M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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the fole care of educating the King.
CmtmiJJi'itrs Sir.ce Richard's acceflion to the Throne, his Revenues
tuexamwe j 5a j < 0( . En f ,]j managed, that theHcufeof Commons want-
fr;„J s s, td to know on whom the blame was to be laid. To that

made him court the Alliance of the Englijh, in order to
obtain Succours againft the Cnjiilians, their common
Enemies. Though it was by no means proper to fend
Troops fo far , when England could hardly defend her
own Coafts, the Duke of Lancajlcr's credit was fo great
in the Council, that it was refolved, Ferdinand fhould
be affifted. This refolution was coloured with the pre-
tence of hindering the growth of the King of Cajiile,
mortal Enemy of the Englijh ; but the Duke of Lan-
cajlcr's private intereft was the fole motive. This
Prince, who had affumed the Title of King of Caf-
tile, on account of his Marriage with Conjlantia el-

•venues tad end, fourteen Commifiioners were appointed to examine to
teen put ic wr]at u f es tne Revenues of the Crown had been put, and

to lay their report before the next Parliament, which was deft Daughter of Peter the Cruel, hoped that by fending

not to meet under a twelvemonth. Troops into Portugal, they might be ferviceable in

jheVuieef Shortly alter, the Succours defigned for the Duke of promoting his own Affairs. And therefore, after

Bucking- Bretagne being ready, the command was given to the the Parliament's approbation of the intended Expedi-

*l™j%'jiance Duke of Bm kingkam (5) the King's Uncle. This Prince tion , and Grant of a Supply to carry it on, he cauf-

oftceDuke landed at Calais (6), in order to go to Bretagne by Land, ed the Command of the Troops to be given to the

■/ Breogne. p er j- ia p S j JE wou j,J have found it difficult to perform his Duke of Cambridge his Brother, defigning fpeedily to

Froiilart, *

1 i- c. 42.
v. alfing*
Aft. Pub.

(!) Hl- »d! convi w> bj 5 r Ikimal Peny, and Sir 'Hugh Calverly, and landed on Auguft 4, at a Port near St. Malo't. Waifing. p. 22 c, 126.

(2) Two hundred Men .-A Aim<, and lout hundred Aichers, under the Conduct of bir Join Arundel, the two Knights mentioned in the laft Note, and

VII. p. 223, many other Knights and Efquires; Sir Join Annaets Shp was loft, and himfeif drowned ; as likewile twenty five more J and above a thoufard Men.
256. Thi: happened on Oecemher 16. Waljipg. p. t}2, 235. FniJJhrt, 1. 2. c. 38. Stow, p. 282.

(3) Sir Jot"! Horltjlcn, wbo being (banned tor want of Prcvilions, fallicd with the beft part of his Garrifon, to go and fetch fome in: In his return he
was met by a Paity rf French, with whom encountering, he was knocked down, and ray for dead, but was rel'cued by Sir Geoffrey Worfclte. Walfm.g.
p 223.

(+1 This Parliament, uh'ch Ro/in here paces in Odder 13S0, is probably the fame that met at GloceJIer in 1378. See above, p. 4.55. Note (8). As
Fci the Act mentioned heie bv him, it w-s made in the Parliament, which met this Year 1380, en January 17, at Wejlmtnjier. This Parliament granted
he Kti 1 ne fifteenth and a half, to be taken eut cf the Cities and Towns, and one Tenth and a half to be taken ivitbtn cities and Towns, by way of
Loan, until the next Pruhamen'.. They alio granted the Sublidy of Wools, Wool-tells, and Skins, from the Feaft of St. Michael next, until Mrcbaelmafs
then next enfuins. Ret. Part. 3 fire. II. N. 12, 16. Cotton's Airidr, p. 1S2, &c.

TbomaiofH( (6) On the 19th of July. Tyrel, , p. 853.

(7J Theugh he had, in the beginning of this Year, njix. on March I, concluded an offcnlive and defcnlive League with King Richard. Rymer't Feed.
T. rr. VII. p. t-6. (S) He let fail from Vanna, April II. 'lyrrel, p. S53.

ty) A'"i..T.'V 2. at Northampton. The lufticient People in every Town were to contribute to the Aftiftance cf the iels able, lb as none paid above iixty
Groat., including thofe for himlelf and Wife. Brady, p. 344. Cotton't Ahridg. p. 188. U'aljir.g. p. 245. Kmghnn, CcJ. 2633.


Book X.

12. RICHARD 11.

T330. follow him in Perfon with greater Forces. Mean while,
HiUifci/n the Truce w.th Scotland was about to expire ( 1 ),
P '.?'' the Council, hy his- direction, refolvcd to propofe to the
Hnny rw Kin'4 of Scotland the Prolongation thereof; otherwife the
Portugal, fending of the Troops into Portugal might be obftruct-
The D'A; a! ed. That this Negotiation might not fail of Succefs, he
l.r- ait r undertook it himfelf, and without delay repaired to
?r'JT"° the Frontiers of the two Kingdoms, where the Scotch

tot flCOtS. . c>

Buchanan. Ambafl'adors were hkewife to be. But whilft he was

Froiihrt. treating with them, there happened in England Affairs

Ad. Pub. or " rnuch more confequence than the Truce with Scot-
Vil. p.268, land, or the War with Caftile (2).

s ' 5 - The Poll-Tax impofed by the Parliament was levied

rl a' w ' tn p reat gentlenefs, infomuch that the Collectors ex-

•/ w7t Ty cufed many Pcrfons. But as there are but too many who

Icr. make it their builnels to inrich themfclves at the expence

Knighton. ()( - t j )e p uo ]j t ), there were fome that perf waded the

■ 1 1 1 1 Jl 2 • .

Froiirart. Kttig ar >d Council, if the Tax was levied with more
I. 2. c. 62, ftrictnefs, it would bring in much greater Sums, and
even offered Money to have the management of it.
Very probably, they were Flemings that farmed the Tax,
and obliged themfclves to give the King a certain Sum
for the Produce thereof. The new Collectors appointed by
thefe Farmers, levied the Tax with extreme rigour. One
who collected in Kent, demanding of a Tyler at Deptford,
named Walter, twelve pence for one of his Daughters,
the Father affirmed fhe was under the Age fet down
in the Act of Parliament. Whereupon the infolent Col-
lector, as thefe fort of People generally are, endeavour-
ing to know the Truth by an indecent Action, the Fa-
ther with his Hammer knocked out his Brains. All the
Spectators applauded the Action, and promifed the Mur-
derer, commonly called IVat Tyler (3), to protect him.
MjrrcRm At the fame time, the fpirit of Rebellion feized not the
in Kent and Inhabitants of Deptford alone, but likewife all the meaner
Wairine. f° rt °f tne County of Kent, who were foon followed by
Knighton, thofe of EJfex. The Poll-Tax was not their fole Grie-
vance, The People of thofe parts had long been in a
ferment, which being inflamed by this Accident, broke
out into open rebellion. They complained of the little
care to hinder the frequent Defcents of the French, who
had committed great Ravages in thefe two Counties. To
this was added a general Difcontent againft the Judges,
and all the Agents of the Law, who ruined Families by
their Extortions. The Nobles and Gentry were no lels
hated by the Peafants, on account of the Right of Vil-
lainage, which was extremely abufed. The Populace
were moreover extremely incenfed againft the Duke of
Lancajler, who was charged with cauiing by his negli-
gence, all the Calamities, the two Counties had endured.
All thefe Complaints being fpread in thofe parts, and
countenanced by the Seditious, or as fome affirm, by the
Monks, who thought themfelves injured by the Poll-
Tax, to which they were liable, produced a wonderful
Wat Tyler Effect. In a fhort time, Wat Tyler, chofen by the Se-
ar tbe bead ( j; t i 0US) Chief and Protector of the poor People, law him-
^100,000 £jj ^^ ^ e ^^^j ^j. a k ove a nurK j re d thoufand Men,

Walling, breathing revenge on the Nobility, and Profeffors of the

Law. Thus attended, he marched directly to London,

freeing in his rout, all the Prifoners detained in the

John Ball publick Goals. Amongft thefe was a Prieft of Maidjlone,

j PncH fju- one J l nt B a ll ^ f w h by his feditious Sermons, railed

'r'cMi. the People's Fury to the utmoft height. He perfwaded

Knighton, them, that all Men being Sons of Adam, there ought to

be no diftinction, and confequently it was their Duty to

reduce the World to a perfect Equality. Purfuant to

this Maxim, they refolved to difpatch all the Nobility,

Ibty Mesa™* thofe that were diftinguiThcd by their Polls. So,

r*t Nobles without further Confideration, they cut off the heads

andjudgci. c a n the Lords, Gentlemen, Judges, Councilors, and

Knighton. Lawyers, that fell into their hands. After this, they

bound themfelves by Oath, never to acknowledge for

■ King, any Man whofe Name Ihould be John. This 1581;
Rclblution fprung from ihe r Hatred to the Duke of Lan-
cajler, who bore that Name, and was fu pected of af-
piring to ihe Crown.

Richard hearing the Seditious were come as far as Black- ' n ' ' ■"
Heath, where Wat Tyler reviewed his Army, fent \0%L?t'kT*
know what they wanted. They replied, they had Affairs tmU tmx,.
of great moment to communicaie to the Kin?, ar.d de-
fired to come and talk with him in Perfon. This 7*«W»J
infolent Requeft being debated in Council, fome were of ; '" " '-"•''"
opinion, the King (hould comply with the Rebels, alledg-
ing, that as he was not in condition to oppol'e Force to
Force, gentlenefs was the only way to gain them. But , ' , ' 1 ' r -t-
Simon Sudbury Archbifhop of Canterbury, and [Robert dc]
Hairs Prior of St. Johns, and High-Treafiirer of Eng-
land, ftrcnuoufly oppofed it, maintaining it was not fate
for the King to truft his Perfon with this Rabble. Ac-
cordingly the Rebels Requeft was rejected with Threats;
little agreeable to the prefent fituation of the Court.
Upon this News, the Seditious (ell into fuch a Fury, n-;ma- t b
that immediately they marched towards London, and pof- "Londu-..
feffed themfelves of Southivark, parted from the City bv
the Thames. The Plunder of the Suburbs having given
them no great Interruption, they endeavoured to enter the
City. London- Bridge had then Gates, which being fhut
at their Approach, might have (topped for fome time
their Impetuofity, if the Mob, who prefently fided with
them, had not opened them (5) in fpite of the Magiftratcs.
Nothing more oppofing their March, they entered the 74,,. ct-t.-r
City (6), where they committed all the Ravages that fi ' C '0V
could be expected from fo numerous a Body, guided fole- "",,"b™*
\y by their Fury. Th Duke of Lancajler's Palace (7) Xari&t.
was reduced to Allies, and the Houfes of fuch as they Waifmir.
deemed their Enemies, were given up to be plundered. lg
However, their Leaders pretending not to be fwayed by
Avarice, hindered their'People from appropriating to them-
felves any Part of the Booty. They even threw into
the Fire, which confumed all the plundered Riches, a Man
that would have retained a Piece ot Plate. In this univer-
fal Confufion, wherein London was like n Town taken
by Storm, the Archbifhop's Palace, and the Temple with
all the Writings kept there, were devoured by the '
Flames (8). The Houfes of the Judges, Lords and prin-
cipal Citizens fliared the fame fate. This unruly Mob
took care to accompliih their Oath, to extirpate all Ap-
pearances of Grandeur or Diftinction. The Flemings,
againft whom they were extremely incenfed, were above
all others expofed to their Fury. They dragged them
from the Churches where they had taken Sanctuary, and
upon their not being able to pronounce certain Words,
very difficult for Foreigners, they were immediately

After the Rebels had thus given thefe firft Marks of Ibiyftixi
their Fury, they approached the Tower, which might f *'.^" r !
have been eafily defended (9), if the Terrour fpread in ,i, e Arcbbi-
the Garrifon had not caufed them to open the Gates. /6»p and
There they found the Archbifhop of Canterbury and the S^&T"
Treafurer, who thought themfelves fafe in that place, and
without any Procefs, cut off their heads. This done,
they divided themfelves into three Bodies. Wat Tyler re-
mained about the Tower with thirty thoufand Men.
Jack Straw [another of their Captains] advanced into the
City with the Rebels of EJfex, to the number of fixty
thoufand. The reft under the Conduct of another
Leader, lodged themfelves upon Mile end green.

Mean time, the King and Council were in the utmoft 77- EiTexi-
perplexity. After long Debates how to ftop thefe furious msacctpt
Proceedings, no better way was found than to offer the p'^'"**
Rebels an authentick Charter, confirming the Privileges walfing,
of the People (10), and a general Pardon for all Crimes Knighton,
committed fmce the Iiifurrection. The EJ/cx-Mqix readi-
ly accepted thefe Offers, though they were now in the

(1) This Summer the Scott had made an Incurfion into Wijlmortland and Cumberland, and carried off a large rooty; and among the reft, about forty
thoufand Bealh of all forts. Waif. p. 240.

(2) This Year, a famous tingle Combat was fought on June 7. at Wcftmirjltr, in the King's Prefence, between jtobn Annejlee Knight, and Ibcmji Ka
t.ynvton, Efq; whom the aforefaid Knight had accufed in Parliament, of Treafon, for felling to the Frccb the Caftle it St. Saviour's, built by the
Lord Cbandonn the llle of Cotenlm in France ; Kjitryngton was overcome, and thereupon run mad. For a full Account of this Trani'action, See lf r J ;■
p. 237, 238.

(3) W'jlftngbam fays, he W3s railed JValtr. Hrlirr, or Tyter. p. 152.

14} Rapm calls him Jobn Siaiv. The Mob let him out of Maidjlone Coat. He preached to the Army upon this proverbial Rhyme :

When Adam d.ilfe and Eve jpan,

Who WJl then a Gentleman T Walling, p. 275.

(5) On Mny 23- l k 'et. p. 249. (6) May 24. Ibid.

(7) The Savoy. Ibid.

1,8) And alfo the Hofpital of St. Join's ClirtemBeff. Ibid.

(9) There were at that time fix hundred warlike Men in it, and fix hundred Archers. Ibid, p 2co.

(10) This Charter onnrmed no Privileges, but only abalilhed Vllainage; and granted the Rebels a Pardon. The Contents of it were as foliovrs
" Richard, &c. Know ye, That of bur fpecial Grace, we have maimm Hi d, or fet free, all ar.d firgular cur liege Subjccls, and other of the County of
«' EJfex', and them and every of tltem from all Bondage, do relea'e and acquit by the'e Prefents. And alio we pardon to our faid Liegemen/ and Subject.,
*« all manner of Felonies, Trealuns, Tranfgrefiions, and Extortions, by them, or any o- them, in any manner whatsoever, done or commivcd, t?c. "
IVitntji our £e.f ct London^ the j$tb of June, in the $tb Tear of our Reign. Ibid. p. 2^4.

No. J3. Vol. I.

S z


45 8


1 781. Heart of the City. Accordingly leaving fome of their fhould have the prefence of Mind and Refolution, fliown 13151,

by Richard on this occafion, and that his Boldnefs
fhould produce fo good an effect. In fine, that fo nu-
merous a Multitude, juft glutted with Blood and Slaugh-
ter, fhould difperfe on a fudden by a panick Fear, at the
fight of a few armed Citizens, is what cannot be con-
fidered without Aftonifhment, and without afcribing the
Caufe to him, who holds the Hearts of the People in his
hand. And indeed, we fhall fee prefently, that no lefs
than a fort of Miracle could prevent the utter Deftruction
of England, confidering the pernicious Deiign-j the Rebels
but' fo flowly that the King, beginning to be out of pati- had formed.

ence and willing to prefs him to make more hafte, fent It was not only in the Counties of Kent and Effex, fee lit U-

that the fpirit of Rebellion pofl'eiled the People. Wbilft/u.^ff/wn/ij,
Wat Tyler and Jack Straw were marching to London, °' h " c "" 1 "
John Ball and John JVraw (5), two feditious Pricfts, K.V.ighton.
ftirred up the Populace of Suffolk, where they quickly af- Walling,
fembled fifty thoufand Men. They committed in thofe

Leaders to haften the Charters and Pardon, they returned

to their Homes.

Wat Tyler But Wat Tyler was not fo tradable, though he pretend-

rtjiatthim. j hj s f ] e A; m was to obtain equitable Terms. How-

T'd^bia eve as he appeared willing to enter into Negotiation with

'' t "mu, r bim. the Kin* himfelf, Richard with a few Attendants came to

Walli "6- Smith-field, from whence he fent a Knight (1), to defire

him to come and confer with him. Wat inlolently replied,

he would come when he thought proper. Neverthelefs

he moved forward immediately, at the head of his Troops,

the fame Knightto him, which had like to have coft him
his Life. Wat Tyler was juft entered Smith-field, when
the Knight delivered the King's Mefi'age, without alight-
ing, noMmagining he would ftand upon that Ceremony.
But the proud Leader was fo offended at this want of

Refbect that he was going to kill him, if the King, who Parts numberlefs Barbarities, as if they were afraid of
was himfelf advancing^ had not cried out to the Knight to Being out-done in Cruelty, by thofe who exercifed their

difmount. .,,■,,. . • . .

Conference of I n Wat Tyler's, Conference with the King, being both
on horfeback, he made fuch extravagant Propofals, that
Richard knew not what to fay to him. He demanded
in fhort, that all the antient Laws fhould be abolifhed,
and the Government modelled according to certain fan-
taltical Notions framed by himfelf (2). Whilft he made
thefe Demands, he now and then lilted up his Sword, as
it were to threaten the King (3), in cafe he granted not
immediately what the Rebels would have. This brul

the King
with Tyler.
Walling. 1

Hit bfo-


The May ot
kilh him.

Fury in London. Sir John Cavendijh, Chief Juftice, fell a
Sacrifice to their Rage. After that, they burnt all the
antient Charters in the Abbey of St. Edmund's- Bury, and
in the Univeriity of Cambridge.

On the other hand, Littejler, an Ale- Houfe- Keeper (6) unknot ant
at Norwich, headed another Body of Rebels in the Coun- c<"eh°f
ty of Norfolk, and cruelly put to death all the Judges it j[^
and Lawyers that fell into his hands. As for the Lords
and Gentlemen, he had the Infolence to oblige them to
ferve him on the Knee, and if any one fcrupled to fubmit

infolence fo raifed the Indignation of [William'] Wal- to that Indignity, immediately ordered his head to be cut
worth, Mayor of London, who attended the King,^that off. In this manner he treated the Earl of Suffolk (7), who

The King "

Djngcr ;
\\ ailing.

without confidering to what Danger he expofed his Maf-
ter, he difchargedluch a Blow on the Rebel's head with
his Sword, as laid him dead at his feet (4).

This Action, no lefs imprudent than bold, fhould na-
turally have occafioned the Ruin of the King and all his
Attendants, but by an unexpected happinefs, produced a
contrary Effect It is true, when the Rebels faw their
Leader on the ground, they encouraged one another to
revenue his Death. Nay their Bows were now bent to
from ■which moot at t | ie King and his Retinue. But Richard prevent-
*' bc %"jjf,f t ed the Danger, by a bolder and more prudent Action
than could be expected from a young Prince of fifteen
Years. Inftead of flying, he turned to the Rebels, and
cried with a refolute and couragious Voice : What, my
Lieges ! will you then kill your King ? Be not concerned for
the Lofs of your Leader, I my felf will now be your General;
follow me into the Field, and you Jhall have whatever you de-
fire. Upon faying thefe Words, he gently turned his
Horfe, and putting himfelf at their head, rode towards
St. George's Fields. The young King's refolution made
fuch an impreffion on the minds of the Rebels, that
ima^inin" he really declared for them, they altered their
firft purpofe, and followed him without delay. They
were no fooner come into the Fields, but they faw march-

would not feign to approve of their Rebellion. As it was
impoffible for the King's Council, to take meafures fpeedy
enough to remedy thefe Diforders, it was neceflary that
private Perfons fhould of themfelves ufe their Endeavours,
without ftaying for Orders from Court, to free themfelves
from the impending Danger. Henry Spencer, Bifhop of The Bijhtp
Norwich, a Prelate of great Courage, though educated in "/Norwich
an un warlike Profeffion, thought it his duty to do fome- ^"J' _'*'
thing more than barely offer up Prayers, on fo preffing an Walfing.
occafion, which equally threatned Clergy and Laity. He Knighton,
headed a few loyal Subjects, and attacking the Rebels made
a terrible Slaughter (8). The two Leaders Wraw and
Littejler being taken in the Fight, the firft was beheaded
upon the fpot, and the other fent to London, to receive
the juft reward of his Crimes.

Thefe Troubles being appeafed fooner, and more hap- p u „iff, mnc
pily, than could be expected, the King, by advice of his of rhe Re-
Council, refolved to chaftize the Guilty. To that end, ^'' lfin
the Lords had Orders to raife in every Count}', Troops
of known Loyalty, and lead them to London. In a fhort
time was drawn together an Army of forty thoufand Men,
which being divided into two Bodies, one marched into the
County of Kent. At the head of the other the King went Afl. Pub.
himfelf, to punifh the People of Effex, who began to ftir VII- p. 317.
again, upon the Revocation of the Charter and general

•Ibt Retch
are frighted
down their

ing towards them a Troop of a thoufand armed Citizens,

raifed by the Mayor under the Condud of Sir Robert Pardon, with which they had been allured (9). As thefe

Knolles. an Officer of great Reputation. This Sight People had not had time to take juft meafures, and found

Knolles, an

ftruck them with fuch Terreur, that falfely imagining
the whole City was in Arms to attack them, the fore-
moft Ranks threw down their Arms and begged Quar-
ter. This Proceeding terrifying the reft who knew not
the Caufe, every one preffed to follow their Example.
Thus in a few Moments the whole multitude was dif-
perfed without the Effufion of any Blood but the Lea-

One cannot, without wonder, confider an Event fo
lingular and full of extraordinary Circumftances. An In-
furrection indeed is not fo very ftrange, but to fee it head-
ed by fuch a Perfon as Wat Tyler is not ufual, though the
like inftances may poflibly be found in other Hiltories.
But it is doubtlefs beyond the common Courfe of Events,
for a fingle Man, as the Mayor of London, to dare to kill
this Leader, attended by thirty thoufand Men. It is ftill
more furprifing, that a young Prince, but fifteen Years old,

themfelves prevented by the King's diligence, they were
eafily defeated. Great numbers were flain, and many o-
thers referved for publick Examples. Among the Iaft, was
Jack Straw, Companion of Wat Tyler, and head of the
Effex Rebels. He confeffed, if they had fucceeded in their Their Pre,
Projects, as they had reafon to expect, their Defign wasi' fll -
to murder the King, root out the Nobility and Clergy, s '

excepting the Alendicant Friers, part England into feveral
Kingdoms, make Wat Tyler King of Kent, abolifh all the
antient, and make new Laws. Probably thefe Project*
were framed only in general, and it may be, over their
Bowls, whilft they were on the March to London. Be
that as it will, fuch a Defign, managed by Heads little
capable of executing it, could hardly fail of ending in the
Ruin of the Authors. It is affirmed, that befides thofe
that fell with their Arms in their hands, above fifteen hun-
dred died by the Hangman (10). Judge Treftlian was com.

(O Sir John Newton, Waif, p. 252.

(-) Befides a gen-ral Enfranchifement of all Bondmen ; he demanded, That all Warrens, Parks, and Chafes, fliould be made free and common to all,
Co tnat the Poor as well as the Rich fhould have Liberly to nth, fowl, and hunt, in all places throughout the Kingdom, he. Knighton, Col. 2636.

(31 And alfo took hold of the King's Bridle. Ibid. p. 2637. . ' • •

U) The King had ordered the Mavor toarrcft Tyler, Wall. p. 253. For this good Service, King Richard knighted the Mayor, and alfo John Pbilpct,
Nicchi Brtmbar, and Robert Laund, Aldermen ; and gave Sir William Walworth a hundred Pounds per Annum ; and to the other three, forty I'ounds per
■■tmum forever. Not long after he knighted Nicolas Twyford, and Adam Francn, two other Aldermen. Stmt Survey, b. 1. p. 26.. Knighton,
col. 2637. It is a common Notion that the Dagger was added, upon this account, to the Arms of the City of Linden ; But Mr. Stow thinks it to be
St. Pauls Sword. Survey, 1.2. p. 1X6.

(cl They are fuppofed to give themfehe 1 : thefe Names in contempt of the Nobility and Gentry.

{-) This^is'a Mirtake. William Ufford, then Earl of Suffolk, was not beheaded by Littejler. For, underrhnding that the Mcb intended to furprize
him, and carry him along with them, to countenance their irregular Doings ; he fuddenly rofe from Supper, and difguifing himfelf, came through ty-ways
to the King at St. Albam, with a Wallet on his Shoulder, pretending to be a Servant of Sir Roger Boys. Ibid.

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