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nothing but Entertainments and Diverfions, which were 564.. *
daily renewed in favour of a Prince whofe Alliance was
fo honorable to the Duke of Milan. Thefe Diverfions We <■-■•
fo lavifhly procured him, haftened his end. Five Months ''"J'
after his Marriage, he died in Montferrat in the thirty
fecond Year of his Age. By his firft Marriage with the
fole Heirefs of the Earl of Ul/ler in Ireland, he left a
Daughter called Philippa, of whofe Poiterity I fhall have
frequent occafion to fpeak hereafter (8).

Edward's Trouble for the Lofs of his Son was quick- 1369.
]y followed by another, of which he was no lefs fenfible, Charles v,
The Treaty of Bretignywzs fo difadvantagious to France, -'jj^'J^'
that Charles V, who had himfelf made it, probably con- breaking the
fented to it only with Intention to break it, the firft op- "**""} °f
portunity. The French were no better difpofed. This p^-Jf^"
quickly appeared in all the Difficulties caufed by them Waifing.
when the refigned Provinces came to be delivered to Mez «ai.
the King of England. King John was the only Perfon
that acted with Sincerity, and it was lie, that by his own
Authority prevented thefe Obftacles from being carried

(i) Thefe were the other Body of disbanded Soldiers mentioned in the Note above, who remained in France, and called themfelves the Companions.
They routed the Dukes of Orleans and Anjott, under the Command of Sir Nicholas Dagwcrtb, Son oi Thomas Dagworth, treacheronfly flain in Bretagnt
feveral Years before. As they were molt Ent^lijh, the King of England was defired to reftrain them by his Authority, who calling them home by Proclamation,
they replied, as they held nothing in England oi the King, fo neither for him, nor any one elfe, would they leave their Garrilbns and Livelihood, got with lo
much labour. Waif p. 178.

;i) He engaged to pay fifty fix thoufand Florins fir the Wages of his Army, and left his three Daughters Pledges for the Money; he transferred aifo by hfs
Charter the Cables of Vtrmefo, Lequitio, Bilbao, arid OaVu/ej, with the Province of Btfcay, to Prince Edward and his Heirs forever, wholly discharged of
all Sovereignty and Refort. Rimer's Fad. Tom. 6. p. E.I2, 521, 5?9- Barnes, p. 684.

(3) It mult be obferved that he had by private Meffengers drawn oft" the Companions (now commanded by Sir Hugh Calverley and Sir Robert Kxmcs J from
the Service of Hen ry, and they were in his Army to the Number of twelve thoufand. Waif. p. 181.

(4) And by engaging to pay him twentv thoufand Livres. Froiffart, 1. I. c. 231.

(5) On April y Renter's Feed. Tom. 6. p. <; 57. Froiffart, 1. t . e. 13S. Waif p. 1S1.

(6) A Parliament nxt this Year on May 1. which granted the King for two Years, on every Sack of Wool, thirty Shillings and Eight-p^nce, fo much of
every two hundred and fevenry Fells, and of every Lair of Skins four Pounds over and above the old Cuftom of fix Shillings and Eicht-pencc on every Sack of
Wool, and fo much on twenty dozen of Fells, and thirteen Shillings and Four-pence on every Laft of Skins. Rot. Par. 42 Eav>. III. N. 1. 8.

(7) He had with her one hundred thoufand Florins of Gold, and the Cities of Mondcvi, Alba Pomfcia, Clarafchi, and Cunci, with their Territories, and
Apiicndanccs. Ryther's Feed. Tom. 6. p. 54-.

(81 He was buried at Pavia, and afterwards brought over into Englandhy Thomas Newborn, Elq; and others, and interred at Clare in Suffolk, in the Con-
v. lit- Church of the rlugutsin Friers, near his rinl Wife Elixjltetb de Burgh. H.s young Widow Violanta was married to Otto Pa'asok^ui, MarquiJi of Msr.t-
Jerrat, ftabbtd afterwards by an Holder.





Vol. I.

Edward dip-


Act. Pub.
VI. p. 496.
Carles f.o-
mifes to pro-
ud them.

lie PrlMct

of Wales
lays a Tax
01 Guienne.

1. 1. 239,


fummons the
Prin.e of


too far. Charles his Son and Succeflbr, whom tlie French
firname the Wife, was not of fo fcrupulous a Temper. He
was nofooneron the Throne, but he tried to evade what
remained unexecuted of the Treaty. He even neglected
to do Edward Juilice upon the Duke of Anjou's Efcape,
nor delivered up the Earldom of Gaure. The Judgment
upon the Affair of Behiitle, referred to Arbitrators, was
delayed on feveral pretences. King John's Ranfom was
not paid, or if Charles paid any thing after his Acceltion to
the Crown, it was but a fmall part in refpeft of what was
yet due. Mean time Edward, who had ftill in his hands the
Dukes of Berry and Orleans, and feveral other Hoftages,
could not imagine, that Charles thought of renewing the
War, and believed his Inability to be the only Caufe of all
thefe Delays. Affairs proceeded thus flowly from the
Death of John, till his Succeffor was able to takejuft
meafures, to accomplifh his Defigns. He ever pretended
a Willingnefs to complete the Execution of the Treaty,
and, under colour of paying his Father's Ranfom, to which
he was bound, he heaped up Money very liberally fupplied
by the States, well knowing for what it was intended.
With this Aid he engaged feveral German Princes in his
Intereft, and when he thought matters ripe, fought a
pretence to break with England.

When Edward was meditating a 'War with France,
he believed it proper to attach to his Service the principal
Lords of Guienne, by feveral Grants which he revoked
immediately after a Peace. This Proceeding fo exafpe-
rated thefe Lords, that they wanted only a favorable Op-
portunity to fhow their Refentment. In all appearance,
they would have long waited in vain, if Charles had not
given them private Intimation that they fhould be fup-
ported. As foon as they werefure of his Protection, no-
thing was wanting but a pretence to complain ; and they
were not long without having one, as they thought, fuffi-
ciently plaufible, to authorize them to throw off the Mafk.
The Prince of Wales having laid upon Guienne a Tax
[called Feuage, or Chimney-Money] in order to pay the
Arrears due to the Troops levied for the Spanijh War ( 1 ),
inadvertently furnifhed his Enemies with the defired Op-
portunity to declare themfelves. The Lord d'Jlbret,
the Earls of Jrmagnac, Cominges, Perigord, and Camming,
incouraging their Vaflals to complain of this new Tax,
received their Complaints, brought them to the Prince,
and addrelled him upon that occafion. Their Remon-
ft ranees were ill received, both becaufe the Prince was in
want of Money, and by reafon of the Haughtinefs where-
with they were made. This was the very thing the Lords
wanted. On pretence they could not have Juftice from
their Prince, they applied to the King of France, whom
they fuppofed to be ltill Sovereign Lord of Guienne, and
prayed him to grant them Letters of Appeal to his Parlia-
ment. Charles not thinking proper to declare himfelf yet,
cherifhed this Difpofition, and in the mean time, kept
them at Paris. The Journey of thefe Lords, and their
long Stay at the Court of France, gave the Prince of
JFales fome Sufpicion. He writ Letter after Letter to the
King his Father, to warn him that fomething was contri-
ving at Paris againft him, but thefe Warnings were to no
purpofe. The King and his Council imagining, the war-
like Prince tired with an idle Life fought occafion to re-
new the War, were regard'efs of his Remonftrances.

WhWd Edward relied on the Sincerity of the French,
his Son's Diftemper daily growing more dangerous, turned
at laft to a real Dropfy. The Prince's ill State of Health,
and the King his Father's Infirmnefs, haftened the Refolu-
tions of the King of France. As he faw there could not be
a more favorablejunfture to execute his Defigns, he granted
the Gafeon Lords, the Letters of Appeal they required ; pre-
tending, notwithstanding his Oaths, and all his Father's Re-
fignations and Renunciations, that he was ftill Sovereign of
Guienne. He built his Pretenfions upon Edward's not
having fent his Renunciation to the Crown of France,
purfuant to the Treaty of Bretigny. But that Renuncia-
tion being only a Confequence of the full Performance of
theTieaty, Edward did not think himfelf, as indeed he
was not, bound to make it, till the whole was executed.
However he had absolutely quitted the Title of King of
France (z), a clear Evidence that he had no ill Intentions.
Belides, Charles himfelf had not been more punctual to
renounce the Provinces yielded to Englandby the Treaty of
Bretigny. Thefe reciprocal Renunciations were confidered as
the Seal of theTreaty, after the two Kings fhould be fatisfied
concerning the Execution. However that be, Charles ufed
this Pretence to fummon the Prince of Wales to appear

before the Court of Peers, to anfwer for "his pretended 1369.
Tyranny upon the People of thofe Provinces (3). The Wi'Anfumr.
Prince's high Spirit not fuffering him to bear this Affront £ "'.'c"'
without fhowing his Refentment, he replied, he would not 24 i, i+ i. '
fail to appear, but it fhould be at the head of lixty thou-
fand Men. Mean while Charles was amufing Edward,
by expoftulating with him, as if he were defirous the
Affair ihould be put in Negotiation. Edward anfwered by
giving Words for Words, not imagining they really de-
ligned to difpute his Sovereignty of Guienne, fo clearly
fettled in the Treaty of Bretigny, and much lefs that France
was able to renew the War. But he prepofteroufly flat-
tered himfelf. It was not the Sovereignty of Guienne Criar i es »„ .
only that Charles defigned to difpute, he pretended more- tends the
over that the Treaty of Bretigny was void, becaufe Ed- ^""y °f
ward had not prevented certain Plunderers (4) that came j£,Jj*
out of his Dominions, from entering France, and becaufe
he had not evacuated all the Towns that were to be refto-
red. On thefe Pretences he ordered War to be proclaimed He proclaim
by a Footman, becaufe the Prince of JFales had feized '*'•"■■
thofe that brought him the Summons. Shortly after, he • ° 2 + •
publifhed an Edict confifcating all the Lands held by the
Englifli in France, and annexed them to the Crown.

The Praifes befiowed on this Prince by the French Remarks on
Writers for fo wifely improving the Junctures that of- '*" Ru t"
fered to recover his Dominions, deferve fome Reflection.
It is true, he acted with Prudence, if Sincerity and Ho-
nefty are to go for nothing. The good Succefs his Con-
duit was crowned with, freed France for a time from
her unfortunate Condition. But if we confider it clofely,
this Prudence is real Perfidioufnefs. For even fuppofing
Edward had not executed any one Article of the Treaty,
his Non-performance did not give Charles a Right to pro-
claim War againft him. The King his Father and him-
felf had exprefsly renounced, with an Oath, all violent
Methods in cafe of Non-execution. Befides, he had not
himfelf performed all the Articles of the Treaty, fo that
all he could reafonably demand, was a Compenfation. But
it was an open renouncing of good Faith, to annul the
whole Treaty, on pretence that fome Articles remained
ftill to be performed by England, when he himfelf left
feveral unexecuted. Moreover, his Pretences of a Rupture
were fo frivolous, that the French Hiftorians not being able
to relate them precifely, confine themfelves to Generals,
without mentioning Particulars. The moft plaufible Pre-
tence alledged by Froiffart^ is this, The Prince of Wales c , 2 ,j.
not having wherewithal to pay the Troops lately returned from
Spain,_/7* thoufandMen disbandingthemfelves, and afterwards
joining again, committed great Ravages in Guienne. The
Prince defiring them to depart his Dominions, they threw
themfelves into the neighbouring Provinces of F ranee, and
plundered them unpunijhed, the French not being able to
hinder them. Suppofing the Thing to be as Froiffart re-
lates it, it was not now practicable foi the Prince of
JFales to go into France and quell thefe roving Plunderers,
who had entered that Kingdom. It appears however, he
did all that lay in his Power, fince he impofed on his
Dukedom the Feuage-Tax, in order to pay his Troops.
But Charles made this very Thing a pretence for a Rup-
ture, whence it is evident he only fought occafion to
quarrel. The fame Hiftorian fays further, that Charles
ordering the Treaty of Bretigny to be examined in his
Council, the chief Debate ran upon the Article, whereby Art.xxxvL
the two Kings renounced all violent methods in cafe of
Non-execution. He adds, he was advifed upon that
foundation to proceed to a Rupture, becaufe Edward ne-
ver ceafed to make War upon France. But he does not
fay, How or Where, neither mentions any particulars.
However, from what that Author relates, it is very eafy
to infer, that before the Treaty was examined, Charles
had refolved upon War, and, that this Examination was
only made to find fome Pretence. Mezerai fays, the oc-
cafion of the Rupture was, Edward's not withdrawing all
his Troops out of the Kingdom ; but does not name any
one Place where thefe Troops remained. Thus it is
manifeft, the French Authors were at a lofs what to

From what has been faid, it may be eafily conceded,
that Charles's Wifdom was not a very fcrupulous Virtue ;
whether he figned the Treaty with an Intention to break
it, or formed not that defign till a favorable opportunity
offered. It is therefore the Effect, and not the Caufe,
which made this Prince's Conduct to be fo much ad-
mired. Had he been as unfuccefsful, as he was fortu-
nate, he would have re-plunged France into a gulph of

( 1) At one Livte a Chimney, this Tax would have amounted to twelve hundred thoufand Livres a Year. Froiffart, 1, i. c. 239. This Tax ww laid an
by the confent of the Eftates of Guienne affembled in Parliament ; and was to laft only five Years. Ibid.

(2) And ceafed to quarter the Arms of France with thofe of England.

(3) This Citation is dated at Paris, Jan. 25. FroiJJart, 1. 1. 0.241.

(4) The Companions mentioned in a foregoing Note, and which were fent away by Prince Edv/erd faint tine after ius return fiem Sfjm.


Book X.


44 '

2369. Mifery, and thereby juftly incurred the blame of the whole ward relying on the Sincerity of the FreHtb, and the

World, and doubtk-fs, of thofe very Writers who have Juftiee of his Caufe, made no fcrup'e to enter into a:i

given him fo great Commendations. Engagement, to which he was not obliged. He v.,. 1 *5

*State °f Jf- Before I enter upon the particulars of this fecond War, plcafed, even after the Duke of /tnjou's Efcape, to ;

•^h'fJt"""' ll w ' - ^ e f artncr neceiTary to confider, how matters mife to relcafe the Duke of Berry, and the Karl
,,,..-•11. flood between the two Crowns, at the time of the Rup-

•:■ .

ture. Tlie French complained, Edward had not ccafed
to make War againft France, nor withdrawn all his
Troops out of the Kingdom, purfuant to his Engage-
ments. But thefe are general Complaints, containing no
particular Fact. Belides, it is not vary likely, that Ed-
•ward, to whom this Treaty was fo advantagious, would
have furnifhed France with a pretence to break it. The
Treaty it felf (hews, the Englijk Monarch's Engagements
were inconfidcrable, in refpedt of the advantages he reap-
ed by it. This gives occafion to prefume, that being a
Prince of great Abilities, as all mult own, he could not
be fo unwife as to raife any Obftacles himfelf againft the
execution of fo advantagious a Treaty. As for the pre-
tended Injury done the Gafcons by the Prince of Wales,
it is evident from the Treaty, that Charles had no right
to interpofe.

Alenfon, in cafe the matter in difpute was dc : .fa-
vour of France. He even carried his (Jen; : : far,
as to give thefe. two Princes leave to return home, con
tenting himfelf with taking their word, that if the Affai;
was determined in his favour by the Arbitrator:, thej
would come back to England and remain in Hoftage,
only till he was in poffeifion of the Territory in dif
pute. Thefe two Prince, embraced his Generality, ai '
returned to France. Mean while, the Affair Was left
undecided, and the Hoftages thought no more of return-

The Earl of fit. Pol obtained his Liberty, upon leaving I
his two Sons in his room.

Charles el' Artois made his Efcape without taking

The Lords of Luxemburg, Ejlampes and Her.gefr, died
in England, and Charles fent not other Hoftages in their

It was not the fame with refpedt to the Englifl), whofe room, though he was often required.

Complaints appear much more juft. It is true, King
John, whofe Sincerity can never be too much commend-
ed, performed the Treaty to the utmoft of his power.
He was no fooner returned into his Dominions, but he
ratified every Article, feparately , by particular Acts.
Then, not content with the fwearing himfelf to the ob-
fervance thereof, he obliged the Dauphin his Son, who
was to fucceed him, to take the fame Oath. So that all de-

The Earl of Harcourt had leave for a certain time, and A / K ''
returned no more. u ' '

Guy de Blais did the fame thing ; but agreed afterwards p. ;68.
with Edward, by giving him Soijfons.

Montmorency, Boucherc'oe and Maulevrier, had leave to '' :• ' ''
go to France, but took care never to return. It is likely, - c6 *'
however, they gave the King fome Satisfaction, fince we
do not find any Complaint againft them in the Cclledion

feels in his Engagements, by reafon of his Captivity, of the Publick Acts, from whence I have taken thefe par-
were removed by his Ratifications, when at full Liberty ticulars.

in his own Territories. Performance was a Mill more au- As for the other Hofiages of lefs note, and the

thentick Confirmation than Promifes or Oaths. He put Burgeffes of the Towns, whereof Totdoufc neglected to

Edward in poffeiTion of the Lands refigned by the Treaty, fend Her's, Edward generoufly g.'ve fome their Freedom,

without any rcferve, and paiticularly thofe held of Gut- and the reft compounded for their Ranfom, or died in Eng-

enne. If he had not meant to give up the Sovereignty land.

with the Lands, it is not credible that he, and the Prince As for King John's Ranfom, there fs. ill remained un-

his Son, fhould make no exception of that Sovereignty, paid, near two Millions. . It is true, Edward received

either in the Treaty it felf, or in any of the Ratifications of Charles, at fcveral times, about three hundred thou-

of each particular Article. At lead: they would not have fand Crowns, which, added to what was paid by the

neglected to make a Proteftation, when Edward erected King his Father, amounted to little more than the firft

Guienne into a Principality, and inverted the Prince his
Son, without the participation of France. Indeed, there
was a Difpute between the two Kings, concerning two
inconfidcrable Territories, but not to quarrel for luch a
Trifle, the matter was put to Arbitration. As for the
Ranfom, King John's Inability was the fole Caufe of his
not paying it at the time appointed. Edward was fo well

Million, which was due feven or eight Months be-

It appears then, that Edward was the only Perfon
wronged, and yet Charles pretended, the Treaty of Bre-
tigny was void, by the Ncn-Performance of fome Arti-
cles on the part of England; Articles, which no niftorian
has diftindtly mentioned. Upon this foundation he aiTert-
tatisfied of that Prince's Sincerity, that he made no fcruplc ed r that France, reftorcd to her antient Right, might juftly
to prolong the time of Payment, in order to give him confifcate the Provinces refigned to England. Alter thefe
fome refpite. This Moderation was the reafon why at Remarks, which feemed neceflary for clearing this Fail,
the time of King John's Death, there remained ftill to it is time to refume the thread of the Hiftory.
pay, two hundred thoufand Crowns of the firft Million. Edward was extremely furprized to find that Charles p n ;hien
Moreover, in expectation, that John, or the Dauphin his who paffed not for a Warrior, durft attempt to enter into ' ' " ' -
Son, would pay him in time, Edward was not fo ftrict competition with a Prince that had gained fo many Bat- ',, '
How tie w ' tn re t ar d to the Hoftages as he fhould have been. I ties. He was ftill more aftoniihed, fhortly after, when r.
French Ho- have obferved he readily confented, that Prince Philip, he heard that the Earldom of Ponthicti was feized (r), c "; tmc ''-
"'afterwards Duke of Burgundy, fhould be one of the Ten and the principal Cities of Guienne were in Arms againft j- r ..,-..
to be releafed by the XVIIth Article of the Treaty, tho' him. He fummoned a Parliament (2), which granted 1. i.c! 24G,
it was in his Power to give- one of lef; Diftinction. All him a great Aid to maintain fo necelLrv a War,
the reft had in England all the Liberty they could reafona- wherein he was unwillingly engaged. By the Advice of fte g .;
bly defire. The Colleclion of the Publick Act 's*\s full of this Parliament, he re-afiiimed the Title of King of, . .-„,
Licences granted them, to go and take care of their private France, which he had relinquifhed fince the Peace .(.3). °f Fi
Affairs in France. The Duke of Anjou, the Earls of Grand- After obtaining this Aid from his Subjects, and a pofi- y "„' , ',',
pre and Brenne, the Lords of Clcre and Derval abufed tive Promife to fupport him as long as the War fhould 643.
this favour, and all Edward's Inftances could not procure laft, his firft Care was to fend Troops to the Prince ofW»ii
him the leaft Satisfaction upon that Article. Wales, to recover the Cities of Guienne. Then he dif-

Froiflart, The Duke of Orleans, by the Grant of certain Lands patched the Duke of Lancajler, his fourth Son, to Calais

1. :.c 243. to Thomas of IVaodJlock, one of the King's Son's, procu-
red his own with the Freedom of Audrefel one of the Pri-

The Duke of Bourbon having opportunity to do the
King fome Service with the Pope, was fet at liberty, on that difturbed Edward's Repof
payment only of twelve thoufand Crowns, given by the of his
Prince of Wales to the Perfon that took him at Pair- fliction
tiers. Union, and had by her twelve Children

of EJwaiti's
A«. Pwb.
VJ. P . 396
39S, 419.

p. 411


VI. p


p. 48S,

with a powerful Army. But the Duke's Progrefs ended
only in ravaging the open Country, without making any

The renewal of the War was not the only thing D

this Year. The Lois
Queen was to him a very great increafe of Ai- A ■■■ . -
. He had lived with her' forty Years in perfect )

1 his g

Ih. p.



The Affair of Beiville being put to Arbitration, Ed- Queen was likewife extremely lamented by the People,

(1) By Guy Com! dt St. Paul, and Sir Hugh de Cbaftillon, Matter of the Oofs-Bows of France. Ftciji 1. I. c. 24G.

(»] This Parliament met at Wijirmnjier, May 27. and granted the King f,r thiee Years, of Den. zens inner) Sack of Wool, forty 'hrec Shilihps
and Four-pence; of every twenty Dozen of Fells, forty three Shillings and Four-pence ; and 0' every Laft ..f Skin?, four Taursas- O' Al ens. for every
Sack of Wool, fifty three Shillings and Four-pence ; and of every twenty dozen o' Fe Is, fifty three ?hi, lings and Four-peace ; and of ever) Lafl of Skins,
five Pounds fix Shillings and Eight-pence, over the old Cultom. Rot. Purl. 43 Edtu. III. N. I, 9, 1C. Cctt'tm'a Atridg. p res, ($C. There was, it
leems, another Parliament this Year ; which was fitting, when the French Valet came to London, and declared War againit Lng U-.d. Sec B^ret, p. 739.
Froif. c. 246.

(3}This Year the King fet fonh an Order f.r the arming of ai Clergymen. Part of it runs thus : " The King commands and rcqi ires all the Pre-_
" lates nffemblcd in Parliament, that :n regard of the great Danger and Damage, which may happen to the Rcaim and Church ot i.-^tar.d by realcn of*

■ < this War, in cafe the Enemy (h mid invade the Kingd m, that they will appear themielves in the Defence of the Realm, and C11 :e their Tenants,

■ < Dependants, Monks, Parfons, Vicars, iff. to be prepared fir the Field in a military Manner, and be ready t , . antcr the Foue, and oiappoini
■ the Malice of his Enemies. " Ail which the Plates in Parliament engaged to perform. Rot. in Tur. Load, in'4; Edvi-d III. Rjmr, Tom. 6. p. 631.

No. XXIII. Vo,, I





Vol. I.

1 369.


Dratb of
1. I. c. 169




who had always found her ready to relieve them in their
Neceffities. The Poor efpecially were great lofers by her

Death ( 1 ).

The War was continued in France to the Advan-

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