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Trace for
tiuo Tears.
Act. Pub.

VI. p. 3.



T,e King
ccndulfed ta

London.
Ibid.

He fi re-

ceived in an
honourable
manner,
Froii&rt.

Knighton.



Battle, the King fupptng iti the Prince of Wales's Tent,
prefied him to lit at Table with him ; but he very ci-
villy declining it, flood and talked with him all the
while. As the King, whofe thoughts were ftill employ-
ed with his unfortunate Condition, was complaining of
his Fate, the Prince faid to him, in a free, though modeft
and unaffected manner, " That he had one great Rea-
" fon to be comforted, that the Battle was not loft by
" his fault : That the Englijh had found to their coll,
" he was the braveft of Princes ; but that God alone
" had difpofed of the Victory. And, (continued he)
" if your ill fortune has thrown you into your prefent
" Difgrace, you may at lead reft allured, that an invio-
" lable Regard {hall be preferved for your Perfon ; and
" you fhall find in me a very refpectful Relation, if I
" may be allowed to glory in that Title. " So great a
Modefly in a young victorious Prince, little more than five
and twenty Years of Age, melted the King into Tears,
and tilled the Hearers with Admiration. As foon as
John had recovered himl'elf, he turned to the Prince,
and faid to him, with an Air of Satisfaction, " That
" fince it was his Deftiny to be vanquifhed and taken,
" it was a great Comfort in his Misfortune, that he had
' ; not behaved himfelf unworthily ; and was fallen into
" the hands of fo valiant and generous a Prince." On
the morrow, folemn Thanks were returned to God, in
the Englijh Camp, for this great Victory. The Prince
thanked his victorious Troops, with fuch Expreffions, as
afcribed to them the Honour of the Day, without the
leaft mention of himfelf. Then he marched for Bour-
deaux, laden with an ineftimable Booty, and fo great a
Number of Prifoners, that it would have been difficult for
the Englijh to defend themfelves, in cafe they had been
attacked (1).

It is eafy to conceive, the Joy this News fpread over
all England, and how great Edward's Satisfaction was
in particular. God's Protection of the Prince of Wales
being too viable to be difregarded, the King ordered
publick Thankfgiving for this fignal Victory, to be re-
turned to God for eight Days together, in all the Churches
of the Kingdom. The Prince of Wales fpent the Win-
ter at Bordeaux, where two Legates from the Pope came,
and prefTed him ib earneftly, that he confented, with the
Approbation of the King his Father, to a Truce for two
Years, wherein all the Allies of both Crowns were in-
cluded. In Jpril following (2) he came into England,
bringing his Prifoner with him. He was received there
witii exceffive Joy, but conftantly refufed all the Ho-
nours that were offered him, being fatisfied with thofe
paid to the captive King. When they made their En-
try into Londcn, the Prince of Wales rode on a little
black Nag, by the King of France's fide, who was
mounted on a ftately white Courier, adorned with
colUy Trappings. One would have thought that all the
Pomp (3) dilplayed on this occafion, was intended purely
to do Honour to the captive King ; fo great care was
taken to avoid all figns of his Difgrace, and every thing
that might be offenTive to his Eyes. Though Edward
difputed with him the Title of King of France, he treated
him however like a King. The Sight of the captive
Prince putting him in mind of the Inftability of human
Grandeur, he received him with as cordial Embraces, as
if he had been his own Brother, or one come on pur-
pole to pay him a Vifit. In this noble and generous
manner, the Father and Son ftrove with Emulation to
comfort the unfortunate King, by all the Marks of
Relpect due to a great Prince, in whatever State Fortune
may have placed him. It is reported, when Edward re-
ceived the News of the Victory of Pa) fliers, he faid to
thofe about him that his Satisfaction at fo glorious a
Succefs, was not comparable to the Pleafure caufed by
the generous Behaviour of the Prince. King 'John and
Prince Philip his Son were lodged together in the Palace
ot the Savoy (4), with all the honourable Freedom they



could defire. The other captive Lords met with the fame 1357,
Treatment and Civilities.

Edward enjoyed tfien a fo much greater Glory, as it The King >f
Was very uncommon, I mean of having Prifoners his Scotland/"
two moft potent Enemies ; the King of France at Lon- Act.Pu'b.'
d'M, and the King of Scotland at Odiam [in HampJhire.J VI. p. 39 ...
King David fhould have had his Liberty Ions; fince, * 8- ,

- 1 a ■ t j 1 i-r 1 c Buchanan.

purluant to the Articles agreed upon three Years before ; Waiting.
but for the Reafons above-mentioned, faw himfelf ftill
detained in Captivity. However, when he had leaft Caufe
to expect any Favour from a victorious Plnemy, who
had juft reduced Scotland to an irretrievable State, Ed-
ward was moved by the preffing Inftances of the Queen
his Sifter, and agreed to renew the Treaty of 1354.
To that end he granted Safe-conduct;, to Ambaffadors
from Scotland, who, during a fhort Truce, obtained their
King's Liberty, upon much the fame Terms as in the
firft Treaty. They engaged to pay for his Ranfom a
hundred thoufand Marks Sterling ; namely, ten thoufand
every Year, till the whole was paid ; and for Security,
the King of Scotland gave twenty Hoftages. At the fame
time, a ten Years Truce was concluded between England
and Scotland. David was releafed (5) upon thefe Con-
ditions, which he took care to ratify as fcon as he
came into his Kingdom, after an eleven Years Captivity.
It feems that Edward, wholly taken up then with his vaft
Projects againft France, had loft all Thoughts of be-
coming mafter of Scotland. At leaft he believed it beft to
defer the Execution of that Defign, till a more convenient
Seafon.

Edward's late Truces with France and Scotland having 1358.
freed him from the trouble of foreign Affairs, he con- Munificent
fined his thoughts .to the Government of his KineJom. ' Tour "i"' r " z

,- , . ° ,. rr 1 l /- r i - at Winder.

But as nothing extraordinary palied, he fpent part ot his froiflart.
time in Divertions, of which the King of France and the Walfing.
other chief Prifoners always partook. The Tournament Km & nton « .
he held at Windfor on the 23d of April, 1358, to fo-
lemnize the Feaft of St. George, Patron of the Order of
the Garter, was the moft fumptuous and magnificent that
had ever been feen in England. The Duke of Brabant,
with feveral other foreign Princes, and an infinite Num-
ber of Knights of all Nations were prefent, and fplendidly
entertained.

This Diverfion was followed by the Funeral of Queen <rr„,„ ir 3 _
Ifabella, the King's Mother. She died at the Caftle of beW/n.
Rifmgs, aged fixty three Years, after a twenty eight Years y^ Pub l ' l
confinement (6). If the Marriage of this Queen was fatal Walfing.
to the King her Hufband, it was no lefs fo to France, Knighton,
fince it proved the occafion of a long and bloody War,
which brought that Kingdom to the very brink of De-
struction.

Geoffrey d'Harcourt, of whom I have fpoken on oc- EarUftbn*
cation of the King's Defcent at la Hogue, and who ferved «■««■*»
the King of Navarre in Normandy, was there flain j/„>. ar "
about this Time (7). As he had by Will made the Froiffart.
King of England his fole Heir, and as his Lands were '" '■ c ' , 74«
in the Demefns of the King of Navarre in Normandy, v. p. 3%".
Edward took pofieflion, and gave them to the Lord
Holland.



Whilft England enjoyed a profound Tranquillity, Great
France, was in extreme Defolation, by the inteftine Trou- T r ' ul > ! " '"
bles caufed by the King's Imprifonment. Charles the p-^jajm.
Dauphin, John's eldelt Son, held the Reins of the Go- I.. i.e. 1791
vernment, by the Title of Lieutenant-General, after-
wards changed into that of Regent. His Regency was ib
dilturbed by the Cabals of fome rcftlefs Men, who found
their Advantage in the Confufion of Affairs, that it was
not poflible to think effectually of freeing their King.
The Affairs of France were then in a deplorable fitua-
tion. Charles the Bald, King of Navarre, though fprung Walfing.
from the Royal Family of France (8), railed daily
Commotions and Tumults in Paris, where he had a
powerful Party (9). The Authority of the Dauphin
was thereby fo reftrained, that, though a Prince of



(V This Battle was fcught on the 19th ot' September, 13C6. Kymer's Feed. p. 870. There were above fix Frenchmen to one Engiijhmr.n. Walfing.
fays, Prince Ed-ward had only one thoufand nine hundred Men at Arms, and the fame Number of Archers, p. 172. But^. Barret j fays, his Army con-
futed of about eight thoufand Men. p. 504. What Perfons of Diftinction were in it, fee Ibid. The Prifoners are faid to be more in Numt;r than the Erg*
lijh Army. Ana among them were, bclides the King and his Son, feventecn Earls, and of Barons, Knights, and Elqu ires, to the Number of one thoufand

five hundred. P.Mmyl. Waif. p. 197 On the fifteenth of May was held a provincial Synod at St. Paul's, wherein the Bilh'ips granted the King a

Tenth for two Years, and the inferior Clergy for one Year. R. Aiejhury, c. 10?.

(2) According to Waljing. the Prinre landed at Plymouth, May 5. and made his entry into Londcn the 24th of the fame Month, p. 172.

(3) He was received by Henry Picard the Lord Mayor (the fame that afterwards fo magnificently entertained at one time the four Kings of England, Trance,
Scotland, and Cyprus) with the Aldermen, &c. in all their Formalities, with the City Pageants ; and in the Streets, as he palfrd to Weflminfter, the Citizens
hung out all their Plate, Tapcltty, and Armour, fo that the like had never been feen before in the memory of Man. Barnes, p. 526.

(4) So called from Peter Earl of Savry, who lived in it. Eleanor, Wife of Henry III, bought it of the Fraternity of Mountjoy and gave it to her Son
Edmund Earl of l.ancaftcr, and it was now in the Puirellion of Henry Duke of Lancajler.

(",) On the firft of November. Waif. p. 173.

(6) She died in Niwrnb. and was buried in the Choir of the Grey Frier*, now called Chrijl Church in London. A little after died alio her Daughter Joan
Queen of Scots, and was buried in the lame Church with the Queen her Mother.

(7) He forlbok, fome Years before, King F.divard, and joined the King of France j as appears by an Order from King Edward, to the BaiJiiT; of Wey-
mouth, dated March 5. 1347. for fc: zing his Jewels, Armour, Goods, Chattels, C£TV. See Bymer's Facd. Tom. V. p. 552.

(8) From the Branch of Ei-reux, or rather of En.

(9) And his Brother Philip, with the Lord Jams dc la Pype, and Robert Kn.ilei, cruelly wafted Nnm.indy miBrctagnc about this time. IValf.-.^.
P- T3-



great



Book X.



it. E D W A R D IIL



1358.

#Froili'uit.
'1. I.e. i?4;

' iSd.



Viar.



Treaty
ttnvtciitbe
i . i KJ >. j
n ». ./ .i /".'
rK' States.
France*
Knighton.
Waiting-
FroiiTart.
1. i. c. ;03
Act. Piib.



VI.
fife.



•359-

Edward re-
Jo/ves in car-
ry the War
into France,
lb. p. I io,

"34-
Walling-



Ij6o.
He goes truer
to Calais
with a great
Army.
Froillart.
1. i.e. 207.
Walling.



He ravages
France to the
very Gatei
of Paris.
FroiiTart.
1. 1. c. 209,
&e.
Walfing.



Act. Pub.
VI. p. 161.



grent Abilities, he knew not which way to govern fo
divided a State. Amidft tlus Corifufion, the French
lived in a kind of Anarchy. The Nobles and Officers
of the Army opprcfied the meaner Sort of People, efpe-
cially the Peafants, to whom they gave the Nick-
Name of jfatjucs Bon hommc (1). Raillery joined with
Oppreffion, driving thefe poor Wretches to Dcfpair,
they afl'embled in great Troops in le Bcauvoijin, bent
upon extirpating all the Nobles. In a Ihort time,
their Number being conliderably increafed, they became
fo formidable, that there was a Neceffity of drawing to-
gether all the Forces of the Kingdom, to difperle this
Army of Rujlicks, which daily grew ftronger. This
War, which was called the "Jaquery, created the Regent
great Trouble. It was one of the principal Caufcs, that
prevented his taking meafures to oppofe the Invalion
thveatned by the Englijh, as foon as the Truce was
expired.

During all thefe Difordcrs, King John, heartily tired
of his Confinement in England, however cafy it was,
treated Himlelf with Edward concerning his Liberty.
He could not obtain it without yielding to the Conqueror's
Terms. But, as he was fully informed of the Diftur-
bances in France, he believed he could not pure hafe too
dearly a Freedom, which might enable him to reftore
Peace in his Kingdom. Wherefore, he agreed with
Edward upon a Treaty very difadvantageous to France,
whereby he refigned feveral Provinces to the Crown of
England. The General Affcmbly of the States being
met upon this occalion in 1359, f° un d the Conditions
fo hard, that they would not ratify the Treaty. By
this Refufal, the captive King faw all his hopes vanifh.
Mean while the States plainly perceiving, they had given
occalion to renew the War, offered the Regent all necef-
fary Affiftance to procure better Terms, by way of Arms.
But they promifed more than they performed. Edward
loudly complained of being deceived, and fuddenly alter-
ing his Carriage to King John, confined him in the Caflle
of Sommerton, from whence he afterwards removed him to
the Tower of London. Doubtlefs he did not think it pru-
dent to leave that Prince at London upon his Parole, as be-
fore, whilft he himfelf fhould be in the Heart of France,
where he refolved to carry the War.

The Preparations for this frefb. Expedition were pro-
digious. An Army of an hundred thoufand Men, trans-
ported to Calais (2), was a plain Indication of his De-
sign, to make a powerful Effort to fubdue France, whilft
the Troubles of that Kingdom offered him (o fair an Op-
portunity. When his Forces were landed at Calais (3),
he divided them into three Bodies. The firft was com-
manded by the Duke of Lancajlcr, who had lately given
his only Daughter in Marriage to 'John ofGauntthe King's
fourth Son (4). The Prince of Wales headed the fecond,
and the King himfelf commanded the laft. With thefe
numerous Troops, conducted by the three moll famous Ge-
nerals then in Europe, Edward marched into France with-
out oppofition. The Dauphin not being ftrong enough
to venture to appear in the Field, w.'.s contented with
providing his principal Towns with Ammunition, without
hazarding a Battle with Forces fo unequal to thole of the
Enemy.

Mean time, Edward traverfing Artois entered Cham-
pagne, and approached Rhcims in order to furprize the
City, where fome groundlcfly affirm, he defigned to be
crowned. But milling his Aim, he fell upon Sens, which
he eafily took. The Duke of Burgundy perceiving him-
felf unable to fave his Country from plunder, obtained a
fcparateTruce for threeYears, upon promife of paying two
hundred thoufand Florins (5), and fupplying the EngHJh
Army with Provifions. Le Nivernois followed the Example






of Burgundy, but la Brie and le Gatincts were ravaged (C).
Edward\ Aim being to draw the French to a Battle, he
negleded nothing to provoke them. For that purpofe,
he went, about the end of Lent, and encamped within
feven Leagues of Paris, between Chartres and Mont It
Herry. His Approach not being capable to draw the
Dauphin out of Paris, lie advanced to the very Gates oi
the City, without fucceeding in his Defign. Though the
Smoakof the Villages fet on fire by the F.ngliflj, might
belcen from the Walls, the Dauphin, to whom was after-
wards given the Sirname of the II ife, was too prudent to
run any Hazard on this occafion. Taught by the fatal
Examples of the Kings his Father and Grandfather, he-
took care not to venture the Crown upon the Deciiion of
a Battle, where he could have little hopes of Succcefs. As
he knew Paris was able to maintain a long Siege, he kept
himfelf flmt up in the City, and all Edward's Infults
could not oblige him to alter his Refolution. He tried, The Da, ■
however, to deliver France from the impending Danger, /' ' /,;
by offering certain Propofals to his Enemy, but whi< h '
were fcornfully rejected. Edward thought he was in V'ruUart.
condition to give law, and prefcribe what Terms hepleafed »■ '•
himfelf. He feemed at firft to have formed the De- V
fign of beiieging Paris, but afterwards finding it too
difficult an Undertaking, turned back towards la Beaufe.
Cardinal de Langrcs the Pope's Legate, attended him
everywhere, and continually preffed him to bound I
Ambition, but thefe Rcmonftrances were then ineffectual.
Edward ftayed fome time in la Bcauce, from whence he
defigned to lead his Troops to the Loire. Mean while, w,..
though his Army ftill marched through very plentiful «<*'>* <W«r-
Countrics, it was daily diminifhed by Sicknefs. It was " d E /7 arJ
doubtlcfs a great Mortification to that Monarch, to fee "
the little Progrefs he had made with fo numerous an
Army. Though he was in the Heart of France, he could Rid.
not flatter himfelf with any one certain Conqueft. This
perhaps was one Reafon of his hearkening at laft to the
Legate's Solicitations, though his Change is afcribed to
another Caufe. One day, as he lay encamped in the Anextm-
Country about Chartres, a fudden and dreadful Storm arofe, ^"T/*"
accompanied with Thunder and Hail of a prodigious fize, UmtTit"."
which killed fix thoufand Horfes and a thoufand Men (7). FroiiTart.
So extraordinary an Accident was deemed by the Troops '' '' c ' : ' : '
as a Sign of God's Wrath. The King himfelf feemed
to be poffeffed with the fame Opinion, "it may be he was
very glad, this Event furnifhed him with an Opportunity,
to (hew his Willingnefs to grant a Peace to France, from
a pure Motive of Generofity, and thereby hide the Shame
of not being able, with fo fine an Army, to do any thing
more than to deftroy the open Country. Be this as 'it will,
in the midft of the Storm, he turned his Face towards
the Church of Chartres which he faw at a diftance, and
[falling on his Knees] made a vow to confent to a Peace
upon equitable Terms. The Legate improving this Dii-
pofition, earneftly preffed him to execute his generous
Defign, and prevailed with him to fend Plenipotentiaries
to Bretigny, a Village near Chartres, to treat of a Peace.
Here it was the Dauphin and his chief Counfellors appear-
ed (8) for France ; and for England, the Prince of Wales,
with fuch Affiftants as the King his Father appointed. In
a few days, a Treaty was concluded which gave fome
Intermiffion to the Calamities of France. This Peace,
which annulled all former Treaties, and ferved for Foun-
dation to new Rights, makes a very confiderable Epocha
in the Englijh Hiftory, with regard to the Difference,-
between the two Crowns. Accordingly there is no un-
derftanding the Relation of the Events which enfued,
without a perfecT; Knowledge of the Articles of this
Treaty, which therefore it is abfolutely neceffa'rv to in-
fert (9).



Wevemb. 4. Froijptrl,



(l) Or James Goldman.

(z) Walfing. relates, he had then no lefs than one thoufand one hundred Ships, p. 174.

(3) The King failed from Sandwich, O.loher 28. Rymer's Fad. Tom- VI. p. 141. He divided his Forces into thiee Bodic
I. 1. c. 206. Walfing. p. 174.

(4) Then Earl of Rithmond j Rapinhy miftake fays the King's third Son. Henry Plantagenet, Duke of Lancajler had two Daughters, Maud and Ft'em >'■
Maud, after Ihe had been married firft to Ralph Son and Heir to the Lord Stafford, and after his Death, to William Duke of Zealand, died without Mill in
1363 ; by which means the whole Eftatc fell to her Sifter Blanch, who was married to the Earl of Richmond, on April 14. at Reading, in 1360, who upon
the Death of his Father-in-law, was made Duke o\ Lancajler. Dugdale's Baron. Vol. I. p. 789. Watt. p. 173.

(5) It is in the Trealy itfelf two hundred thoufand Moutons, or Deniers of Cold. Rymer's Feed. Tom. VI. p. 16 1 . which was equal to about thirty five
thoufand Pounds Sterling, according to Mr. lyrrePs Computation, p. 625.

10) While King Ed-ajard was thus employed beyond Sea, fome Normans landed at Winchelfea, on March 15, 1359. and plundered that Town : But tic X. n.
d m n and fome other Towns, fent out, the next Year, a Fleet of eighty Ships, having on board fourteen thoufand Men ; and therewith fcoured the Seas. At
laft, landing in France, they made themfelves mafters of the Ifle of Sans. Rymer's Feed. Tom. p. 167. Walfing. p. 174. Knijhton.

'-) The Lord Mortey was killed outright, and the Lord Guy de Ecaucbamp, elded Son of the Earl of War-v. - .ci, being' mortally wounded by one of the
Hal-Stones, diedthtreof on the 2Sth Day of April following. Tyrrcl, p. 629.

(S) On the ift of May. Rymer's Feed. Tom. VI.

(9) R.ipm has fomewhat abridged mod of the Articles of this Treaty, but the Tranflator believing it to be more fatisfadlory to have them at large, has
inferted Dr. Brady's faithful Tranllation from the French, with Notes, where they were afterwards "altered and corrected by the two Kin?< at Calais' This
famous Treaty was managed by the Prince of Wales, mi Charles Regent of France, in the Names of both Kings. Commiffioners for the Enghjh were, Sir
Reginald de Ccbbam, Sir Bartholomew Burgberfii, Sir Francis Hale, Banerets ; Sir Miles Stapleton, Sir Richard la Vache, and Sir Neel I.onng, Knights, with
others of the King's Council : On the French Party were, the Eleft of Beauvais, the Chancellor Charles Lord Montmorency, McnJ„ur John de Meingrt
M.ir/nslnt France, Monfieur Aynart de h Tour Lord of Vmoy, Mmjieur Ralph de Ravenal, Monfu-ur Simon de Bucy, Knights ; Mon/leur Stephen de Paris,

and Peter ,h- la Chant/, with many others of his Council, named by King John himfelf. Ths Original, from whence" this Tranllation was made bv Dr.

Brady, rs printed in Ry kit's Feed. Tom. VI. p. 229, 178, <3c



TREATY



4J2



The H 1 STO RT of ENGLAND.



TREATY of BRETIGNT.

Edward, eldcji Son to the King of France and
England, Prince of Wales, Duke of Corn-
wal, and Earl of Chefter ; 'To all thofe who
fhall fee thefe Letters, Greeting : We make
you know, That after all the Debates andDif-
orders whatfoever, moved or flirred between
mr Lord and father, King of France and
England, on the one Part ; and our Coufins
the King, his eldefl Son, Regent of the Realm
of France, and all thofe it may concern on the
other Part ; fur the Good of Peace, it is
agreed, the eight Day of May, 1360, at
Bretigny neaY Chartres, in the manner fol-
lowing :



" I.THAT the King of England, with what he

" ■"■ holds in Gafcoigne and Guienne, fhall have, for

" him and his Heirs for ever, all thofe things which

" follow, to hold them in the fame manner the King of

" France, or his Son, or any of his Anceftors, Kings of

" France, held them : That is to fay, thofe in Sove-

" reignty in Sovereignty, and thofe in Demefn in Demefn,

" according to the time and manner hereafter declared.

" The City, Caftle, and Earldom of Poifliers, with the

" whele Land and Country of Pet clou ; together with the

" Fief of Thouars, and Land of Belleville ; the City

" and Caftle of Xaintes, and the whole Land of Xain-

" tonge, on this fide, and beyond the River of Charente ;

" the City and Caftle of Agcn, and the Land and Coun-

" try of Agenoh ; the City and Caftle and whole Earl-

" dom of Perigort, and the Land and Country of Peri-

" geux ; the City, Caftle, and whole Earldom of Limoges,

" the Land and Country of Li tnofin ; the City and Caftle

" of Cahors, and the Land and Country of Cahorfm ;

" the City, and Caftle, and Country of Tarbe, and the

" Land, Country and Earldom of Bigorre ; the Earldom,

" Land, and Country of Game ; the City and Caftle

" of Angolefm, and the Earldom, Land, and Country
cc „f J„„.i.r....:. . .u„ r^ 1 :.... i r^_/ii_ _r n.j' ..l-



Vol. L

" IV. Alfo the King of England fhall have the CaftL
« and Town of Calais ; the Caftle, Town, and Sei° -
« neune of Merk ; the Towns, Caftles, and Lordfhipt,
" ot Sangate, Cclongue, Hamcs, JFalc and Oye, witli
" Lands, Woods, Marfhes, Rivers, Rents, Lordfhips,
" or Seigneunes, Advowfons of Church.es, and all other
" Appurtenances lying between the xMeefes and Bounds
" following ; that is to fay, from Calais by the Courfe
" ot the River that goes before Graveling, and alfo by
« the Courfe of the fame River round about Lanv'le,
" and by the River which goes beyond the Pel, and
" by the fame River that falls into the great Lake of
" Guifnes, and (a to Fretun, and from thence by the
" Valley about the Hill Calculy, inclofmg that Hill, and



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 182 of 360)