M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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on the South by the Saxons of Tl'effix, Suffix and Kent; on
the Eaff, by thofe of Effex or Eaji-Anglia ; and on the North,
by the Northumbrians ; they were, in a manner, furrounded
by their Enemies. There was, however, one Refuge left,
which helpt to keep alive, for a while, their faint Expecta-
tion of being able to withftand fo many Misfortunes. As the
Neceffity of their Affairs had formerly obliged them to fend
for the Saxotis to defend them againft the Scots, a no lefs
prefiingOccafion compelled them at this time, to implore the
Afiiftance of the Scats againft the Saxons. This Refolution
being unanimoufly taken, AmbafTadors were fent to Aidan
King of Scotland, to engage him in their Quarrel. " They
" reprefented to him, that their Ruin would infallibly draw
" on his ; for the Saxons had in view no lefs than the Con-
" queft of the whole Bland, great part whereof was now in
" their pofieflion : That if thefe Foreigners mould at length
" over-run what remained in the Hands of the Britons, the
" Scots were to expedt no better Quarter than the Picls, who
" were already difpoflefled of part of their Country." To
this they added, " That the Saxon Monarch was an active
" and ambitious Prince, capable of forming Defigns, the
" Confequences whereof were to be equally dreaded by all
" his Neighbours, if care were not taken in time to put a
" flop to his Progrefs." Aidan, prevailed upon by thefe Con-
fiderations, puts himfelf at the head of a powerful Army, and
joins the Britons, in order to attack the common Enemy.
Ceaulin having notice of his March, made all poflible Speed
to meet him, with what Troops he could aflemble. But as
the neighbouring Kings, his Countrymen, were not very for-
ward to lend him Afiiftance, his Forces were far from being
equal to thofe of the Britons and Scots. How great foever
the Superiority of his Enemies might be, he couragcoufly at-
tacks them : But, after long difputing the Victory, his Ar-
my, overpowei'd by Numbers, is cut in pieces, his Son Cuth-
win flain, and himfelf narrowly efcapes. The Britonrv/ere
fo elevated with their Succefs, that they began now to form

Projects to drive the Saxons entirely out of the Mind ; but
they were far from being able to put them in practice. The v-hn .
Saxon Princes, though well enough pleafed to lee Ceaulin
humbled, thought it not for their Intereft to let the Bri-".'J '
tons and Scots enjoy the Advantage they had gailtfd by their
Victory; and therefore foon put their Monarch at the head
of a much more numerous Army than the former. Upon
which impatient to be revenged, he goes in queft of his
Enemies, and meets them without delay. In a fecond Bat-
tle, he repaired, by a fignal Victory, his former Dl:>ice, and
convinced the Britons of the Vanity of their Projects. Aidan
retiring into Scotland after his Deteat (4), the Britons, who
faw all their meafures broken, thought only of preferving
what they had left, content witli dividing their Country witli '
the Saxons, fince they were unable to expel them. But Di-
vine Juftice that had long purfued them, was not yet fatis-
fied. They were ftill to be reduced to greater Diftreli, and
behold the beft and richeft part of their Ifland taken from
them by a Nation whom God had chofen for the Inirru-
ment of his Vengeance.

Scarce were the unfortunate Britons recovered from their -
late Confirmation, when a great Fleet appearing on their
Coafts, quite funk their Courage. This Fleet, the moll , " ,
confiderable of any that had come from Germany, brought
great Numbers of Angles, conducted by Crida a Leader of 11 '
the fame Nation, of the Race of Woden. I have not been
able to learn where they landed, but probably it was in Eall-
Anglia, and having marched crofs that Kingdom, they ad-
vanced towards the middle of the Ifland, upon the Territo-
ries of the Britons, who were unable to oppofe their Arms.
As Crida advanced in their Country, Diforder and Con-.^^^
fternation increafed among the miferable Britons. Some^r^ Con-
vainly projected to defend themfelves, whilft others fought?"^ 1 -
only to fave their Goods, their Wives and Children, aban-
doning their Lands to the Angles. Crida taking advantage
of their Terror, fpread himfelf far and wide, and becoming
Mafter of the Field, drove his frighted Enemies before him.
In vain did they fly to their wall'd Towns ; the want of
Provifions for fuch Multitudes, foon compelled them to
furrender at Difcretion.

The Britons being unable to defend themfelves againft 77< Prions
thefe new Invaders, fupported by their Countrymen already ""'" """
fettled in the Ifland, took the only courfe left them, and Walcs '
retired into Cambria beyond the Severn. They had no other
Retreat, being prefTed on all other Sides by the Saxons and
Angles. Their Flight put Crida in pofieflion of all the
Country lying between the Humber, the Severn, and
Thames, by which he was bounded on the North, Weft, and
South. To the Eajl of him lay the Kingdoms of Effex and

Out of all thefe Conquefts, Crida formed a Kingdom The , .
larger and more confiderable than any of the other fix, by,„/ t /X"
the Name of the Kingdom of the middle-Angles. This King- Kingdom f
dom was afterwards more generally called Mercia. Crida Mtrcia -
the firft King was crowned in 584.

Cambria not being fufficient to contain fo many Families, 7,: SV .•/.
Multitudes of miferable Britons fled into Armorica, where :b - Batons',
great Numbers of their Countrymen were already fettled.
Others fubmitted to the Saxons or Angles, content to become
Havers of JVood and Drawers of Water for a wretched Sub-
fiftence. Thofe that remained in Cambria, a Country de-
fended by Nature, kept their ground againft all the Power of
the Conquerors, who could not, till long after, extend their
Conquefts beyond the Mountains. This little corner of the
Ifland, where the Britons were cooped up, was afterward di-
vided into feveral petty Kingdoms, which were one while fe-
parated, another while united, according to the Ambition or
Power of their Kings (5 ). Here I fhall leave the Britons for the
future, as making a State by themfelves, and having no rela-
tion to the Hiftory of England, but what is commonly found
between two neighbouring Nations. It is true they made
fromtime to time feveral Attempts to recover what they had
loft: But their Efforts proved ineffectual, as did the Endea-
vours of the Anglo-Saxons to force them in thefe Retreats.

The Saxons gave the Britons the Name of Gwallifh, or^. 9
Wallijh, that is, Gauls ; taking them to be, as in all appearance a-j^, -., th,
they were, of Gaulijlj Extraction. For this reafon Cambria ^'""f f
was by them termed Wallijli-Land; from whence came the
Name of Wales, us'd by the Englijh at this day, and chang'd
by the French into Galles, upon account of their being derived
from the Gauls. The Walloons alfo, and Wa/lachians, have
ftill kept thefe Names, and in fome Places in Germany, the
Italian Tongue is called Weljh, becaufe of Gallia Cifalpina


iatt Wales.

(1) IVimbleton in Surry.

'2} The King;, his Succ:fTors were from him call'd UJfttg*. Hig. />. 224.

(3) Anno 571, Cutha defeated the Brians at Bediamford (Bedford), and took from them the Towns of Lygeanburh (Layton Buzzard in Bedfordjhirc),
Aylrjbury in Buckingbarrjhire, and Btnfmpxm and Eyti/ham in Oxfirdjhirc). Anno ^87, Ceaulin and Cutha defeated the three Bntijh Kings, Commatl,
Condidan, and FarimKail at Deerham in Guctfterfhirt, and took from them GlueJIir, CireneeJIer and Bath. Again, Anno 584, there was another Battle be-
tween the Britons and Saxtmi at Fetharleagb (Frctltrne in Glxtferfbire) wherein Cutha was flain ; but however the Saxons got the Victory. Camd. p.
291,233. Anno 591, there was another Battle between them, wherein the Soxons were beat; it was fought at Wednr.lirne {ii'ode>:Jburgc or rVanJdike
uiH'iltjhtrc. Camd. p. S5, 100.) Sax. Ann. Huntingd, p. 315. Malmsb. p. iz. M. W.Jim, p. 197, 19S.

(4) Some fay he was (lain in the Battle. Scoti-Chr. Buchan. 1. 5.

(5) The singles pofftl's'd the Kingdoms <4 Northumberland, Mima, and Eajl-An.'l'a ; as the Stxim the otl.er four Kingdoms en both Sides the


N . III. Vol. I.




Vol. I.

«*•/ cfRri-
tain into
£n2ia nd.
Jo. Sal lb.
in Polychr.
/. 5. c. 17.

Suceeffion of
tbt King* 0/
G. Malm.
/• I. c. 3.

Sledda King
if EiTex.

1 nhabtted by the Gauls. As for the Name of Cambria given
by the native Britons to Wales, I fuppofe, that before the
Arrival of the Saxons, the Britons, who called thcmfelves
Cumri or Cumbri, named their Country Cambria; and
that after their Retreat beyond the Severn, the fame Name
which before was common to all Britain, became peculiar
to H'aLs.

About the fame time, the Anglo-Saxons unanimoufly a-
greed to call the feven Kingdoms in general by the Name of
England- that is, the Country of the Angles. Whether this
was done becaufe the Angles were more numerous than the
Saxons and Jutes, and poffelied the largeft and molt confi-
dcrable of the feven Kingdoms, or for fome other reafon, is
uncertain. Perhaps Engle-land is only a Contraction ot Engle-
Saxe-land, a name derived from the two principal Nations
that were fettled in Great-Britain. But the Pitts, Scots,
and Irljhf were not fond of this change of Names. They
continued to call the new PolTefibrs of Britain, Saxcnag or
Saxons, and their Country Saxcncage. I fuppofe, as the Sax-
ons were firft known in Britain, the neighbouring Nations,
accuftom'd to that Name, did not think fit to receive the
Alteration introduced by the Conquerors.

I am very fcnfible that the Changing of the Name of
Britain into that of England is generally afcribed to Egbert
Kins; of Weffex, about two hundred and fifty Years after
the time I am fpeaking of. But this Opinion is founded on
the Authority of an Hiftorian that is far from being infalli-
ble ( 1 ). Others, who feem to go on much better Grounds,
pofitively affirm, the Name of England was given to that
Part of Britain conquered by the Saxons, a little after their
Arrival in the Ifland ; which may very well be underftood
of the Time immediately following the Arrival and Con-
quefts of Cerdic. But how is it poflible to extend this little
after to the Reign of Egbert, which began not till the
Year 800 (2)?

After the Death of Ida, and the Divifion of Northum-
berland before-mentioned, Alia reigned in Deira, and Adda,
eldeft Son of Ida, in Bernicia ; who dying in 563, four
Kings, all Sons or Brothers of Ida, fucceffively filled the
Throne of Bernicia till the Year 586, when Athelric, Ida's
youngeft Brother, was placed thereon. But as he was very
old, Adelfrid his Son held the Reins of the Government by
his Father's Authoiity.

In the Year 587, Erccnvjin, firft King of Ejfex, died,
after a Reign of lixty Years, and was fucceeded by his Son

Thus we have run through, in this Second Book, the
moft remarkable Events that happened in Great-Britain,
from the Arrival of the Saxons to their Eftablilhment in the
Ifland, during a War of 1 30 Years. We have feen the
Efforts of the Britons, who, after a refolute Defence, were
forced at laft to give up their Country to the very People
they had called to their Affiftance. In the following Book,
we (hall fee what palled in the Heptarchy, the Name given
to the Seven Kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons, when confi-
dered as making but one Body under the fame Government.
The Saxons, Jutes, and Angles, that conquered the beft part
of Britain, looking upon thcmfelves as one and the fame
People, as they had been in Germany, eftablifhed a Form of
Government, as like as poflible to what they had lived un-
der in their own Country. They formed their IVittena-

Gemot, or Ajj'embty of H'if-men, to fettle the common Af-
fairs of the Seven Kingdoms, and conrened the Comr.. d
of their Armies upon one chofen out of the Seven Kin ,
to whom, for that reafoft, no doubt, fome have given the
Title of Monarch, on pretence of his having the Precedence
and fome Superiority over the reft. Bur to me that Dig-
nity feems rather to have been like that of Stadtholder of
the United Provinces of the Low Countries. There was
however fome Difference between the Saxon Government
in Britain, and that in Germany. For Inftance, in Ger-
many the Governor of each Province entirely depended on
the General Alfembly, where the fupreme Power was
lodg'd ; whereas in Britain, each King was Sovereign in his
own Dominions. But notwithftanding this, all .the King-
doms together were, in fome refpecls, confider'd as the
fame State* and every one fubmitted to the Refutations of
the General Afiembly of the Seven Kingdoms, to which he
gave his Confent by himfelf or Reprefentative. And there-
fore this Form of Government may be very juftly compar'J
to that of the United Provinces, each whereof is Sovereign
and Independent, tho' they fubmit to the Determination °of
the States-General. A Free Election, and fometimes Force,
gave the Heptarchy a Chief or Monarch, whofe Authority
was more or lefs, according to their Strength. For tho'
the Perfon inverted with this Office, had no Right to an un-
limited Authority, there was fcarce one of thefe Monarch;,
as will be feen hereafter, but what afpir'd to an abfolute

If we enquire into the Caufes of the Revolution thathap- Cm r a , r , hz
pen d in Great-Britain by the Conquefts of the Saxons, it rW«;i»
muft be own'd, in the firft Place, that God was pleas'd by ' •' ' v.' '■■'*
a juft Judgment to punifti the Britons for their enormous g^™"
Crimes, from which, according to their oWh Hiftorians,
neither People, nor Kings, nor Clergy were free. Tho' the
Divine Juftice does not always punim, in a vifible manner,
every Nation guilty f the like Crimes, yet we muft per-
ceive the Hand of God, when it manifefts itfelf upon a
particular Nation, by fuch terrible Effects. ' But as the Di-
vine Juftice generally makes ufe of natural Means to exe-
cute its Defigns, it 'is thefe chiefly we may and ought to
look after. And firft, it is plain, that the Diflention of
the Britons was the principal Caufe of their Deftruction.
Had they been more united, they would have better defend-
ed themfelves againft the firft Saxons, and thereby, no
doubt, difcourag'd others from attempting to fettle in their
Ifland. In the next Place, their long Subjection to the Ro-
mans had enervated their Courage, and extinguifh'd their na-
tural Inclination for War. Laftly, they long wanted a
General capable of conducting them and making them fen-
lible they were no lefs Brave than other Nations. For how
different a People did they feem to be under the Conduct of
Ambrofius and the Great Arthur, from what they were
when unable to defend themfelves againft the PiiJs and
Scots ? So great an Influence has the Good or Bad Qualities
of Princes upon the Publick Affairs, aad the very Manners
of their Subjects, as is evident from the Hiftories of all
Nations. We (hall find in the Sequel, that the Civil Wars
of the Anglo-Saxons were no lefs fatal to them, than In-
teftine Divifions had been to the Britons. They gave oc-
cafion to the Strong to opprefs the Weak, and at length
made way for One to fubdue All the reft.

(1) Gaffrey of Monmouth.

(2) John Bifliop of Cbartra fays, England was fo call'd from the firft coming of the singles; others from the Name HingiJ), (a Notion probable
enough, fays Selden) whofe Reputauon, Wars, and Government, being firft inverted by Vatigtrn in Kent, are above all the other Ctrmans moft notable ia
the Britijh Stories, and Harding

■ He call'd it Engejie\ Land,

Which afterwards was thorted, and call'd England.

As for the Word Englijbman, 'tis us'd long before Egbert\ Time, as may be feen in the Saxon Laws. And Bede, !. 2, c. 4. and /. 4. c, j.


Book Il»





*fbe Arrival of the SAXONS, to the Retreat of the BRITONS into Wales.

The HA.ry
e/'ttr flritilh
Ctvnh little


Bede, / I.
c. 17-21.

frfc/i tf
and Iltutus.
Cm. yd. 1.
/•• -+•

St- Patrick


it David.


AFTER having feen what Calamities Britain was
expos'd to by the Saxon Wars of 1 3 o Years, a re-
gular Account of the Britijh Church is not to be
expected during that Space. It is eafy to perceive,
that the Ecclcfiaftics, who were then the only Writers,
were otherwife employ 'd than in penning Hifrories. And
tho' fome might have found Leifure, it would have been
difficult for their Writings to defcend to us. We muft
therefore be fatisfied with a few traditional Events, with-
out Order or Connexion, fince there is no exact Hiftory
of the Affairs of the Britijh Church, whilft file was thus
grievoufiy afflicted.

Before the Arrival of the Saxons, Germanus Bifhop of
Auxerre came twice into Britain, as we have laid, to extir-
pate the Pelagian Herefy, that had taken deep Root. This
Prelate perceiv'd, in thefe his two Voyages, that the Clergy
were no lefs ignorant than corrupted, and that their Corrup-
tion was chiefly owing to their Ignorance. To apply fome
Remedy to this Evil, hebeliev'd the molt beneficial Thing
he could do for Britain would be to erect Schools for the
Inftruction of Youth, and particularly forthofe that were de-
fign'd for the Service of the Church. Purfuant to this pious
Refolution, he founded feveral, among which, thofe of /)«-
bricius and Iltutus were the molt famous. Dubricius, Bifhop
of Llandaff, was made Archbifhopof Caerleon, and Metro-
politan of all Cambria. He had two Schools, where he
Uught himfelf, one at Henjland, and another at Moekrojl.
Iltutus taught at Llan-twit, that is, The Church of Iltutus.
There was alfo at Bangor in Cambria a famous Monaftery
where Youth were educated. It is not to be doubted that
thefe Schools of Germanus were of great Benefit to Britain
fince they afterwards produe'd many illuflrious Men, that go-
vern'd the Britijh Churches in the moft perillous Times.
Amongft the Advantages the Britons receiv'd from the Pre-
fence of Germanus, fome reckon alfo the Change he made
in the Publick Service of the Church, by introducing the
GauliJIt Rites and Ceremonies. This isalmolt all we know
concerning the Britijh Church, during the Time the Sax-
ens were employ'd in their Conquelts. ' I can only add a
few Particulars relating to fome Ecclefa/lics famous for
their Sanctity who flourifh'd then in the Ifland ; with
which I mail clofe my Account of the Church of Britain,
till the Converfion of the Saxons give me occafion to fpeak
of the Church of England.

Patrick was one of the moft remarkable for the Conver-
fion of the Irifo, which is generally afcrib'd to him, tho'
Anatolius and Palladius preach'd in Ireland before him. In
all Probability Patrick made the greateft Progrefs, and there-
fore the Irijl) did, and (till do, reverence him as their Apo-
ftle and Protestor. It is proper to obferve, that there were
three noted Men of this Name: Patrick the Elder, who
died in 449, and is mention'd in the Chronicle of Glaffen-
bury Church : Patrick the Great, the Converter of the Irijh,
who died in 493, having govern'd the Church of Ireland
60 Years: Patrick the Younger, his Nephew, who furviv'd
his Uncle fome Years.

Dubricius, Bifhop, or rather Archbifhop of Caerleon,
was illultrious for his Piety, Learning, and the abovemen-
tion'd School^; and laftly for his Synod at Brevi in Cardi-
ganjlnrc, againft the Pelagians ( 1 ).

David, Son of a Britijh Prince, and Succeffor of Dubri-
ceus, remov'd the Archepifcopal Seat from Caerleon to Mc-
ncvia, from him call'd St. Davids. He was noted for his
aitjlere Life, and his Synodat Vittoria, where the Canons of
Brevi were confirm'd. Several Miracles are attributed to

him, particularly his giving to the Batb-Wateri the Virtues
they ftill retain. He is faid to have lived 146 Years.

Santpfon the Elder and Samp/on the Ttunger. The firft SamjrionJ
being Bifhop of Dot in Armoriea, was fent for into Britain ElJa
by Ambrofius, and made Archbifhop of York. The I'econd, *"""*'""'
ol Royal Race, was made an Archbifhop, without any par-
ticular See affigned him, with power to perform the Archi-
epifcopal Functions where-ever he came. TJje Saxon Wars
fore'd him to return Home, where he was made Archbi-
fhop of Do/. He is faid, when he left Great-Britain, to
carry with him feveral Memoirs, that would have given us
a more perfect Knowledge of the Affairs of the Britijh
Church, had they been carefully preferv'd.

Cadoc, Abbot of Lancarvan, fpent his whole Income, Cadoc.
which was very confiderable, in maintaining 300 Priefts.
He lived to the Year 570.

Patern, of a noble Family in Armorica, having ftudied Pateni
20 Years in Ireland, came anil fettled in Cambria, where he
ufefully employ'd his Time in promoting Peace among the
feveral Princes. He generally refided at Cardigan, where
is ftill to be feen Llan-Badarn-vawr, that is, The Church
of great St Patern, which for fome time was a Bifhop's
Seat. Patern died in his native Country, where he was fo
diftinguifh'd for Holinefs of Life, that no lefs than three
Feftival-days were dedicated to his Memory.

Petroc, a Native of Carnival, was famous for his Piety, p ctro c
and gave Name to Petroc-Jlow or Pad/low in the fame
County (z).

Kentigern, Son to a Princefs of the Pitls, was Abbot of Kenton.
Glafcow, from whence he went into Cambria, and found-
ing a Religious Society, return 'd to his Monaftery (3). His
Aufterities are mightily extoll'd, and particularly his ihicl
Abftinence from Flefh.

Afaph, the Difciple of Kentigern, wrote his Matter's Afaph.
Life, by whom he was made Abbot of the Monaftery,
founded in Cambria; he liv'd to the Year 590, and left his
Name to the City of St. Afaph.

Cslumba, nobly defcended in Ireland, founded there a Columba.
Monaftery, call'd Dearmach, that is, The Field of Oaks,
becaufe fituated in a Foreft, fome time after he came into ^22.
Britain, to preach the Gofpel in the Highland-Pitts, of ^^ **
which they were yet ignorant. God was pleas'd fo to blefs "* ''
his Labours, that he had the Satisfaction to fee thofe Sava-
ges converted to the Chriftian Religion, with their King
Bridius, who gave him the little Ifland of Jona or Hy,
call'd fince Colchil, where he founded another Monaftery
that afterwards became very famous (4). Thefe two Mona-Sax Ami,
fteries for a long Time fupplied the Scotch Churches both
in Ireland and Great-Britain, with Bifhops and Priefts. It
is obfervable, that according to the Inftitutiou of Cchonba,
the Abbot of 'Jona retain'd a Jurifdiction not only over fe-
veral Monaiteries which branch'd forth from that, but alfo
over the Monks that went from thence to be Priefts or Bi-
fhops. Bede's reafon for this, is, becaufe Columba the Foun-i- 3. e.4-
der was himfelf but a Prieft. It might be added, that the
Monks who had vow'd Obedience to the Abbot of Jona,
when they came to be' Bifhops, did not think the Epifcopal
Character freed them from their Vow. This Inftance fome-
what perplexes the Sticklers for the Eeclcfiajfual Hierarchy,
who endeavour to get off, by alledging it was an ill Cu-
Itom crept into that Country, againlt the general Practice
of the Church throughout Chriftendom (5).

Gildas ot Badon, or Bath, was Scholar to Iltutus, and a ciMas.
Monk of Banger Monaftery. He was born in the Year of
the Battle of Badon according to UJher in 520, but accord-

(1) Dubricius died in the Ifle of Bardfey, in 522.

(2) He was buried at Bodmin.

(3) And there died in 560. Harps, c. 28.

(4) Jona Hu, Hit, or Coiumb-cylle, one of the Hebrides, two Miles in Length, and one in Breadth. Camden. " This Ifl.uid was given by the
" PiTts to the Scotijlf M< nks, becaufe they had received Chriftianity through their Preaching, about A. D. c.6c.. The Monaftery here, was for a
" long time the Chief of alrrnil all thofe of the Northern Scots, and all thofe of the Picls, and had the Direction of their People. (Bcde, I. 3.
c, 3»4-) '1 here were in it two Mrnafteries, one of M<jnks, dedicated to St. Cdumba the Ap^ftle of the Pitls, (from whom this Ifland was called Co-
ixmb-cyllc) that was the See of the Bijbcf of the Ijles ; and the other of Nuns. [Camd. p. 1071. Buehan. 1. I.) This Ifland is famous for the Burial of
the ancun: Kihti; of Scotland, forty-tour of whom are faid to have been buried there (Buehan. ibid.) This Account feems more authentkk than
that gjven by HetJw Boetiut. Accoiding to him I h is M< inaftery was foundtd, A- D. 379. when Maximus, or Maximin, having baniihed the Scots

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