M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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promife he would not difcover himfelf. This difobed*-
ence exafperating the Duke- of Lancajler, he fent the two
Knights to the Tower, from whence however they made
their efcape, and took refuge in the Church of IVeJlmm-
Jler. This Sanctuary was not capable of faving them.
The Duke of Lanca/ler fending Soldiers into the
Church (8) to bring them away, one of the Knights '■/)
was retaken, but the other (10) defending himfek, wa =
flain with a Monk, who too warmly took h is part. Tit
Archbifhop of Canterbury excommunicated all that were
concerned in the breach of the Church's privileges ; -but
the Duke's authority prevented any farther prufecution of
the affair. Sometime after, the King taking upon him tu
pay the Spanijh Earl's ranfom, it "was difcovered, to the
People's great admiration, that the young Lord, r.ot to be
forced to break his promife, had all along attended, in a
Footman's Habit, the Perfon to whom he nad given his

Mean time, the Duke of Lancajler, who was vexed T% t D^ f
to fee the Money granted the King by the Parliament, gets ' ' "'«-
in the hands of two Citizens of London, prompted not "?£"?
the equipment of the Ships, for the defence ol the Coafts.. „.-,« .-*.•» bit
This affected negligence occafioned many complaints. H*^<-
But he pretended, he could not form any project, left it y/ * i£a &
fhould not be approved by thofe, who had the manage-
ment of the Money. In fine, he (o importuned the other
Regents, that the two Aldermen were ordered to put
into his hands the fums they were charged with. He
promifed for his parr, that the Coafts fhould be better
guarded, and the Merchant-men protected. However, he
rtill delayed a confiderab'e time (ending out a Meet, be-
caufe he expected from Bayonnc fome Ships which were to
join thofe he equipped.

Whilft the Fleet was preparing, the Earls of /run- TnK'mgc-f
del (11), and Salisbury (1 ;) had orders to go to Normandy, Na»«re dc-
and take polTeiTion of Cherbourg, which the King of Na- ^'" ■
varre had promifed to deliver to the Englijb. They had Ergiuh.
fcarce left the Coafts of England, when they were met by froiflkrt,
fome Spanilh Men of War, whofieicely attacked them (13), ,"*'
and did them fome d?mage. Not vithftanding this ob- a&. PkH.
ftacle, they put a Garrifon into Cherbourg, which afforded VU- P' J 9 6 »
the Englijh an inlet into Normandy, as Calais did into "

Before the Fleet, defigned for the guard of the Coafts, pj^ipot £.
was quite ready, one Mercer, a Scotch Pyrate, feeing the/""! a
Englijh neglected the northern Seas, entered the Port of * co ' th F "'
Scarborough, and carriel away the Merchant-men that did'rnat
lay there. This fuccefs infpiring him with greater hopes, Damage*
he long cruifed in thofe Seas, and took confiderable prizes. "* E £ £ '*
The damage fuftained by the Merchants on this occa- Walfing. '"
fion, caufed hefh complaints againft the Duke of Lancajler,
who fo ill performed his piomiie. Phi/pot, before-men-
tioned, full of indignation to fee the EngliJIj Merchants
expofed to the ravages of this Pyrate, undertook, at his
own expence, what the Duke neglected to do with the
publick Money. He fitted out fume Ships, and with a
thoufand Soldiers, went in queft of the Scotch Pyrate,
whom he defeated, and taking him Prifoner, returned in
triumph to London. This action , which gained him
the applaufes of the People, offended the Regents, who
thought it of dangerous confequence, to fuffer a private
Perfon to undertake a thing of that nature, without the
Government's permiilion. But he made fo good a de-

ft) But Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland entering Zealand, at the head of ten thoufand Men, walled and plundered the Country for three Days, espe-
cially the Etrl of Dunbar't Lands ; for it was he that had furprized Roxborough. Waljing. p. 198.

tx Oclobcr 13. Rot. Pari. I R cb. n. ,1/. I, &c. Cot'on't Abndg. p. 154.

. 3) Namely, the Bilhops of London and Salisbury ; Edmund Earl of March, Richard Earl of Arundel ; William Lard Latimer, John Lord Cobham; Sir
Rogtr de Beaucbamp, and Sir Richard de Stajford, Knights bannerets ; John Knyvet, Ralph de Ferreres, John Dtniiriux, and Hugh de Segraw, Knights
Bstchell. rs. Rymer'l Fad. Tom. 7. p. 161.

(4) He thereupon withdrew from Ccurt, and retired to Kintlwcrtb Caftle ; but, probably, it was not lill after the Parliament here mentioned, for it is
certain the Duke was at this Parliament. Walling, p. 198. fyrrel, p. 832. See Cotton's Abridg p- 155.

(5) Two Fifteenths and two Tenths out of Citiei and burroughs ; the Fifteenths of all Lands whatlocver, and Tenths of all manner of Goods ; to be
levied between that and Candkma's enfuirig ; and to be dcptfited in the Hands of William Walhvorlh, and John Fbi,f t, Meichants of Lonaon. Cottons;
Abridg. p. 1 56. Walfing. p. 2C0

(6)^The Articles allcdgtd againft her, were, I. That the, 'n the Time of Edward HI, procured Sir Nicholas Dagworrb to be recalled from Ireland
where he was lent ' And 2. That ihe prr cured frcm the fime King a Remittance ot three hundred Pounds, due from Richard l.y:ns to the Exchequer -
and f«rihtr, procured him a Grant cf a thou and Marks, as a Gilt, tut, as Sir Robert Cotton oblerves, the Rec id proves no fuch helm us ,S a:ter ■ rnlv
that the was in Inch Crtdit with Edivc-rd III, as the fat at his Bed's head, when all ot the Council and of the Piivy-Chamber ftood w.ii-inz. with u:
doors, and that ih J - moved thofe Suits wheh they dared not j and thele twoSu.cs for whit.h the was condemned, feemed vcy honclt j her m lhap was that
ftie was trendiy to many, but all were not fo to her. Abridgement, p. 158.

(7) >he married, not long after the Sentence, Sir Wiliam de Wir.dtjlre, a Perfon of Note; aid ootwithftanding this Ordinance, they both, in the next
Parliament, petit.oned for a Revocation for divers Errois therein recited, and thereupon obtained a Revel til of the lame. Rot, Farl. 2 A.-t/j. | it N. 36.

{8; Sir Alan de Buxholl Conftablc of the Tower, and Sir R.Fcirars, with fifty armed Men. Walling, p. 214, 215.

(9) John Sbaiel.

jlo) Rcbirt Uaule, he was butied under a Brafs plated Stone in Wejlmwjler Abbey. Wal/ingbam calls them valiant 'Se/uirtl, and fays, they be! need
to Sir Join Cbandos, p. 214.

(II) Richard Fliz-Alan,

(i2j William de Montacute.

(13) Namely, a Squadron commanded by Sir Philip and Peter Courtney, two Brothers. Sir Peter efcaped ; but Sir Philip was taken 1'iifoner Ttrrcl
p. 839. '


Book X.




Setifi* "•

tee • :i ■ o.

Wi • ■ ■
Froi' 1 1 r
I. z. 9.

grfi ofrbc

the Duke if
undertakes to
refiore the
Duke of
I. i.e. 314.
A&. Pub.


hvt csxnrit
bring It

fence, and with fo much Modcfty, that Ire was difmifTed
without further trouble.

The late l-jchifni formed in the Church bv the double
Election of Urban VI, and Clement VII, employed the
P. rliament (bine time, w;,ich met in October 137*!.
h ami efpoufed the Caufe of Clement, and perhaps that was
the- pnncipal rcafon of England's declaring for Urban.
However, as the mutter is ftated by the friends of Cle-
ment themfelves, it cannot be denied, that his Election
was very irregular. The rife of the Schifm was this.

Gregory XI, leaving Avignon, upon certain pretended
Re stations', in order to rehde at Ro?i,e, died March the
7th, 1378. Of the three and twenty Cardinals then in
being, tix remained at Avignon ; one was a Legate, and
the lixteen others, of whom twelve were Frenchmen, and
flour Italians, were at Rome when Gregory died. Thefe
Jail being entered the Conclave, to proceed to the Elec-
tion of a Pope, were greatly embirralfed. Their intent
was to ( hide a Frenchman ; but as they forcfaw the People
of Rome woiild oppofe it, they refolved to give them a
feeming fatisfadtiOn, by pretending to elect an Italian.
But they agreed firll among themfelves, that as foon as
they were at full Liberty, they would chufe another, who
fhould be the true Pope ; a project which could hardly
fail of begetting a Schifm. According to this agreement,
of which we could have no certainty, but by their own
Confeffion, they elected the Archbifhop of Bary, a Nea-
politan, who allumed the name of Urban VI. The E-
lection was notified to all Chriitian Princes as Canonical,
even by the Cardinals the Electors, and for fome time
they themfelves acknowledged Urban for head of the
Church. And yet, whetiier in confequence of their a-
greement, or, as fome affirm, becaufe Urban treated them
too haughtily, thefe fame Cardinals leaving Rome on pre-
tence of great heat, met at Anagnia, and elected one of
the Cardinals of Avignon, who ttiled himfelf Clement VII.
Thefe two Elections by the fame Perfons, long employed
the molt noted Divines in Europe, and occafioned a Schifm,
which lafted above thirty Years. It ought not to feem
ftrange, that it was fo difficult to decide, which of the
Popes was head of the Church : It would have been
much eafier to find good reafons to reject them both.
However, the Schifm divided all Chriftendom, each State
declaring for one or other of the two Popes, not fo much
on account of the Right of the Parties, as for political
Reafons. France, whofe intereft it was that the Pope
fliould relide at Avignon, joined with Clement, and for a
contrary reafon, England thought it more advantagious to
adhere to the Pope of Rome.

Whilft the two Pontiffs were darting their Spiritual
Thunders againft one another, the Duke of Lancajler
equipped his Fleet, which had been fo long preparing.
His defign was not only to guard the Coafts as he had in-
gaged : He had in view a more important expedition,
namely, to reitore the Duke of Bretagnc, difpoflefled by
the King of France, with the connivance of the Lords
of Bretagne, whom he had gained to his interefts. This
unhappy Prince, feeing himfelf abandoned by moft of his
Subjects, came into England towards the end of Edward's
Reign, to demand his affiffance ; but lohng that refuge
by the death of his Father-in-law, retired to the Earl of
Flanders, his relation and ally. During his flay in that
Country, a French Envoy, who was going to Scot/and,
being flopped on the way, bv the Earl's Order, Charles
pretended it was done by the Duke of Bretagne's mitiga-
tion, and indited upon the Earl's difmiffing him from his
Court. The Earl, not believing, his being Vafl'al obliged
him to that condefcenfion, furniflied the King by his
refufal, with the pretence he was apparently feeking, to
be revenged of the Duke another way. He Cent into
Bretagne an Armv, to compleat the ruin of that unfor-
tunate Prince, wlio was unable to refill him. England
was too much concerned to fupport him, not to make
fome effort in his favour. The Duke of Lancajler find-

ing his Fleet ready for Sea, went on board himfelf, and ,578.
fet fail for Bretagne, where he laid tiiege to St. Malo.
But lie met with fo many obftacies from l)u Guifdin,
who commanded the trench Army in thofe Parts, that he
was forced to defifl from his entcrpri/e.

This ill fuccefs would have perhaps difcouraged the nl ,.,, t
Evglijh, had not the Duke of Bretagne repaired to Eng- Bretagne J,',
land, and offered to deliver to the King the Town of * w ' Bre <*
Brejl, during the War, provided he would lend him an *£ En -
Aid proportioned to his wants. So advantagious an offer Waiting.
mfpircd the King's Council with frefh hopesi fince it Aa - Pu ^
would enable them to make from that fide a powerful ££ f ;'* 7 '
diverhon, which could not but be very troublefome to
France. And indeed, if the Englifli had wifely improved
their advantages, it would have been in their power td
invade France from four feveral Quarters, namely, Gui-
enne, Picardy, Normandy, and Bretagne, by means of
Bordeaux, Calais, Cherbourg, and Brejf, which gave the
Englijh fo many inlets into that Kingdom. Richard's
Council refolving to embrace fo favorable a Juncture, 7 ^""
accepted the Duke of Bretagne's offer, and made with "jpji "bim.
him a Treaty, upon the foot propofed by himfelf. The
Parliament, which was confulted on this affair, approving
the Council's defigns, granted a very ccmfiderable Subfidy,
to execute a project that was likely to procure great ad-
vantages to the Stale. Belides the Party the Duke of
Bretagne had^ftill in his own Country, feveral of his Ad-
verfarics began to wifh for his Reftoration, not being nble
to bear, without extreme uneafinefs, the infolcr.ee of the
French. But as the ftrong holds were in the hands of the
friends of France, the faithful Subjects could undertake
nothing, unlefs fupported by the Englijh, who were,
with all poffible diligence, preparing the promifed Sup-

Mean while, the King of France, who faw the ga-
thering ftorm, took meafures to divert it, by procuring ^ %"*_
from the fide of Scotland, a diverfion, to hinder the Eng- wick.
lijh from carrying their Arms abroad. The King of Bu «l»ntft
Scotland, gained by the prefents and promifes of the JSJSr
French Monarch, fuddenly broke the Truce, and took I! i. c. j.
Berwick Cattle, by furprize (1), the Town having been
difmantled in the former Wars. The Earl of Northum- ThlEllrlcf
berland (2), Governor of the northern Counties, furpriz- n turn-
ed at the lofs of that place, which was imputed to his h " land r '*
negligence, drew together a Body of Troops (3) with fuch ,J *" ""
fpeed, that he was at Berwick before the Scots had notice
of his defign. Immediately after he inverted the Cattle,
and feizing a Bridge, the only Pafs by which Succours
could be thrown into the place, pufhed the Siege fo vi-
goroufly, that in nine days he took it by Storm. Dovg-
lafs (4) who was advancing to raife the Siege, finding
himfelf difappointed, haftily retired into his Country; to
avoid a Battle. He was purfued by the Earl of Northum-
berland, who to retard the Enemies retreat, detached a
Body of fix hundred Men (c), under the conduct of
Mufgrave (6), with orders to amufe them, without inga-
ging too far. But whilft he was him<e!f advancing with A D t
the reft of his Army, he had intelligence, that his detach- mnttfvL
ment was fallen into an ambufli, and entirely defeated (7). glifli A/«f.
Henry Percy his Son, fignalized himfelf, both at the"*"
Siege of Berwick, and in the late Action, and gave ex-
traordinary proofs of his great Courage, which gained
him the lirname of Hot/pur. The Plague beginning to
rage in the northern Counties, obliged the two Nations'
to a better obfervance of the Truce, without a new Trea-
ty (8).

Mean time, the preparations for the affiftance of the
Duke of Bretagne were vigoroufly carrying on. But as. 7 '-' 7 ^'
the expence rofe higher than was imagined, the Parlia- tie Noi'tii
ment 19) granted the King another Subfidy, the burden <"d Clergy.
whereof was entirely borne by the Nobility and Clergy. ^^j.j
Archbifhops, Bifhops, Dukes, Earls, and [mitred J Ab- N.V02."
bots, were taxed at ten Marks (ic) each, betides forty vVal6nt$.
Pence to be paid by the Abbots for every one of their Monks. ^J' 1

(1) It was fuiprizcd toward; the ht'er end of November, by Alexander Ramfey, and forty two young Fellows, in the middle of the Night, when the
Ceminel was afleep. Bulbar:. 1. 9. Sir Robert dc Boynton was Governor. H'alJ. p. 219.

(2) Henry de Percy.

(3) To the Number of ab ut ten thoufand. inz. three thoufand Men at Arms, and feven thoufand Archers. With whom were fnbn Mowhray, Earl of
Kottingbam, the Lords Nevil, Lucy, Stafford, &c- Froij/art, 1. 2. c. 6.

(4) Archibald D'ugliJ', whom Freiffart calls Confrable of Ststlaid, i. 2. c. 6.

(5) R,Tf:n by miilake fays fix thoufand. This Body confilled only of three hundred Lances, and the fame number of Archers. See FrciJJart, 1. 2. c. 7.

(6) Sir Thomas Mulvraue.

(7} iVbrut a hundred and for'y of the EngUjb were taken Prifoters, and with them Sir Tbcmai Mufgrave. Ibid.

(S) A Parliament was held this Year, which met at GloceJIer, Oflcbcr 20, and gr?m:d the King the former Subfidy rf Wool, Leather, and Wool-fells
for tiiree Ytars : Of Wool, forty three Shillings and ti.ur-pence the Sack ; of Wool-fells' as much, that is, for every [wo hundred and forty of thonj
( accounting a hundted and tw^n'y to the hundred ; ) and fur Leather K<ur I ounds fix Shillings and Eieht-p^rce every L*ft, wh-.h were exported bv Deni-
zens and Stiangers, btfides the antient t uftim. And, 3S an additional Grant, they gave befides, thirteen Shillings and Four-pence for every S-ick ot Wool
35 much fur every two hundied and tony Vvool-lclls. aid for every Laft rf Leather twenty fix Shillings and Eifht-pence. Alfo they give Sixpence in
the Pound for every PtUno value of Menhandize, as well of Dcni/ens as Strangers, bith imported and exported for one Year. Brady, p. -•,%. Ccttcn'i
jttbridg. p. 1-3. il-f- I'.irl. 2 Jc.c. 11. Pa. I. N. I, 2. &c.

(9) 1 his Parliament mtt Jifrtl 2;, at rVc/lminJIer, and to k oft the Mark up.'n every Sack of Wool, and the Six-pence : n the Pound f r all Mer.kan-
3izc, given in the lull Parliament, but granted the King the Subfidies of Wools lor one Year longer ; and a certain Sum ot Money of all D.-grees ol Men
fr m the tVghell to the lowed ; name y, every Jultice of the two lienches, with the ch'ef Baron, was to pay live Pninds ; an Earl four Pounds ; the'
Mayor of LadM four Pounds j every Alderman for:y Shillin|s, and a Baron the fame jeveiy Adv. cate at Law forty Shillings. Brady's Jpp:nd. N. 102.
C««»'J Aindg. p. i6S,' (10) H'alfrigbdmiiis, fix Marks, p, 221.


45 6


The King
cf Francs


The reft of the Clergy and Nobility, and all that had
Places, being rated according to their incomes, the Sub-
fidv produced very confidence Sums.

The King of France was in a great paffion with the
Duke of Bretagne, for attempting to recall the Englijh
into his Country. At leaft, he made that a pretence to
fummon him before the Court of Peers, where the Duke

Enterprize, with an Army confifting only of eight thou- 138c
fand Men, had not the Duke of Burgundy., who kept
clofe to him all the way, with much more numerous
Forces, received exprefs Orders from the King of France
his Brother, not to attack the Englijh. That Monarch
had a furer way to be rid of his Enemies ; namely, by a
reconciliation with the Duke of Bretagne, who defired

not to appear. But the Widow of Charles de peaceably to enjoy his Duchy, of which he faw no like-

Bloh fent Agents to the King, to reprefent to him, that lihood, as long as France was his Enemy. For this reafon,

lie had no manner of Right to confifcate Bretagne, which the Duke of Buckingham meeting with little oppohtion,

was not originally a Fief of the Crown of France. She committed great Ravages upon his rout. Whilft he was Daah ' '/

maintained, Tf any of the former Dukes had thought pro- marching, the King of France died, leaving for Succeffor ££"!« vi

per to fubmit to any perfonal fervices to the Kings of Charles VI, his eldeft Son, about twelve years of Age. j uca ,j,,
Frame, it was not in their power to (ubjed the Dukedom,
without the confent of their People. But the Court, re-
gardlefs of thefe Remonftrances, decreed the Confifcation
of Bretagne to the King's ufe. This proceeding convin-
cing the Bretons, that Charles's Quarrel was not fo much

with the Duke as the Duchy, they were afraid of falling Treaty with the new King (7), who granted him what-

under the Dominion of France, and feeing their Country ever he could defire.
Tit Bretons a Province of that Kingdom. This apprehenfion occafi- The pofture of affairs being changed by this agree- The Englifh.

oned an aflbciation of the great Men, which ended at ment , the Englijh were very coldly received in Bre- -£°'.^*-

length in recalling their lawful Sovereign. The Duke tagne. The Duke did not openly declare himfeif at , ™. c ar s ' s<

receiving the agreeable news, haftened his return into his firft, becaufe the Englijh were in pofleffion of Brejl. Waiting.

Dominions, in expectation of the Succours preparing for However it was eafy to fee he had no defign to make

him in England. He was received by his Subjects with ufe of them, fince all the Towns denied them admit-

great Demonftrations of Joy ( 1 ). Mean while, as the tance. At length, the Duke opened his mind to the

His death might have been very advantagious to the Eng-
lijh, if the Duke of Bretagne had firmly adhered to their
Interefts. But the Duke thinking it his wifeft courfe to Ouh of Bre.
take advantage of the confuiion of the Court of France, t'gne maket
in the beginning of a Minority, fpeedily concluded his L/.acJ? c

recal thel
1. *. c. 37

V. ailing.

principal places were in the hands of his Enemies, he
earneft Iv intreated the Court of England to fend him fome
Troops to fupport him, till a more powerful Supply fhould
be ready. Upon thefe inftances, the Council difpatched

Duke of Buckingham, and making the beft excufe he
could, provided him with Ships to return into Eng-
land (8).

The Plague which raged at the fame time in England Truce -with
fome Ships with Troops (2). But they were for the moft and Scotland, caufed the Truce to be renewed between tbe^^?'
part loft in a violent Storm. two Kingdoms till the next Eajier.

lie War All this while, the French and Englijli continued the Though it was agreed that the Parliament fhould not Parliament.
cmiiimet *'- War in feveral Places, but without coming to a decifive meet under a twelve-month, fome unexpected affairs obli- Waifing.
WErfJar." Battle. The Governor of Cherbourg (3) gained fome ad- ged the King to affemble it in Novemler (9), in order to Abridg.*
Waiting. ' vantage over the French, who had quickly their revenge, demand a frefh fupply of Money, which was according - ■
by taking feveral Merchant Men. ly granted, to enable him to execute the refolutions which

1380. 7'hc Parliament which met in Oclober 1380 (4), gran- I fhall prefently fpeak of. But whereas the Nobility and Poll-Tax

Parliament. tcc ] t i le King a new Aid to continue the War with Fran

and Scotland, as well as to affift the Duke of Bretagne.
.-;;., a wfl This Parliament is famous for a Statute againft the Blood

Aim Kale- fuckers, who had long devoured the Land. I mean,
fiafikU. t ] )e f ore jg n Ecclefiafticks, who by this Statute were ren-
dered incapable of holding any Benefice in England. But

F> 1



Clergy had fupphed the former Subfidy, this was levied Wal( i' ! B-
by way of Poll-Tax, from which no Perfon was exempt-
ed, not even the very Monks and Nuns. All a-
bove fifteen Years old were to pay Twelve-pence a

One cannot but very much wonder, that whilft the Refoht to
as this probably would not be fufficient to curb the Court Kingdom was actually ingaged in a War with France a JJ'fi p ° rtu -
of Rome, who did not think herfelf bound by Acts of Par- and Scotland, the King's Council fhould think of leaving qI^i?."^
1 lament, another Statute was made, to render the Pope's it unprovided, by fending Troops to the King of For- a&. Pub.
favours, in this refpect, fruitlefs to Foreigners. By this tugal who was in war with Cajiile. But private intereft vn ; p. 254.
Act, all the King's Subjects were forbid, on fevcre Pe- prevailed above that of the publick, as is ufual in the i!°uTli.
nalties, to farm Benefices conferred on Strangers by the Councils of the Kings, efpecially during Minorities. 62.
Court of Rome. This was properly attaining the fame The motive of this refolution, feemingly fo little agree-
end another way. For the Pope ufually giving Englijh able to the State of the Kingdom, was this. Ferdinand
Benefices to his Domefticks, to Italian Bifhops and Car- King of Portugal, had undertaken againft John King of
dinals, thefe Men could neither refide on their Benefices, Cajiile, Son of Henry the Bajlard, a War beyond
nor find any Farmers in the Kingdom. At the fame his ftrength. He had been fo unfuccefsful, that inftead

nent petitioned the King to expel all fo- of making Conquefts upon his Enemy, he had drawn

him into his Dominions. The ill fuccefs of this War

Hire, the Pai

reign Monks, for fear they fhould give the Englijh im
preflions deftruiStive of the good of the State.
The Earhf After the Parliament's care of the Ecclefiaftical affairs,
Warwick a ]j t ne King's Governors were removed, as well to re-
nierx'irl' trench the great expencc, as becaufe their Number was
Walling. prejudicial to his education. Inftead of thefe Lords, Tho-
mas de Beauchqmp Earl of Warwick was chofen to have

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