp Earl of Warwick. Dugdale, Vol. 1. p. 131. His Commifiion bears
date at Wcflminjler, 'January 1. Rymer's Fa?d. Tom. 5. p. 655.

(5) Rapin by miftakc calls him Henry. He was vounger Son of Guy de Beaucbatnp Y.ix\ of Warwick. Dagdalc, Vol. I. p. 231. His Commiflioa
bears date at Wcjiminfxer, January 1. Rymer's F*d. Tom. 5. p. 655.

(6) Mr. AJhmcle fix'-s the Inftitution of this noble and honorable Order, on the 23d of April, 1349. p. 185. But Dr. Brady juftly doubts, whether
it was inftituted this Year, becaufe the Plague at that time raged terribly at London, and other Parts adjacent. See Hijl. p. 247. and Stew's Ann.
p. 245, 246.

(7) An Order of Knighthood, inftituted by Philip the G.cd, Duke of Burgundy, at his Marriage with Ifatella of Portugal in 1430- The Order wa«
at fir ft compofed of four and twenty Knights, who were Gentlemen of Birth, and unblemiihed Reputation. This Order is now commor. to all the Princes
cf the Houlc of Aufiria, as being defcended from Mart of Bunundy, Daughter of Cbarlet the Hardy, laft Duke of Burrundy. CttjUt. Frv:n. Mm-
fi relet. Vol. II. fol. 54.

(8) This is an Order of Knighthood in France, inftituted by King Henry III, who celebrated its firft Feftival on the 31ft of Dcccmhcr, 157S. The
Number of Knights was limited to a hundred, without including thofe of the Clergy, via. Four Cardinals, and four Bifhops, together with the great;
Almoner, and the Officers of the Order, viz. A Chancellor, Treafurer, Regifter, and King at Arms, and ordered the Knights to wear a Crofs of Malta,
having a Dove in the Center of it. To which King Henry IV, in I59S, added a Collar made of Trophies, frjm whence proceed Fiames intermixed with
crown'd Head:.



J 3 49-

fi his the
Spaniih Cl"-

Act. Pub.
V. p. 679,
6SS, 691.
R. Aves-


Vol. T.

heath 0)
Val. is.
John fuc~
Act, Pub.
V- p. 69c.


Tie Duke of
makes In-
roads into
Act. Pub.

?he Fle-
mHigs falhff
ft or: Ed-
ward 1


Order, arc a clear Evidence of its great Repute through-
out all Europe (1).

However glorious Edward had hitherto been, he dif-
daincd net to hazard his Reputation, in an Affair which
feenied below his notice. But the greatnefs of his Cou-
rage would not fuffer him to weigh too nicely fuch fort
of Confiderations. The Merchants complaining 0/ cer-
tain Spanijh Ships inferring the Coafts ot England, and
doing them much Damage, he promifed to clear the- Seas
of them. To that end, aflembling fuch of his Ships as
were fooneft ready, he would go himfelf and give chace to
the Corfairs; He fought and defeated them (?.), took
twenty of their Ships, funk many more, and difpeiied the
reft. This Aftion, though in itfelf of little Importance,
feemed to him fo glorious, that he caufed a Gold Coin to
be (truck, whereon he was reprefented in a Ship with his
Cutlafs . in his Hand, in order to perpetuate the Memory
thereof (3).

Philip de Valois lived not to fee the end of the Truce
made with Edward. He died the 2 2d of Aiigujl 1350,
leaving for Succeflbr his Son Jehu, who renewed the
Truce till Whitfontide 1354. But it was ill obferved on
both Sides. In Brctagne, Gafcoigne, Picardy, frequent
Hoftiiitics were committed, which occafioned mutual
Complaints and even Reprifals, each Party throwing the
Blame on his Enemy. The Earl of Derby, honoured
with the Title of Duke of Lancajler (4), was fent to
Calais with an Army, as if it had been open War. He
made Inroads into the French Territories, and ravaged
the Country from Calais to Terouennc. The greateft Ad-
vantage Edward reaped by the Non-Obfervance of the
Truce, was the Acquilition of the Town of Guifnes fold
him by the Governour. When King John complained of
it, Edward replied, that his Father Philip, by attempting
to purchaje Calais, had taught the Englifh Commanders that
Buving and Selling was no Breach of a Truce (5).

This Advantage however did not balance the Lofs fu-
ftained by E diva rd in Flanders, by the entire Defection of
the Flemings. Hitherto they had been his Friends, but for
fome time part, the Face of Affairs was entirely changed
in that Country. After the Death of the Eari of Flan-
ders, ilain at the Battle of Crefjy, the Flemings fent Depu-
ties to Philip de f'ahis, to demand the Son of their deceafed
Sovereign, under colour of putting him in poffeffion
of his Father's Inheritance. Philip confenting to their
Requefr, when they had the young Prince in their Power,
they contracted him to one of Edward's Daughters. This
Accident would doubtlefs have been very prejudicial to
Philip, if the Earl himfelf had not freed him from this.
The young Prince, who by Education was wholly attach-
ed to the Intereits of France, not bearing the thoughts
of marrying into the Family of his Sovereign's Enemv,
privately withdrew from his Subjects, and cat: h'mfelf again
into his Arms. From thenceiorward the Flemings began
by degrees to be dilingagcd frcm the Interelf s of E ngland.
They even approved of the Marriage concluded by Philip
between their Earl and the Duke of Brabant's Daughter,
who had entirely forfaken Edward (6). Their Levity
was the Caufe that the Staple (7) of the Englifh Wool,
fet up in their Country, was removed into England, to

their great Damage, but to the renefit of the Erg- 1353. >
lijh (S).

The new King of France feemed to be extremely de- 1354.
firous that the Truce might be changed into a lirai^i' 3 /
and lafting Peace, to which Edivard was not averfe. lt\ lwa „ ,*'
the Negotiations on this occafion, 'John offered to re-'™" Crowm.
fign to the King of England, Guicnne, with the Earl-^ all 'p S '
doms of Artcis and Guifnes, to hold them in full Sove-v. p. 771",
reignty, without Homage to the Crown of France (9). 779.851.
But prefently after, to his own, as well as to his King-p- " Sl -
dom's Misfortune, he abruptly broke off the Negotiation,
which ended only in prolonging the Truce till April the
next ^ ear.

It was not difficult to perceive that the King of
France fought only to gain time, to enable himfelf the
better to maintain the War. Edward was very fenfible
ot it, but had himfelf need of fome refpite, in order
to fettle fome demeitick Affairs of Importance. Therb. p. 82S.
Obliinacy of the Scott in fupport of their King, though
a Prifoner, fully convinced him, it would not be eafy to
reduce Scotland, as long as he was at War with France.
This Coniideration inclined him to patch up a Peace
with the Scots, in expectation of a more favourable op-
portunity to renew the War. But this Peace could not
be made without their King's Releafe ; fo firmly did they
infift upon that Article. To fettle this Affair, Edward
appointed Commiffioners (10) to treat with the Scots, con-
cerning King David's Liberty. This Negotiation, which Treaty about
was prolonged for fome time, ended at length in a Treaty 'J" K '%"j r

1 1 1 » r n 1 " sv 1 ' "1 i_ 11 Scotland i

concluded at Newcajlle, July the 13th, 1354, whereby LitUrtj.
Edward promifed to free David for a Ranfom of ninety Act. Pub.
thoufand Marks of Silver. This Treaty was ratified a ^' p '_ 73 , 3 '
little after by the Prince of Wales his Son, but was not 792' 799'.
executed for Reafons mentioned hereafter. So David Vi - P- 3'>
continued a Prifoner till 1 3 5 7 ( 11 ). Knighton.

When this Treaty was concluded, Edward confider- Edward
ing from henceforth the Affairs of Scot/and as of little S' v " Gu! -
moment, applied himfelf chiefly to thofe of France. The />""„« e
Truce being about to expire, he invefted the Prince ot Wales.
Wales his Son with the Duchy of Guienne ; and fending Y.>"p g "h
him thither, commanded him to renew the Hoftilities (12). v. p. S-o'.
Some affirm, King "John had now invefied the Dauphin
Charles his Son, with that Duchy, and thereby occafioned
a Rupture. But there is no mention of this Circum-
ftance either in the French Hiftories, or in the Collection
of the Publick Ails. Befides, it is certain the War was
not renewed till after the Expiration of the Truce.
Whilft the Prince of Wales was preparing to renew the He goes imt
War in Guienne, the King his Father landing; at Ca- Fr2nce ani

.... 1 n 1 • 1 * •! ,- • 'Commits tome

lais(i^), ravaged Boulonnois and Artois without oppolition. Ravages.
Upon this News, the King of France fpeedily ailembled Walfing.
his Forces. At the fame time, he fent Edward a De- ^buT."
fiance, offering to fight him alone, or at the head of their Froiflait."
Armies : At feaft, this is what the French Hiftorians af- '• '• '• '59'
firm ; adding, that Edward declined it, and knowing
John was approaching to give him Battle, retired into
England., The Englifh, on the contrary, maintain,
the Defiance was fent by Edward, and refufed by John.
The wonder is, that the Collection of the Publick Acts
makes no mention of this Expedition of Edward, though

(1) Cambden reckons in his Time twenty two Kings, befides the Kings of England, and as many foreign Dukes and Princes. He has Iikewife given
us a Lift of the firft fix and twenty Knights, who are called the Founders of the Order ; namely, Edward 111 Kng of England ; Edivard his Sen
Prince of Walet ; Henry Duke of Lancajler ; Thomas Ear' of Warwick j Ralph Earl of Staff rd i Will am Mont.icute Earl of Sa'ijbury ; Roger Mortimer
Earl of March : Capdall de Buche j John I'ljlc ; Bartholomew Burghwajh ; John Beaucljamp j John de Mohun : Hugh Courtney j Thomas Holland r
John G'cy ; Richard Fitx-Simon ; Mies Stapleton ; Thomas Walk ; Ilu h Wriothejley ; Niel Loring ; John, Cbandos ; James de Audley ; Otbo Holland ;
Henry Erne } Zanchct Dabridgecourt, Wilfiam Paynel. The 'Countela of Salisbury, who it feems gave Occafion for the founding this Order, was the won-
der of her time for Shape and Beauty.

(2) This Enp.ig'-ment happened Aug. 19. near Wir.cheljca. Twenty fix of the Sparifh Ships were t^ken. Waif. p. 169.

(3) See the Coins at the end of this Reign.

(4) Son of Henry, Brother of Thomas Earl of Lancajler beheaded in the Reign of Edward II, who was Son of Edmund, younger Son of Henry III.
This Henry for hi, JV'cr't was advanced by the general Confent of the Parliament, and the King's fpec : al Charter, dated the Cth of March, 2? of Ed-
noard, z> the Title of Dake of Lancajler, being the fecond that bore that Title in En land. At the fame time alfo the Lord Ralph Stafford was
created Earl of Stafford, with a Penfion of one thoufand Marks, til. the King could provide Lands of that value to fettle on him. Knighton.
Coi. 2602. Waif. p. 170.

( . ) This Year a Parliament met at Wejlminjler, Febr. 10. wherein were enacted the Statutes of Labourers and Prcraif.rs. Rot. Pari. 25 Ediv. III.
Cottotfts Abridg. p. 73. Knighton relates that the King took twenty Shillings from every Carrucate, and a Fifteenth. And alio that there was granted
him a Fifteenth, and a Tenth for three Years. Col. 2600, 2602. Waif. p. r70.

(6) A Parliament met this Year on Jan. 13. at Wijlminjl r, which granted the King three Tenths, and three Fifteenths, to be paid, as the Ian;
were, within three Years. Rot. Pari. 25 Ednu. III. P. .'. N. 7, 9, 10. In this Parliament the Lord John Maltra-vers, who was thought to have
a Hand in the Murder of Edward II, having fome Years finre come in and fubmittsd to the King's Mercy, and lately received his Pardon, petitioned the
Parliament to have it then confirmed ; which, in confutation of his late faithful Service to the King in Flanders, was accordingly granted. Ibid.
N. '■■ See Tyrre'. p. 571. There was ths Year, befides this Parliament, a Council at Wejlminjler.

(7) Sta/'^ figuines this 01 that Town, whither the Merchants of England were, by A<ft of Parliament, to carry their Wool, Cloth, Lead and Tin, for
the l'el ing them by the Great. What weie the Staple Commodities of this Realm may be feen .n the Statute of 14. RicbardU. c. I. as IS': ', Leather,
Wool-fells, Lead, Tin, &c. The Staple of Wool was removed to Wejlminjler, Canterbury, Cbschejler, Brijlol, Lincoln, Hull, and Calais. See Rymer's
Feed. Tom. 5. p. 6 l S. Waif. p. 170.

(8) This was done by the Authority of the Parliament, which met this Year on Sept. 23. and continued, for fome time longer, the Subfijy of Wool,
Leather, and Wool-fells, granted to the King in fome of the late Parliaments. Rot. Pari. 27 Edtu. III. A'. I. 6.

(9) Provided he would quit his claim to the Crown of France. Waif. p. 170.

(10) Thomas Hatfield, Bilhop of Durham, and the Lords Henry Percy, and Ralph de Nemil. Rymer's, Feed. Tom. c. p. 733. King Daz-id himfelf
went, with King Edward's permhTion, in 1351, into his Kingdom, and afterwards ji 13S3> a > ?" as Newcajlle, to treat with fome of his Nobility, about
his Ranfom, but could bring nothing to a Conclufion. Rymcrs Feed. Tom. 5. p. 722, 727, 737, 7*6- Knt bton. Col. 2600 2607.

(n) April 28. A Parliament was held; in which the Lords Ro<rer Mortimer, and Richard FitK-Alan were reftored in Mood. Ret. Par!.
2S Edzc.lll. N. i.efc. 13.

(■2) He failed from P'ymculb, Sept. S. attended by the Earlsof Warwick, Suffolk, Salifbur), and Oxford ; with one thoufaad Men at Arms, and the
like Number of Archers. Waif. p. 171.

(13) Nomemb. 2. attended by his Sons Lionel and John, Henry Duke of Lancajler j the Earls of Northampton, March, and Stafford, tec. and about
two thoufand Men a; Arms. Waif. p. 171.


Book X.

ir. E D W A R D III.









X 354. whenever the Kings of England went beyond Sea, a
Memorandum of the day, both of their departure and re-
turn, is hardly ever omitted. But fince the Hiftorians of
both Nations fpeak of Edward's going to Calais, a bare-
negative Proof is not fufficient to invalidate their Tefti-
mony. However, it Edward returned fo haftily, it is
certain, that very important Reafons called him home.
The Scots having taken Berwick by Surprize, it was very
dangerous to leave in their hands a Place of that Impor-
tance, which gave them at all times an Inlet into Eng-
land. To retake this Town was the cccafion of Ed-
ward's haftcning his return ( 1 ).

Immediately after his Arrival he called a Parliament (z),
complaining of the Treachery of the Scots, who, after a
Treaty concluded and ratified, abufed his good Faith, by
the Seducemcnts of the King of France. The Parliament
knowing the Neceffity of recovering Berwick, and the
King's want of Money to continue the War with France,
granted him fifty Shillings upon every Sack of Wool (3)
fold in the Kingdom. It is faid, this Subfidy amounted
to more than three hundred and fifty thoufand Marks a
Year, fo confidcrable was the woollen Trade in thole days.
With this Aid the King quickly raifed an Army, at the
head of which he advanced to the Borders of Scotland.
Upon his Approach, the Scats quitted Berwick (4), after
demolifhing the Fortifications, which he revenged by ra-
H'a'Bocth. va S' n S tne ' r Country (5). This unexpected Rupture of
Walling. the Scots furprized him the more, as he had juft made a
Knighton. Treaty with them, for releafing their King, and only
flayed for the payment of the Ranfom agreed upon. This
Proceeding of theirs quite altered the King's mind as to
Peace, and caufed him to take a new Refolution, with re-
fpeifl to the Affairs of Scotland (6).
1551;. After Baliol's Expulfion, he ftill kept the Title of

Ccmditaimf King, but without any real Power, and in (o fervile a
Elliot. Dependance on the King of England, that he was looked

upon only as a Subject. It is true, Edward left him the
Command of his Troops, but they were fo very few, that
he was never able to make any Progrefs. So he fpent
his Days in a melancholy manner, with a Penfion of five
Marks a day, allowed him by Edward, and fome Pre-
fents for his extraordinary Expences. There are manifeft
Proofs of his great Dependance in the Collection of the
Publick Ads, particularly in the frequent Pardons for
hunting in Edward's Forefts. He was therefore but the
Shadow of a King, made ufe of hitherto by Edward to
compafs his Ends. It was needlefs for the King to wear
the mask any longer, all his Proceedings plainly (hewing
he had been labouring more for himfelf than for Baliol.
Laying afide therefore the Scruples by which he had till
then been reftrained, or rather throwing off the cloak
under which he had concealed his Intentions, he caufed
that Prince to refign all his Right to Scotland (7) for the
yearly Penfion of two thoufand Pounds Sterling ; a poor
Recompence for a Crown, had it not been an imaginary
Crown, which Baliol was very willing to part with.
This Refignation proved fatal to King David. He had
thereby the mortification to fee himfelf more clofely con-
fined, and to lofe withal the hopes he had conceived of
recovering his Liberty (8).

Charles de Bkis Prifoner in England, fince the Battle
Kwsrekafid. of la Roche de Rien, was more fortunate than the King
p.746, S62. [- Scotland, at leaft with regard to his Liberty, though it
was purchafed at a very dear rate. He articled with Ed-
ward to pay feven hundred thoufand Crowns for his
Ranfom, and left his two Sons in Holiage for Security of
Payment (<j).

Whilft Edward was employed at home, the Prince of
Wales ravaged the fouthern Provinces of France, and par-
ticularly Languedoc. He made into that Province a fudden
Irruption, which rendered him maiter of Carcaffone and
Narbonne, where he met with a very great Booty, and
then returned to Bourdeaux. By his retreat, the mea-
fures to oppofe his Invafion being neglected, he thought
he might fafely venture upon a fecond. As foon as his
Troops were a little refrefhed, he marched again (10) at
the head of twelve thoufand Men, of whom not above
three thoufand were Natives of England. He traverfed
le Perigord and le Limoufin, entered Berry, and appeared
before the Gates of Bourgcs. But the News of the King


AS. Pub.
V. p. 651,

870, sv.

tf>. p.Sjz,
S33» %sS>

838, S52.

Charles de



The Prim

of Wales





The King
fotbivi him
•with ,7 great

>. I. c. 161.

of France's approach, with flxty thoufand Men, prevented
his befieging that Place, and even obliged him to take a
Compafi in order to retire to Bourdeaux. But John, fore-
feeing his defigo, marched with fuch expedition, that he
overtook him near Pointers. It being impoifible for the
Prince to retreat, he refolved to intrench himfelf at Mali-
pertuis, in a Poft incumbered with Vines and Hedges, and
of a very difficult Accefs. Two Legates fent by the Pope
to the two Princes, to perfuade them to Peace, ufed their
utmoft Endeavours to prevent an Engagement They
even induced the Prince of Wales to promife to repair all
the Damages done in his Incurfion, and engage not to
bear Arms againft France for {even Years. Jehu's Supers Of,r, of tbt
onty caufing him to reject thefe Offers, he expected, the ?'"•■" ""
Prince with his whole Army mould furrender at difcrc- "^'^
tion (11). This Condition not being relifhcd by the Prince,
he gencroufly replied, he had rather dye Sword in hand,
than be guilty of a thing contrary to his Honour, and
the Glory of the Englijh Name.

All hopes of Agreement vanishing, the Prince of Wales Matik of
made a fhort Speech to his Troops, telling them, "Thai '
" Victory depended not on Numbers, but on Bravery : f"' "/V
" That for his own part, he was refolved to conquer or willing. 4 '
" dye, and would not expofe his Country to the dif-
" grace of paying his Ranfom." All King John's Ge-
nerals unanimoufly advifed him to ftarve this little Armv,
cooped up in the middle of an Enemy's Country, where
they would quickly be in want of all things. This Ad-
vice appeared to him too wary and inconfiftent with his
Impatience. He fancied, they would rob him of the tran-
fcendent Glory, he hoped to acquire by the Defeat of fo
renowned a Prince, to faed him with the imaginary Honour
of conquering without fighting. So, full of the pleating
Expectation of obtaining an eafy Victory, and revenging
his Subjects, he refolved without delay to attack the
Enemies. He committed at firft a very great Error, in
caufing his Horfe to difmount and begin the Fight. The
Horfe unaccuftomed to charge on foot, were not able to
break through the Englijh, who had the Advantage of
the Ground, in a Country full of Hedges, through
which there was a neceffity to pafi, in order to force
their Intrenchments. The difmountcd Cavalry being re-
pulfed with great lofs, the Infantry fupplicd their Place,
and met the fame Refiftance, notwithstanding the King's
Efforts, who maintained the Fight four Hours, encourag-
ing his Troops by his Voice and Example, without fear-
ing to expofe his Perfon to' the greateft Dangers. What
Efforts foever he made, it was not poffible for him to
rout this handful of Englijh, whom the neceffity of con-
quering, caufed to fight defperately ; being moreover ani-
mated by the Example of the Prince, who performed
that day Acts of Wifdom and Valour, comparable to
thofe of the moft renowned Generals. Of four Sons the
King of France had with him, the three eldeft retirino-
betimes, with eight hundred Lances, their Retreat did
not a little contribute to difcourage the reft of the Army.
Mean time, King John acted by defpair, fignalizcd him-
felf In all the moft dangerous Places, and drew upon
him the braveft of his Enemies. Though he faw him-
felf forfaken, he infpired the boldeft with Terror. But,
in all appearance, he would at length have funk under
the Multitude of the Enemies that furrounded him,
and left him no hopes of faving his Life, if Denis de
Morbeck, a Knight of Artois, difperling thofe who pref-
fed him the moft vigoroufiy, had not earneftlv perfuaded
him to yield himfelf Prifuner. He would have been very John Is ta-
glad to deliver his Sword to the Prince of Wales, but * \ F 'y '■''■
as the Prince was too remote, he was forced to furrender v. p . 869.
himfelf to Morbeck with Philip his fourth Son, about VI p. 71,
thirteen Years old, who had all along fought bv his Side. ' , '+\ r
In this unfortunate Day, fo fatal to France, there were Wilting.
not above fix thoufand Men (lain, but among that Num- Knighton,
ber were eight hundred Nobles, the Duke of Bsurbon a
Prince of the Blood, the Duke of A'.henes Conftable ot
France, the Marfhal de Nejlc, and above fifty other great
Lords of the Kingdom.

If the victorious Prince diftinguifhed himfelf by his
Conduct and Bravery in this glorious Dav, he was no
lefs admired after his Victory, for his modeft and gene- \.
rous Behaviour to his Prifoner. The Evening after the •



t tbt Pnnt

(1) Which was on November 17.

(2) It had been called before his going over, and met on November the 12th, but was put oft' till the 25th. Rot. Pari. 29 Eetui. HI. Cett.n's
Abndg. p. 90.

(3) For fix Years. W&tf. p. 171.
(A January 13. Ibid.

(5) -And utterly ruining Edcnburgh, Haddington, See. HeSt. B/et. 1. 15. Knighton.

(6) This Year, 'January 7, was born Thomas, the King's feventh Son, A\.Wo',dftoek. WaJ. p. 171.

(7) Thishcdidon Jan. 20. at Roxburgh. Rymer's Feed. Ton). V. p. 832, &e. rVa/f. p. 171. Knighf.n, Col. »6ll.

(8) There were two Parliaments held this Year, but where, and when is not mentioned. Notitia Parliament.

(9) Ednvard forgive him half the Sum, on condition he would pay the other half punctually at the Days agreed on. The Act for this Purpgfe is dated at
]l\Jliniiifttr the loth of Auguji 1356. Rymcr's Feed. Tom. V. p. 862.

(10) On the fifth of July. Wali. p. 171.
{ 1 1) He infiltcd at firil, upon having four of the principal Englip Koblemen at his Mercy, and that the Prince and all the reii of the Army ihouid yield

thcmll-lve; Prifoner;. FrnJJ'jrt, 1.

No. 22. Vol. I.


5 0.




Vol. I,

P. .3imyl.

Pol. Virg.

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 181 of 360)