M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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I. a., c. 20.

(9) There were four, Join, Tkmas, Henry, and Joanna. They were lirnamed Bcauf.rt, from the Caftle of Beaufort in France, that came by B.'ar.cb
of Artois. the Duke's firil Wife.

(10) The Karl-Matfhal, the Earl of Rutland, the Atchbifhop of Dublin, the Bilhop of St. David's, the Lords John Beaumont, and William Scrcfe.

Rymer's Fend. Tom. VII. p. $02.

11) They were married on Oelcb. 31. in St. Nicclas's Church at Calais, by the Archbilhop of Canterbury. She was crovrned January 7, Setter's
Ann. p. 013. Rymer's Fad. Tom. VII. p. 84S.

(12J This Parliament met at Wejlminjler on January 22, and therein the Clergy granted the King half a Tenth, and the Lords and Commons Twelve-
wnce in the Pound of all Merchandize imported, and three Shillings in the Pound for every Tun of Wine. Ret. Pail. 21. Rte. II. Cotton's Abridg. p. 360.
in this Parliament, the Judges banilhed to Inland, obtained leave to return to England. Ibid. Waif. p. 333.

(13) It feemi tha this Town had been only mortgaged to the Eigl'/b, by the Kinv of Navarre, for the Sum cf twenty two thcufand Matks. Waif.
p 350. /.', n-.. : fW- Tom. VII. p. 756, 7)7,





Vol. I.

him with

I. 4- «■ 3

Yoik and
y*/r the

7m King

gets rid of
"tie Duke of

i 397. fary ; but it was well known alfo that the King of Na-
te Duke of^j arre ^ an j t he JJ) u ke of Bretagne had failed hirr. firft. Be
this as it will, the Duke of Glocefter thought this Fault fo
it- prejudicial to England, that he could not help upbraiding
the King in very fharp Terms ; to which Richard made
fuch a Reply as plainly fliowed how much he was offend-
ed at his Renionftrance. This Accident revived the
King's former hatred of the Duke of Glocejier, which be-
ing rather ftifled than extinguifhed, fhewed itfelf from time
to time; how careful foever he might be to conceal it.
Richard fuf- He complained to the Dukes of Lancajler. and Tori, that
ftps bit t he Duke of Glocejhr took upon him to controll his Ac-
tions, and amongit his complaints, he dropped fome Ex-
preffions, which made them think he fufpected all three
of having ill Deligns upon him. The two Princes pro?
tefted they had an unfhaken Loyalty for him, and did not
queftion but the Duke their Brother had the fame, though
his hafty Temper caufed him fometimes to fpeak with
too much Warmth. The King appeared fatisfied with
The Dikes of (heir Juftification. However, his Eafinefs to be appeafed,
after fhowing fo great Anger, bred in them Suspicions,
which induced them to quit the Court, and retire to their
Eftates. Their withdrawing was probably the occafion
of the Duke of Glcecjler's Ruin, as it gave his Enemies an
opportunity to inflame the King's Difpleafure againft him,
and to determine him at length to be rid of fo troublefome
an Infpector. But as nothing could be found in his
Conduct which might expofe him to the Rigour of the
Law, and befides it would be dangerous to deftroy him
that way, Richard refolved to make ufe of a fpeedier
and more certain Method. To execute this Defign, he
came one Morning to his Uncle's Country Houfe, and
finding him in Bed, defired him to rife immediately, and
Froiffart, g with him to London. He pretended, he wanted him
1. 4. c. 33. j n a ver y jmpoi-tant Affair, which he would impart to
him on the Road. The Duke prefently mounting his
Horfe, rode by the King, who talked to him about the
pretended Affair, without fhowing he had any other De-
fign. Whilft they were difcourfing together, they came
te a hollow Way, where the Duke was fuddenly furround-
ed with fome Horfemen, and carried on board a Ship,
which lay ready in the Thames to convey him to Ca-
Aniaftrt- lais (\). When the King came to London, he fent for
'salr'hif the Ear ' s of ^ arwick and Arundel, and after familiarly
Warwick talking with them fome time (2), ordered them to be ap-
etr.J Amn- prehended and fent to the Tower. He ferved the Lord
Waiiin Cobham in the fame manner with fome others (3), whom
A Vnehmt- he defigned to get rid of. Mean time the Intelligence
tion atom a. ] ]e rece ived of the People's beginning to ftir, obliged him
to iffue out a Proclamation, declaring, thefe Lords were
taken into cuffody for new Mifdemeanours, and pro-
mifing they fhould be proceeded againft according to

This Proclamation having fomewhat appeafed the Peo-
ple, the King fummoncd all the Peers of the Realm to
Nottingham (4). This was done with defign to found
them, rather than ask their Advice concerning the man-
ner of proceeding againft the Prifoners, fince he was al-
ready determined. However he made ufe of this Pretence
to convene them. After the Affair was debated in Coun-
cil, the Lords (5) fearing to incur either the King's In-
dignation, or the Hatred of the Publick, if they came to
any refolution, declared it to be of fuch a nature that it
could only be decided by the Authority of the Parliament.
This was precifely what the King wanted. He had al-
AWifat'i/s reac 'y ta ken all neceffary Meafures to have a Parliament
at his devotion. Some time fince, he had changed all the
Sheriffs of the Kingdom, and fuffered none, but what had
promifed to be fubfervierit to his Defigns. He had taken
the fame Precautions, with refpect to all Officers that

Aft. Pub.

via P . 0.

Til Frees
mre fum*

Tie King

liament at I

had Credit and Power in the Burroughs and Counties. 1397.
So by means of the Magiftrates, and Perfons in publick
Pofts, he had caufed fuch Repiefentativcs to be chofen as
he had fecured beforehand. If any were elecled not agree-
able to him, the Sheriffs were ordered not to return them,
but to caufe others to be chofen in their room. Befides,
as the Houfe of Commons were the fole Judges in the
Affair of Elections, he was well affured that fuch a Par-
liament would confirm or reject, whom he pleafed.

It muft not be thought very difficult for a King of
England to execute fuch a Project. Experience has fince
confirmed, on numberlcfs Occafions, that by the like ways,
it is very poffible, to caufe Representatives to be chofen
devoted to the Court. However, Hiftorians remark, that
it was in this Parliament, that fuch Practices were firft
ufed. But it muft likewife be added, that it was one of
the principal Caufes of Richard's Deftruclion, as will be
feen hereafter. And indeed it is impoffible that a Nation
can fee their Liberties in the hands of Men, whom they
have not themfelvcs freely chofen, without defiling to be
delivered from fuch an Oppreffion.

The Parliament being thus compofed (6), the Biihop77 f Bij&op
of Exeter (7) opened the Seiiion with a Speech, labouring o/Exetert
to prove that the Regal Power was unlimited, and that j/f^/f 5 "
fuch as endeavoured to bound it, deferved the fevereft Power of
Punifhments. Purfuant to this Principle, which met with rfc &*&
a general Approbation, the Parliament repealed the A£t ct/" 1 ?"
of Grace, paffed nine Years before in favour of the Duke Abridjj.
of Glocejhr, the Earls of War-wick and Arundel, and all Aa > p »»-
their Adherents. All the Acts were likewife annulled V1IL v ' ***
paffed in the Parliament, which appointed the fourteen
Governours to the King, as being extorted during his

If the Parliament of 13S6, deferved to be called ther/, ; - (7OTi £
Mercilefs, I know no Name odious enough for this. By mob* ;v»-
a mamfeft Prevarication, this Alfembly made no fcruple'"^ 1 , 5 '
to facrifice to the Paffions of the King and his Minifters, me r.t.
the moft diftinguifhed LorJs of the Kingdom, as well as Cotton'j
the Liberties and Privileges of the People. Thomas Arun-*£"&'
del, Archbifhop of Cantei bury, was impeached of High- Arundel
Treafon, for being one of the Commiilioners appointed battifbtL
by the Parliament of 1386., to whom was committed the^^" 5 "
Inflection of the Adminiftration of the publick Affairs.
For this new fort of Offence, the Archbifhop was con-
demned to Baniftiment, and his Eftate confifcated to the
King's ufe. Then the Earls of Arundel (8) and War - , ,
wick (9), were accufed (10) of the fame Crimes, for which Warwick
nine Years before the King had granted a Pardon, and *** Arundd
fentenced to die by this truly mercilefs Parliament. Froif-f™" ncalc *
fart fays, the King would be prefent at Arundel's Exe-
cution. Another Hiftorian adds, that the Spectacle re- >7 j ■ ^
mained Co deeply imprinted in his Memory, that his Sleep executed,
was often interrupted by Dreams, reprefenting to him the "j^fj"
Earl covered with Blood, and upbraiding him with his In- J^/ 1
juftice. To this contributed, perhaps, the Rumour that Wolfing.
feveral Miracles were wrought at the Tomb of the deceaf-
ed (11), and that his Head was miraculoufly re-joined to
his Body. Though to prevent the ill Confequences of
this falfe Notion, the King had ordered the Corpfe to be
taken up and expofed to publick view, ten days toge-
ther, in a Church, it was not poffible to cure the People
of their Prepoffeffion. As for the Earl of Warwick who w ...
willingly confeffed himfelf guilty, without taking advan- bached.
tage of the Pardon, he was treated with lefs rigour, his Waifiag.
Punifhment being changed into perpetual Banifhment in
the Ifle of Man. As to the Duke of Glocejler, in all Clocefter
appearance, the King was apprehenfive it would be v ery'.™ ( ?f ] . lis _
dangerous to put him to death publickly, or that the Par- Froiffart.
liament would not be fo compliant as to facrifice fo con- '• 4- c. 36,
fiderable a Perfon. Be this as it will, he had taken care v/dUm &-

(1) The Account given of this TranfacYiOn, by Froiffart, is as follows: " The King, under pretence of a Hunting-Match, came to a Seat of
" his near Rumfitd in Effex, called Havering Bcwer ; from whence he fet cut one Summer's Afternoon, and came about five a-Clock (only with
'< a few Attendants, having left the reft at Wallbam) to the Duke's Caftle at Plejhey in the fame Ccunty, as if it were to give him a Vifit. He was re-
" ceived by the Duke and his Duchefs with all due Honour and Refpeft ; and fupper was got ready for his Majefty. But before he fat down, he de-
" fired the Duke to rrder five or fix of his Horfes to be fiddled, to accompany him that Night to London ; for that he himfelf, with his two Uncles of
" Lancajler and Tort, was to hold a Council the next Day, in which he wanted alio his Advice, what Anfwer to give the Londoners, to a Petition they
" were to prcf-nt him. Upon this the Duke, who fufpefted no harm, taking along with him only three Elquires, and four Servants, accompanied the
" King towards London ; who took the way of Bondelay (or Epping-F rejl) to avoid the great Road, and Behode, (perhaps Brennvood) and other Towns ;
" ftill talking familiarly with the Duke, as they went along. When they came near Stratford, between ten and eleven of the Clock, the King putting
" Spurs to his Horfe, rede away before; and at the fame time Thomas Mcrwbiay Earl-Marlhal, who lay in Anibufli with a great Number of Horfemen,
" fcized upon the Dukr, who in vain cried out to the King for help." Froiffart, 1. 4. c. 33, 36. The Caftle of Plejkey, where King Richard came
to the Duke, was the Sc.it of the High-Conftables of England even before the Conquer!. Thomas tVoodjhci became poffefTed of it, by his marrying Eleanor,
eldeft Daughter, and one of the Coheireffca of Humphrey de Bobun, Earl of Hereford and Effex. Of this famous and antient Caftle, nothing now remains
bat the Mount.

(2) He gave them many fair Words and gracious Promifes ; and had invited the Earl of Warwick to a Feaft the fame Day he had him arrcfteJ.
Waljing. p. 354.

(3) And alfo Sir John Cheney, he. The Lord Cobban was fent Prifoner to Jtrfty. Idem. p. 355.
(4.) On the firft of Augu/l.

(5) Thefe Lords were, the Earls of Rutland, Kent, Huntingdon, Nottingham, Somcrfctfhirc, Salisbury; Tbomdl Lord Dijfenfer, and William lc Soteft,
ll'aljing. p. 354.

(6) This Parliament met at Vi'eflmirfler , on September 17. Cotton's Abridg. p. 367. Tyrrel, p. 964.

(7) Edmund Stafford, who was conlecrated in 1395. He was Lcid-Chajiceilor.

(8) Richard Fax-Alan. re,) Thomas Beauchamp.

(10) The Ear] of Ar-mdrl on the :iS of September, and the Earl of Warwick on the 28th of the time Month, See G>.7;n'i AhiJg. p. j;y,
(it) He was bvried in the Church of the Augufin Friers in Lcr.djr.. ll'aljing. p. 355,

Book X.



aa. Pub.

VII i. p. !?■

7* f K»J

gratifiei fe-
deral Lords.
Wa fiiig.

as was afterwards known, to have him privately ftrang-
led (1 ) at Calais. Mean time, his Enemies gave out that
he died of an Apoplexy, and before he expired, confefFed
himfelf guilty of Treafon againft the King. Upon this
Report, without any examination of the Grounds, the
Duke's whole Eftate was confifcated to the King's Ufe.

It was almoft impoffible that thefe Severities fhould not
produce fome alteration among the Nobility. But, to
prevent Accidents, Richard took care to gratify the prin-
cipal Lordr, and particularly the Princes of the Blood.

Cabals of an ambitious Prince. Accordingly, it has often 1 398.
happened, that inftcad of procuring the Good of the
Realm, they have produced Confufion, and the Subver-
sion of the Laws, one while by too much depreffing the
Prerogative Royal, another while, by carrying it higher
than is confident with thcWelfare of the Nation. At fuch
times, the Evii is fo much the harder to be cured, as what
is done by the Parliament is deemed to flow from the
unanimous Confent of the whole Nation. For this Rca-
fon, it rarely happens that this diforder can be remedied,

He created [Henry] Earl of Derby his Coufin, cldeft Son but by means as violent as thofe made ufe of to produce

it, from whence generally fpring Civil Wars. This is
one of the principal Caufes of the domertick Troubles,
which have all along afflicted England more than any
other European State.

It may be further obferved, that the violent Method
practiced by Richard to attain to Arbitrary Power, I mean
forced Elections, and the Opinions of the Judges, was

of the Di'ke of Lancajler, Duke of Hereford, [Edward
Plantagcnet] Earl of Rutland, eldeft ion of the Duke
of York, was made Duke of Albemarle. [Thomas dc Hol-
land] Earl of Kent, received the Title of Duke of Sur-
rey. [John de Holland,] Earl of Huntington, the King's
half Brother, was created Duke of Exeter. [Thomas
Mowbray,] Earl of Nottingham, Duke of Norfolk ; and

[Sir William le Scroope] Earl of Wilt/hire (2). Laftly, out exactly copied in our days by one of his SucceSFors, who

The Pari a-
m. 1 .' ../-
j urned to
Sh <-wlbuiy

had without doubt the fame Intention. But we may add,
that the Attempts of thefe two Monarchs ferved only to
promote their own Destruction, and that their defigns came
to the fame Cataftrophe. This is what we are going to
fee, with regard to Richard II, in the remaining Pan of
his Reign.

Every thing feemed to contribute to the fupport of Richard
the King, in the Enjoyment of the defpotick Power he
had lately aSTumed. They who would have been moll
capable of oppofmg his defigns, had fufFered a tragical
Death, or were banifhed the Realm; and they who Still


77'c extra r
dinary BrO'

Shrew fbuiy.



made a Prin-

Remarks on
rbe Englifh

of complaifance to the Duke of Lancajler, the King made
[John Beaufort] his eldeft Son by his third Marriage,
who was already Earl of Somerfet, Marquils of Somerfet (3).
To thtle honourable Titles he added other Favors, by di-
stributing among thefe Louis the forfeited Eftates of the
Duke of Glocejler, and of the Earls of Aiundel and War-
wick (4).

In thofe days the Parliament ftldom fat above one
SefTion, unlefs the Bufinefs tcqutrcd a Short Prorogation.
But this was too well difpofed lor the Kinsr, to be willing
to run the hazard of having one lcf> devoted to him. So

not thinking Sit to difiolve it, he was plcafed to adjourn it remained, were gained by Places, Grants, or other forts
to Shrewsbury ; this Town in the Neighbourhood of of Favours. The great Officers of the Crown, the Go-
li'ales, where he had many Friends, feeming more pro- vernors of the Towns and Counties, were all devoted to
per for his Defigns than London, where lie knew he was the King. Among the Magistrates of the Towns and
not beloved. Country, not one was fufFered but what was ready to

The new Seffion (c) was only a Continuation of the promote, to the utmoft, the Increafe of the Regal Power,
extraordinary Proceedings already began at Wejlminjler. Notwithstanding all thefe Advantages, Richard was much
The Parliament Strove to carry the Prerogative Rojal to mistaken, in imagining this new-acquired Power was Safe
a greater height, than any King of England had ever pre- Fince the People were not for him, but on the contrary,'
tended to Stretch it, and eStabliShed fuch Maxims as were
destructive of the Constitution, and the Liberties of the Peo-
ple. 1 hey approved, as conformable to Law, the Opinions
for which nine Years before, the Judges were condemn-
ed. Purfuant to this Principle, the Judges who attended
during the Sitting of the Parliament, deciJed, tYaxlVhen
the King probofed any Articles to be debated in Parliament,
it was High Treafon to bring in others before the King's
were firft difpaiched. By this and the like decifions, the
Cafes of High Treafon were fo multiplied, that hardly

was it poliible to prevent falling into that Crime, unlets Flatterers, they fancy all the reft of the People
by making the King's Will and Pleafure the Cole Rule of the fame Sentiments, and generally it is too late
Action (6). At iaft under colour of difpatching Bufi-
nefs, the Parliament appointed a certain Number of
Commissioners (7), who were inverted with the Autho-
rity of the whole Houfe. Thus by an unprecedented
Act, the whole Power of the Nation was devolved to
the King, twelve Peers, and Fix Commoners. To give
the more Strength to thefe irregular Proceedings, the
King caufed them to be confirmed by the Pope's Bull,
which was published in all the Counties of the King-
dom (8).

During this fecond Seffion, Richard brought into
Shrewsbury a numerous Guard of the Militia of Chcjlnre,
who exptelled fo Strong an Inclination to ferve him, that

hated him for his violent Actions. It is even likely, that
among thofe whom he accounted his Friends, there were
many, who, out of Weaknefs or Prudence, did but conceal
their real Sentiments, till an opportunity offered to fiee
the Kingdom from the Yoke it began to groan under.
And an opportunity prefented itfelf fooner than the King
imagined ; for fuft'ering himfelf to be Fwayed by his PaC-
fion, he had not the Prudence to keep within Come
Bounds, an Error which Princes of his Character feldom
fail of committing. As they are always furrounded with

are in
generally it is too late before
they perceive, that the final] Numbers they have gained,
is a weak Defence againft the Fury of an imaged Na-
tion. For a while, five or fix hundred PerCons, who
compoCe the Parliament, 'and Come hundreds oC Ma°i-
ftrates in the Towns and Counties, feem to make the
Body of the Nation, and the reft are reckoned as nothing.
But a time comes when every Single Peifon muft be
taken into the account, and then the Number of thofe that
are in Office, is infinitely fmall in comparifon of the reft
of the Nation.

Richard, incapable of making thefe Reflections, fuffer- Sgarrd tc
ed himfelt to be blindly guided by his Paffion, which «««■ '*•
made him confider, as a great Advantage, all occafions off,**", ° f

to gratify the County, he erected it into a Principa- exerctfing the Arbitrary Power he thought to have to wwolk.

l' tv (9). firmly eStabliShed. Towards the end of the Year 1398 Walfing.

Let us Stay here a moment, and reflect on the Con- he gave a fignal Proof of the little regard he intended to Froiirjrt '

ftitution of the EtigUJb Government. It is certain, the have for his Subjeds, on occafion of a Quarrel between 39?' °' % *'

two of the principal Lords of his Court. The Duke of
Hereford, eldeft Son of the Duke of Lancajler, awed by
the Examples of the Duke of Glocejler his Uncle, and the
other Lords, whom the King had facrificed to his Re-
venge, limiting his Defiles, made it the height of his
Ambition, to keep in his favour, and carefully endea-

Inltitution of Parliaments is very advantagious to the
Kingdom, being the only fupport oC the Liberties of the
People, who, without that, would long fince have fallen
into a fatal Slavery. But on the other hand, it cannot
be denied, that thefe ASIemblies become fometimes very
dangerous, when influenced by Popular Factions, or the

(1) He was not ftrangled, but fmotherfd between two Feather-beds, in September ; as appears by the Confeflion of John Hall, a Servant of Tl -
Mmubray, Duke of Nor/oik, Captain of Calais ; which Hall was concerned in that Mulder, and executed for it, in the War :j.co. See Cotton'
Ahndg. p. 400. His Br,Jy was brought over to England, foon after his Death, as appears by King Richard's Order for that purpofe dated C
{Rymcrt Feed. Tom. VIII. p. 20, 21.) and buried in IVeJtmnfler- Abbey. According to fome, it was at firft buried in his Cattle ot Hadl'e in EfTcx thence"
removed into the Church of the College founded by him at Plefhey for Canons-Regular, and afterwards into WcflminfL, Abbey, where his Tomb is ftiU

(2) Rapin fays by mifiake, of Glocejler. It was Thomas It Defpenfer, who was created Earl of Ghcefler. Durdalt. Welti*?. Thomas Pere, ■>
created Earl of tVorcefier ; and Sir Ralph Neviil Earl of Wejlmoreland. ' * Ji rt " y *"" ""

( 3) He was firft made Marquifs of Dorfet ; but this Title wa; aft, rwards changed into Marquifs of Somerfet, by a new Charter of the Creation, bearing the
fame Date with the former. Nevertlielefs, tlicugh his fill! Title was cancelled, he was always called Marquils of Dorfet. Dugdaie.

(4) Alter this, on September 30. the Bifhops and Loids took an Oath to obferve all the Statutes, &c, made in this Parliament; the Form of wh '1
Oatli fee in Tyrrel, p. 977.

(c.) Which began Jan. 29. Cotton's Abridg. p. 371. See Rymer's Fad. Tom. VIII. p. 21.

(6) It was alfo made Treafon : 1. For any P irfon whatfoever to compafs or imagine the King's Death ; 2. To contrive his Depofirjon ; 3. To ride
armed or make War againft the King in hi Realm ; 4. Or to d (claim the Homage. And the Heirs of all Perlons convicted of any ot' thefe four Articles
were tor ever to be deprived ot the Land and Poffealions of their Anceftors. Comp. llijl. p. 278.

(7) The Dukes of Lancajler, Tort, Albemarle, Surrey, Exeter; the Marquifs of Dorfet; the Earls of March, Salisbury, Northumberland, Gloeefier Win.
cbcfler and // tltjhire, or any fix ot them ; together with John Huffy, Hen.y Green, John R,.fl, Henry Cbelmfw.cic, Robert Tey, and J:hn Goicfre, Kniehtl
ror the Commons ot the Kingdom, or any three of them. Cotton's Abridg. p. 374. Tyrrcl, p. 985.

(8) This Parliament granted the King the Subfidy of Wool, Leather, and Wool-fells for Life; and one Tenth and Fifteenth, and half a Tenth and

halt a Fllteenth. Rot. Pari. %I Ric. II. N. 75. Cottons Abridr. p. 374. »wmi, mm

(9) And added to the reft of his own Titles that of Prince" of Cbcjltr.

No. 24. Vol. I. 6C Yomd



tte H I S T R r of E N G L A N D.

Vol. I.

Ad Pub.


•tvbicb is to

It decided by

The King
prevents the
Duel, and
b.in /bei
them ! lb.
i. 4. c. 40.
Act Pub.

via p. 4-.

48, &c 51.

Duie >f

Injujlice dan.
bis Hon.


/// State of
tie Kintdtm.

1. 4. c. 47.


Aft. Tub.
Vili. p. js,
54, &c. r -

AR. Pub.
VIII. p. 9,

exeic led by
the Krrj and

voured to avoid giving any caufe of Sufpicion. It was,
probably, from this Confrderation, that fearing the Duke
bf Norfolk had laid a Snare for him, in fpeaking to him
very difrefpectfully of the King ( 1 ), he informed Richard
of the fame. The Duke of Norfolk denying he had
ever fpoken again ft the King, and the Duke of Hereford
maintaining his Accufation, it was ordered, that the Af-
fair fhould be decided according to the Law of Chivalry,
that is, by fingle Combat (2). Coventry was appointed
for the Duel, at which the King would be prefent in Per-

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 198 of 360)