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their Mailer, any but their Creatures - . Thefe looking
upon the Duke of Lanca/ler as a troublefome Infpect r,
and incapable of condel'cending to court them, believed
they ought before alf things to be rid of that Prince.
For that purpofe, they all ailed in concert, to cieaie in
the King Sufpicions, which fhould caufe him to o.niider
this Uncle, as a very dangerous Enemy. Richard, who
neither did, nor would, fee any thing but with their
Eyes, fuffered himfelf to be fo prejudiceu, that he con-
fented to a Refolution of accufing the Duke oi Hijji-
Treafon. Judge Trjilian, a Man of a ciuel and daring
Temper, took upon him to draw up the Articles of Ac-
cufation, and manage the Evidences. He even offered to

try him as a private Perfon, though by the Laws of the Lancajier only fought to expofe him to danger. This
Land he could be judged only by his Peers. As this Plot Advice corresponding with his Sufpicions and Inclinations
t'/f'"" could not be fo fecretly contrived, that the Duke fhould he continued his maich, without goiii"- in aneft of the

defend bim- , , ,. I . . , , , r. . ,. , . . , . % ' \



ravages in Scotland, where he had followed them. Thef" 1 "** 4
great Army allembled by Richard, dellroying the K.mg'p lll "„/"'
ol France's hopes of fucceeding in his Project, he de-
ferred the Execution to a more convenient Scafon. By
that means Richard was at liberty to march towards
Scotland (5), with the Choice of his Army. In all like- Richard^*
lihood, he would have entirely fubducd that Kingdom, '"'*. * t_
had he known how k. improve his Advantages, lince thcu/a the
King of Scotland was unable to withftand him. But the
Eavoiites Jealoufy of the Duke of Lancajier, who com- ,{." 4 '*'"'
manded under him, was the reafon, fo fair an opportu- dom.
nity was irrecoverably loft. The Scots, perceiving the *»""»«.
King of England, inftead of pufhing them vigoroufly, was vu " .
amuhng himfelf with ravaging the Country about Edin- 474.
burgh, began to recover from their Fright, caufed by his
formidable Forces, As they were not able to attack him,
they judged the belt way to oblige him to quit Scotland,
was to make a Diverfion in his own Country. Purfuant •''■Scon
to this Refolution, they removed at a greater d i fiance ""'
from the Englijb Army, to make the Kin^ believe it Cumber-
was to avoid a Battle. But on a fudden, by fpeedy Iand -
Marches they came into Cumberland, where they made l ' JilX -' A
terrible Ravages (6). Whillt they were marching thither,
Richard never tioubled himfelf to inquire after them.
So, imagining they were fled, and fatisfied with the : 'y ch ard /rf »
Advantages already gained, herefolved, a not being fond '^j'^„
of War, to rettii 11 into England, lie had Intelligence ^London.
by the way, of the Scots entering Cumberland, and mi^ht Wi %
eafily have cut oft' their Re rear. Bat notwithftandmg
ali the Duke of Lancajier % Endeavours to perfuade hiin
to a vigorous Refolution, he chofe rather to follow the
Ear! ot Oxford's Advice. This Favorite, who had a great
Influence over him, perfuaded him, that the D.ike of



Tie Dale



Jelf.



have no notice thereof, he thought it imprudent to de-
liver himfelf into the hands of his Enemies, who were
bent upon his Ruin. So, without troubling himfelf about
his Vindication, he withdrew to his Cattle of Pontfracl,
where he aflembled fome Troops, and made other Pre-
parations in order to defend himfelf, in cafe of attack.
Though he had not many Friends, yet being peifecuted
by the Minifters, who were ftill lefs beloved than himfelf,
he eafily found People enough to take his Part. A Civil
eefief Waks War was juft going to be kindled in the Kingdom,
JTrk *-«'* wnen the Prince( ~ s of Wales., the King's Mother, in-
Waliine. terpofed to make Peace, before Hoftilitics were com-



Vbe Prin-



Enemy. Ail but the Favorites, were fo amazed at his
unconcern for the Calamities of his Subjects of Cumber-
land, that they could not help loudly murmuring, and
confidenng the King himfelf, as a Prince regardlefs of the
good of the Publick.

Whilft the King was on his Journey to London, the rl " Lor ' 1
Lord Holland (7), his half Brother, quarrelling with the !; / > ,' : '? d , .
Earl of Stafford's eldeft Son (S), killed him, and took "'/ V'fd.
Sanctuary in Beverly Abbey. The Action was fo hei- Wa.fing.
nous, that notwithllandmg the Ties of Blood, Richard re- c Fr f^ rt '
folved to abandon the Murderer to tie rigour of the '**'
Law. In vain did the Princefs of TFales, their common *' *"*
Mother, intercede for her Son, fhe could never ob'-i" h;* "



Pardon. This relufal fat fo heavy

fhe died with Grief a few days after (9)



pardon bim

upon her Mind, that at bit Mo-



Ne\erthelefs, ,btr ' i I "'' T '



1385.

France pre-
pare* to ex
.rtitflf.
Walfing.
Aft. Pub.



whether the King was forry for being fo cruel to his 'jf°"£&*
Mother, or the Murdered found a more powerful Inter- Gnef.
cefior, the Princefs was hardly in her Grave, when he
granted the Pardon fhe had fue'd fur in vain.

The fear of the French Invalion being vanifhed, th«



menced. She fucceeded at length, after many Journeys

and Fatigues, and Richard, fatisfied of the falfenefs of the

Sufpicions, fuggefted to him againft the Duke his Uncle,

received him again into favour (1).

During thefe Broils, no Preparations were made for the

War, though the late Truce with France and Scotland

was about to expire. It was imagined, it might be re-
newed ; but the King of France had other Defigns. As

he faw the Court of England in a perfect Security, he Duke of Lancajier brought his own Affairs upon the
VII. p. 485. refolved to improve it, by making a powerful Effort, from board, and demanded Afliftance of the King to profecute

which he promifed himfelf great Advantages. To that his Right to the Crown of Cajlile. There could never

end, he fent a numerous Army into Guienne, hoping to be a more feafonable Juncture to obtain his defire. Fer-

finifh the Conqueft of that Dukedom, before the Englijb dinand King of Portugal being dead, without leaving any

fhould be able to oppofe it. At the fame time he lent legitimate Children but Beatrix Queen of Cajlile, the

the King of Scotland an Aid of a thoufand Men at

Arms (2), under the Command of John de Vienne, who

was to make a powerful Diverfion in the North (3), in

order to favour the Defcent of the French in the fouthern
I. 2. c. 141. p arts Q f tne Tfl anr j_ The Alarm taken by the Englijh
The Enclift at a " thefe Preparations, turned to their Safety. The
Iny a gnat Court gave fuch prefling Orders to levy Troops, and the

Army.
Walling.



Sends Sac-
tours to
Scotland.
Buchanan.
Knighton.
FroifTart.



King her Husband pretended, the Crown of Portugal

was devolved to his Queen, by the Death of the Kng

her Father. But the Portuguefe, not bearing the thoughts

of living under the Dominion of the Cajlilians, had

placed on the Throne, John natural Son of the late

King. As this Quarrel could fcarce pofiibly be decided

but by Arms, the King of Cajlile entered Portugal, and

Orders were executed with fuch ardour and diligence, advancing as far as Lisbon, laid Siege to the City. But

that, if the Hiftorians are to be credited, Richard quickly meeting with a braver Defence than he expected, he

faw himfelf at the head of three hundted thoufand Men. was forced to retire. In the next Campain he loft a Froiflart,

Tbe Date o/He detached fixty thoufand, under the Command of the Battle, which obliged him to quit Portugal, ftill hopino- '• *■ c - '6;,

Lancqfter £) u ke of Lancajier, to march into Scotland (4), whilft to compafs his Ends, by the Afliftance ot France The

marches into *

ScoUand.

Knighton. (i) This Year, on Nmemb. 12. a Parliament met at Wtfiminfltr, which granted the King two Fifteenths. Rot. Pari. 8. Ric. II. JV. i Sec. 10.

Cotton's Abridg. p. 303. In this Parliament the Sentence palled againft Alia Pierce in a former Parliament, was reverted. Ibid. This Year

alio died the famous Sir John Pbilpet. Waif. p. 310.

(2) Every Man at Arms had with him three, or four, and fometimes five Knights. Rapln.

(3) He alfo fent ten thoufand Livres to Robert King of Scotland, and forty thoufand to the Nobility of that Kingdom. Rymtr'% Feed. Tom. VII.
p. 484.

(4) During the Scffion of the laft Parliament, the Scots furprized Brrwick Caftle, having bribed the Deputy-Covernor ; but it was retaken, or rathor
bought again, by the Earl of Northumberland, the Governor. Waif. p. 311. Rymer^s Feed. Tom. VII. p. 463.

(5) He entered that Kingdom about the beginning of Auguft. Waif. p. 316.

(6) They burnt Penretb, made an attempt upon Carhjle, and cruelly ravaged the whole Country. Knighton, Col. 2674.

(7) J° b n <ie Holland, Brothrr to Thomas larl of Kent. Froif. 1. X. c. 142.

(8) VVhofe Name was Ralph. Waif. p. 316.

(9) She died at Wallingfird Caftle, and was buried in the Church of the Frieri Minor, at Stanford. Ibid. The King haj a Chapel built at Stanford
to pray for her SouL Rjmer's Feed. Tom, VII. p. 527,



No. XXIV. Vot.I.



6A



new



462



: 3 8 S .

v .

Act. Vab.
VH.p. S 5<

Froiflart,

c. 172,

'74-

Acl I'.b.
VII. p. 51!
5 2 j-



The HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



Aft. Pub.

\ il p. 490
495. +59-



Cotton's
Abridg.
Walling.



W.ilfmg.
p. 310.



The Ear! of
March de-
clared Heir
10 the Cnivn.



The King
confers new
Honours on
his Uncles
and Favo-
rites.
W Ifing.
Aft Pub.
VII- p. 4S 1



1386.
King of Ar-
menia comei
into Eng-
land.
Waiting.
Aft Pub.
VII. p. 491,
496, 5 OZ.



new King of Portugal finding his Enemy was about to
receive Aid from the King of France, fent Ambaffadors
to England, to make an Alliance with Richard, offering
to acknowledge the Duke of Lancajler for King of Cajiile,
and fupport his Right with all his Forces. Affairs in Eng-
gland were then in a pofture, very proper to render the
Negotiation of the Portuguefe Ambafladors fuccefsful.
Richard, prejudiced againft the Duke his Uncle, heartily
wifhed his removal ; his Favorites reprefenting him as a
dangerous Relation, and a very troublefome Governor.
They told him moreover, it was his Intereft to dethrone
the King of Cajiile, fwom Enemy of the Englijh, which
was the more practicable, as the King of Portugal offered
to make a powerful Diversion. The Duke of Lancajler
haftened with all poilible ardour, the Conclufion of this
Affair, imagining, with the Forces of England, and Aflifl-
ar.ee cf Portugal, it would not be impoflible to fucceed
in his Defigns. All thefe Confiderations induced the
King's Council, to give a favorable hearing to the King
of Portugal's Propofals, and to promife the Duke of Lan-
cajler an Aid proportionable to the Importance of the
Undertaking. Purfuant to thisRefolution, the King called
a Parliament (1) to demand a Subfidy to enable him to
accomplifh this Project The Commons readily granted
it, and expreiTed great earneftnefs for the Expedition,
not fo much out of love to the Duke, as to temove him
out of the Kingdom, where it was continually feared he
would at laft occalion Troubles fatal to the State. For that
reafon, they had this Affair fo much at heart, that the
Clergy refufing to pay their pait of the Subfidy (2), they
petitioned the King to feize their Temporalities. Richard,
who loved not his Uncle enough to quarrel with the
Clergy for his fake, refufed to comply with the Commons
Requeft. His Moderation procured him from the Clergy,
what Force would hardly ever have extorted from them.
Thus the Duke of Lancajler- fecure of the Parliament's
Afliitance, made, as King cf Cajiile, a League oftenfive
and defenfive with the King of Portugal, and prepared
for the War with all poilible diligence.

In this falfie Parliament Roger Mortimer Earl _of March
was declared preemptive Heir of the Crown, in cafe Ri-
chard died without Ifliie. He was Son of Philippa, only
Daughter of Lionel Duke of Clarence, third Son of Ed-
ivard III, and Grandfon of Roger Mortimer Earl of
March, executed as a Traitor in the late Reign. But
the Sentence palled upon him was aftetwards repealed,
becaufe the Formalities prefcribed by the Laws and
Cuiioms of the Realm were nut obferved at his Try-
al (3).

Before the Parliament broke up, the King conferred
on the Earl of Cambridge (4) his Uncle, the Title of
Duke of York ; on the Earl of Buckingham (5) his other
Uncle, that of Duke of Ghccjler. He could not help
railing thefe two Princes to higher Degrees of Honour,
unlefs he would leave them below the Earl of Oxford (6),
whom he created at the fame time Marquifs ot Dublin,
and quickly after, Duke of Ireland. This Favorite was
the firft that bore the Title of Marquifs in England,
where it was hitherto unknown. Michael de la Pole,
another of the King's Favorites, was made Earl of Suffolk,
and Lord Chancellor (7).

In the beginning of the Year [386, Leo King of Ar-
menia, expelled out of his Dominions by the Turks, came
to England to confer with Richard. His Defign was to
procure a firm and lalling Peace between France and
England, in expectation that afterwards the two Crowns
would join all their Forces to reftore him to his King-
dom. But if he fucceeded not in his Project, at Ieaft he



obtained from Richard a confiderable Prefer.?, and a year- r 3 S6.
ly Penfion of a thoufand Pounds (8').

As foon as the Duke of Lancajler had finifhed his Pre- I*< D
narations for his Sftff«/V7j Expedition, lje embarked at PortF-,^",

I 1 \ LA r 1 r 1 71 /r J ficts cut f.r

mouth (9;, With an Army of twenty thoufand Men, a-'s [a i n .
mong whom were two thoufand Mji at Arms (10). He v -
carried with him Conjlantia of CrJ/i/e, his Wife, and his , Fr0lffa,t '
two Daughters Philippa and Catherina, the fit ft o[ whom 176.
he had by Blanch of Lancajler, and the other by Con-
jlantia. The King and CJueen accompanied them to
Portfmouth, and wifhing them good Succefs, prefented
them with two Gold Crowns. The Duke fetting Sail, I
made fome ftay at Brejl, and obliged the Duke of Bre-
tagne to raife the Siege of that Town, which ail his.SoI-
licitations had not been able to get out of the han^s
of the Englifl). Then purfuing his Voyage, he arm eJ
Augujl the 9th at Corunna, where he landed his Troops.
Upon his Arrival , he made himfelf mailer of feveral
Places in Gallicia, and at laft of Compoftella, where he
pafi'cd the W inter. Whilft the Seafon prevented him
from continuing his Progrefs, he concluded a Marriage
between Philippa his eldeft Daughter and the King of Por-
tugal, and (pent the reft of the Time in projecting the
next Campain.

The Duke of Lancajler s departure, which had long Great Pre-
before made a great Noife, prompted the Court of Fran., '■



As England, de-/,.''"" "



7«-



to improve fo favorable a conjuncture

prived of her beft Troops, would be probably defencelefs, England.
Charles refolved to make a frefli Effort to conquer that W3 ! fing '
Kingdom. To that end, he made fnch prodigious Pre- j/j! *,
paratiens, that all Europe expected with Aitonifhment the
fuccefs of this Undertaking. He had prepared nine hun-
dred Tranfport-Ships (n), and caufed a wooden Fort to
be made, (which could be taken in Pieces,) for the De-
fence of his Army after landing. If the Duke of Berry
his Uncle, who wanted to render the ProjecT: abortive,
becaufe, fays a Hiftorian, he was not the Author, had Mezerai.
not too long delayed his coming, the French would have
found England unprovided with Troops for her defence.
But the Duke not repairing to Sluice till the 14th of Sep-
tember (1 2), Richard had time fo to prepare, as to have no
reafon to fear the mighty Efforts of his Enemies. Very FrohTart,
likely, the great diligence of the Englijh, rather than the 1 - z - c - lS 9>
Seafon, which was not too far advanced for fo fhort a I9 °*
Paffage, obliged the King of France to fend his Troops
into Winter Quarters.

As foon as the grand Defigns of France were known in Richard
England, Troops were levied with that fpeed and fuc- ra 'f" * s r " t
cefs, that an Army of two hundred thoufand Men were^T'?/'
drawn together (13). Part of thefe Forces were put into Aft. Pub.
the Places moft expofed, whilft the reft flood ready to VIt - P- 5°'j
hinder the Enemies landins. But as this Army was to,/ 9 '- 54 ".,
be maintained, as well as raifed, which could not be done Money of tbt
without a very great Expence, a Parliament was called f ' a ™««*j
to contider of Ways and Means (14.) The King demand- aC™'*
ing a Subfidy, proportionable to his Wants (15), the Par- Waiting,
liament was very willing to grant it, but could not think Fri,rart -
of leaving the Money in the Power of the King and his '



1. 2. c. 178.



Favorites, amorty; whom the Marquifs of Dublin, and

the Earl of Suffolk, held the firft Rank. Thefe Lords

were fo univerfally and exceffively odious, that in order

to ruin them the Parliament fcrupled not to hazard the

lofs of the whole Kingdom. They prefented an Addrefe ■wh addrefi

to the King, deftring that the Treafurer (16), and the' 1 ' &'£ *-

Earl of Suffolk the Chancellor, might be removed from g ^f o J™

their Places. Moreover that all thofe might be called to Knighton.

an Account, through whofe hands the publick Money C0L26S0.

had pafled, affirming, the King would find in the Con-



(1) Which met at Weflmlnfter, on the Friday after OHohr 18, and grunted the King a Fifteenth, and half a Fifteenth for the Duke of Laiteafler'ts
Expedition : and a Tenth, and half a Tenth for the fare-keeping of the Sea, and Marches of Sa.'jtd. K t. Pari. 9. Ric. II. N. 10. Cotton 1 Abridg,
p. 309. Waif, p. 320.

(2) The Lords and Commons required they mould give a Tenth and a half. They granted at laft one T r.th.

(3 He Wis not W.ught to anther, or make his Defence; but was attainted and c, ndemned without ever being heard, and cenfequently without anjr
legal Conviftion. For which reafon this Judgment was afterwards reverted as erroneous, by the Parliament which met in Aj.it/, 1354. See Cotton's
Abridg. p. 6, 8, 85, 8(3.

(4) Edmund de Langley, fifth Son of Edward III.

(5) Thomas of JVoodfiock, his feventh Son.

(6) Robert de Vere.

(7) He granted the two firft a thoufand Pounds a piece out of the Exchequer, till he mould provide them with Lands to the Value of a thoufand
Pounds a Year. To M. de It Pole he allowed five hundred and twenty Pounds out of the Profits of the County of Suffolk, and out of^ the Erlate of
William Ufford late Earl of Suffolk. And to the Maiquifs of Dublin, he gave the old Lands and Revenues of Inland, with all Profit , .... whatfoever.
The Reader is to obl'erve, that thefe Honours were now only confirmed in Parliament; for ihe King had inverted thofe Nobl-men with them, in his
late Expedition into Scotland, at Uounfonu-Lod^e in Tift dale. Cott-n's Abridg. p. 310.

(8) Rap.n by miftake fays, twenty thoufand Marks. It is plain from Rymcr'% Feed, that it was only one_ thoufand Pounds a Year ConccfHraus

eidem Mille Libras Monita; noftrae Anglia:, percipiendas fingulis annis Tom. 7. p. 49+- See a,1 ° WalJ. p. 321.

(9) In May, Froif. 1. 2. c 175.

(10) And eight thoufand Archers.

(11) Fmffart fays, he had twelve hundred and eighty feven Ships of all forts, 1-4. c. 178. And, accordinj to others, no lefs than fixty thoufand
fighting Men. Waif. p. 32;. Tyrrel, p. 904.

(12) ll'afingbam fays, he was there by the firft of Auguff, p. 32^.
(131 The Earl of Stiff Ik caufed a great part of the Militia of the Kingdom to be fent for up towards London

land : Thefe Forces, confuting of Men at Arms and Archers, were quartered within twenty Miles .round the City
snifchief as an Enemy, for having no Money to pay for their Quarters, they lived at difcrction. Waif. p. 323,

(14I This Parliament met at WeJIminfler on Oclob. 1. Cotton's Abridg. p. 314.

(15J Four Fifteenths of the Commons, and as many Tenths from the Clergy. Knighton, Col. 2OS1.

(16) John de Fudham, Bah p of Dutbam.



to repel the French if they mould
where th.y did aimed as much






fifcation



Book X.



12. R r C H A R D II.



13



86.



fifcation of the Mifmanagers Eftates, wherewithal to an- the Chancellor being found guilty of Mifmanagement, was

Aver the occasions of the Stale. Richard, who expected compelled to reftore all the Grants he had received of the

quite another thing, in the prefent Juncture of Affairs, King (6). Thefe Grants were fo exceffive, that Richard

received the Addrefs with an Indignation, which it was himfelf, who had never computed thtm, could not help

not poffible for him to conceal. He anfwered very fharply, being furprized, and upbraiding his Favourite for abufin"-

that the Parliament ought to mind the Uufniefs for which his Good-will.



463

1386.



The King's

1 . 1
Kaighi n



they were called, and not meddle with what belonged not
to them Me rafhly added, that, To plea ft the Parliament,
he would not turn out the meanejl Scullion in his Kitchen.
At the fame time he withdrew \a Eltlam, not flaying for
a Reply.

Though the King could not doubt, but fo often five an



Towards the end of this Scfllon came the agreeable News *& Frradi
of the French Army being feparaied, and their Fleet fo
damaged by a Storm (7) that it could not be fit to put :
Sea again a good while. Of the great number of Ships
prepared by the French, the mod part foundered at Sea,
or were loir, on the Englijh Coafts. Anion- the lad were
found fome laden with i'iank for building the Fort above-
mentioned.

The Parliament breaking up as foon as the fear of the Richard n-

Invafion was palled (K), the King quicklv gave Proofs "* i " F " m

of his Levity, by recalling to Curt the Duke of/

Houles- uniting upon this occafion, as having one and land, the Earl ot Suffolk, and the Archbifhop of York. *

Diffutes it- the fame Intereft, fent the King word that they would He even aflecled to carefs them more than before their



The King

folTl'i'„ a« Anfwer would extremely incenfe the Commons, he fent,

imperioui a few days after, the Chancellor himfelf to order them,

manner. j n aM imperious manner, to grant the dcllrcd Sublidy.

This Order, hitherto unufual in Affairs of this nature,

was received with (o great a Concern, that the two



im up to



twees tbi
Kin.- ,l:.d

parliament

Knighton.
Col. 26SJ.



pioceed to no Bufinefs till he returned to his Parlia-
ment, and his Minifters were punifhed according to
their Deferts. This Reply provoking the King to the
highefl degree, he commanded the two Houfes to fend to
him forty of their Members, to give an account of their
Proceedings. But the Parliament was fo far from com-
plying, that they would have come to an open Rupture,
if the moft prudent had not prevailed with them, though



Difgrace, and load them with frefh Favors. The Fa-
vorites refumed their former Poll with Hearts full of Re-
venge, efpecially againft the two Commiffioners of the
publick Accounts, who by a ftrict Examination of their
Conduct, had oceafioned their Condemnation. Itwi
difficult to pcrfuade the young King, they had ful I
for his fake, and that the defigns of their Enemies aimed
not fo much at the Minifters, as at the King himfelf.





Waiting.



with great difficulty, to fend to the King the Duke of They represented to him, " That acculin" the Coun



Ghcejler his Uncle, and the Bifhop of Ely ( 1 ). Thefe
two Lords being come to E It ham, told the King in the
Name of the two Houfes, that as the Sovereign had Power
to allcmble them, they had likewife a Right to require
his Prefence in his Parliament. They added, it was en-
ailed by an old Statute, That in cafe the King ablented
himfelf forty days from his Parliament, without lawful
caufe, the Members might return to their Homes ; which
they were refolved to do, if the King perllfted to de-
prive them of the Honour of his Prefence. To this vi-
gorous Declaration Richard replied in a great Pallion, and
with no lefs Imprudence, That he plainly faw his Subjects
ws<e refolved to rebel againft him, and therefore he had



'•' fellors, is a clear Evidence that the Sovereign is
" thought incapable of governing, and that the readied
" way to difcredit a Prince, is to perfuade his Subjects,
" he makes ufe of ill Minifters." Thefe Infinuauons
frequently repeated, made fo ftrong an impreffion on the
King's Mind, that he refolved to free himfelf from the
Subjection of the Parliament. But the Favorites inti-
mated to him, it would be a very difficult thing to exe-
cute, fo long as the Duke of Glocejier was at the head
of the Factious. By this means they led him to confent The Rum »f



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 195 of 360)