M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

The history of England : written in French (Volume 1) online

. (page 203 of 360)
Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 203 of 360)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


the Hearts of Men, it is rafhnefs to accufe, or excufe you would have played the Majier here , / would havt
them, with regard to the fecret Motives of their Actions, prevented your coming.

(1) Gregory, or Augvftint. Sfelman Con. T. II. p. 348.

(2) — Sed tantum auaoritati Biblia:, & neceflaria; Rationi. Hid.

(3) Or rather, That in Man there is only one Form, namely, the rational Soul, without any other fubftantial Form. Sttlman. Ibid.

(4) Now (wallowed up in Cbriji Church.

(5) After the Death of MiSimoaljlip, William Edington Bifhop of WmcUflir was offered the ArchbilWck ; but ho refuted it, faying, Ttot C*nt„iury
wasthe higher Rack, but Whcbcjkr the better Manger. Tjrrel, Vol, IV, p. 66).

1 Th?



4 8o



the H I STO RT of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



WicW.ff's

Pt fet ■::! rt
drcfl.



Walfing.
p. 20I.



Collier.



Bull K the
Arcbbijhcp

to are

Wicklift'.
Wjlling..

p. 202.

Spelman,
Cone. T. II
p. 621.



They cite
hitn,



but drip the
Ajfair.



Knighton,
Col. 2647.



The Duke of Lartcafter. Yes, he pall play the Majler
ht re for all you.

The Lord Percy. Wickliff, fit down ; you have need
of a Feat, for you have many things to fay.

Biftiop. // is unreafonable that a Clergyman, cited be-
fore his Ordinary, Jhould fit down during his Anfwtr. He
Jhall ftand.

Duke of Lancaster. My Lord Percy is in the right.
And for you, my Lord Bi/hop, wloo are grown fo proud and
arrogant, I u ill take care to humble your Pride, and not
only yours, but that of all the Prelates in England. Thiu
dependeji upon the Credit of thy Relations, but far from
being able to help thee, they ftjall have enough to do to
Jupport 'themfelves.

Bifhop. / place no Confidence either in my Relations
or in any Alan elfc, but in God alone, who will give me
the Boldnefs to fpeak the Truth.

The Duke fpeaking foftly to the Lord Percy :

Rather than tail this at the Bijhop's hands, Fll drag
him by the Hair of the Head out of the Church.

The Duke of Lancafler muft needs have been very
paflionate, fince it is certain the Bifhop's laft Words
were not infolent enough, to occafion fo great a tran-
fport of Anger. But it may be, the Bifhop ufed harfher
Expreffions, which the Hiftorians, Friends of the Clergy,
have taken care to foften, that the Duke might appear
to be in the wrong. However, the Duke's Words to
the Lord Percy, being over-heard by fome Stander-bv,
occasioned the Tumult mentioned in the Reign of Ed-
ward III, the particulars whereof it will be needlefs to
repeat. It fuffkes to obferve, that upon this Accident
the Aflembly broke up, and JVickliff's Examination was
deferred to another time.

The Death of Edward III. happening fhortly after,
and the Duke of LancajJer being Prefident of the new
King's Council, the Bifhqps durft not proceed a<rainft
Wickliff. During that time, the number of his Fol-
lowers increafed fo confiderably, that the Univerfity of
Oxford debated, whether they fhould receive the Pope's
Bull, commanding them to profecute JVickliff with the
utmoft rigour. The Hiftorian who relates this particu-
lar, not acquainting us with their final Refolution, the
Bull was probably rejected. Hence it appears, that
JVickliff's Doctrine was not embraced by fome ignorant
Peffons only, but by Men of Letters, and Perfons of
Quality. Some would make us believe, that People
were frightned into a feigned Approbation of his Doc-
trine. But it may be faid, on the contrary, with much
more probability, that Fear hindered many from being
his followers. For a Man ran no risk in continuing to
adhere to the old, whereas it was dangerous to embrace
the new Doctrines-.

The Pope finding, his Bull to the Univerfity of Ox-
ford produced no great Effect, fent frefli Orders to the
Archbifhop of Canterbury and Bifhop of London, to pro-
fecute Wickliff. But as he had Intimation, that the
Bifhops could not proceed in the Affair without the
; King's Licence, he enjoyned them to reprefent to Ri-
chard and his Council, that JVickliff's Errors were not
only dangerous to Religion, but hkewife to the State.
However, the King's Council, it feems, did not think
fo. Perhaps no boJy was willing to offend the Duke of
LancajJer, JJ'ickliff's open Protector.

The two Prelates however willing to obey the Pope
to the utmoft of their Power, fummoned Wickliff a fe-
cond time before them at Lambeth. He appeared, and
by his manner of explaining his Opinions, feemed ready
to give the Prelates fome fort of Satisfaftion. But, pro-
bably, they would not have been contented with fo
general an Explanation, if one Clifford a Gentleman
had not rudely entered the Aflembly, and forbid them
to proceed. It is faid, the two Prelates were over-awed
by this abfolute Order, though they knew not from
whence it came ; believing that Clifford durft not act
thus of himfelf. Befides, the Populace intimated by
their menacing Words, that they would not fee JVick-
liff ill-treated. Thefe Confiderations obliged the Bifhops
to difmifs the Doctor, forbidding him to amufe the
People any more with dictations of fo dangerous a
conlequence. But he had no regard to this Injunc-
tion, fince, according to the Testimony of an antient
Hiltonan, he continued to preach and defend his Doc-
trine. By the way, this Steadinefs ill agrees with the
Explanation of his Opinions, which it is pretended he
gave to the Bifhops, and is represented as full of Equi-
vocations and Evasions. The Truth is, this difguifing
his Sentiments is little agreeable to his natural Tem-
Fer, which was far from being timorous. Be this as



it will, from that time he lived in quiet upon his
Cure of Lutterworth, without any farther disturbance.
Some time after, Courtney Archbifhop of Canterbury, m, DoSr!
Succeflbr of Simon Sudbury, beheaded by the Kentifh Re- c'nJemSb)
bels, fummoned a Provincial Synod at London, where " ■?>"'«'■
JVickliff's Dodrine was condemned. An Hiftorian af- jf 01 ™"' T "
firms, that JVickliff was cited, and explained his Opi- Knfghton.'
nion in a manner very different from the literal Senfe
of the Words. But as the Records of the Synod men-
tion nothing like it, the Hiftorian has, very probably,
confounded this Synod with that of Lambeth.

The Condemnation a\~ JVickliff's Dodtrine, prevented wicfcliff'i
not its fpreading all over the Kingdom, and with fuch Fdbuen
Succefs, that the fore-mentioned HHtorian affures us, two'"™*/'
Men could not be found together, and one not acd. X&
Lollard. Richard II, as was obferved in his History, &c.
permitting the Bifhops to profecute and impnfon He-
reticks, feveral Lollards were cited before their refpec-
tive Bifhops. Some recanted, and others bravely ftood
the Shock. But among thefe laft, there was not one
delivered over to the fecular Arm, there being yet n»
Law to that purpofe. It was not till the next Reign,
that thofe barbarous Executions commenced in England.
So, notwithstanding the Oppolition of the Bifhops, JVick-
liff's Opinions flew over the Kingdom with a won-
derful fwiftnefs, becaufe the Clergy were not at Li-
berty to employ the only means they have all along
thought proper to extirpate Herefy. It feems alfo,
the Bifhops durft not perfonally attack JVickliff, for fear
of having their Ignorance too much difplayed by his
Superior Learning. Be that as it will, JVickliff was left
in quiet at Lutterworth till his death, in 1384 (1). Pro-
bably, in procefs of time, his Followers made fome Ad-
ditions to his Doctrine, and hence it is, they have af-
cribed to him whatever was advanced by his Dif-
ciples.

The Lofs of the Matter difheartned not his Follow-
ers. They continued to preach and maintain their Opi-
nions, with the fame Couiage as during his Life. The
daily progrefs of their Dodrine became at length fo
considerable, that in 1386, the Parliament thought them-
felves obliged, to petition the King to take care that
the Church and State received no detriment by the
novel Opinions of the Lollards. Whereupon the King
appointed Commiffioners to perufe JJ'ickliff's Books ;
but this Commiflion was very negligently executed.

In 1389, the JVickliff tes or Lollards began to fepa- n , w; c k-
rate from the Church of Rome, and appoint^Priefts froiwliffitts^*.
among themfelves, to perform Divine Service, after theip™"/'™"
way. Though fome weie from time to time profe-',£. cLfcb.
cuted by the Bifhops, thefe Profecutions were not very
rigorous. Their Aim feemed to be only to hinder them
from pleading Prefcription. Befides, a Petition prefented
to the King by a former Parliament, to revoke the
Power granted the Bifhops to impnfon Hereticks, re-
strained the moft forward.

But in 1395, the Endeavours of the Lollards, in the R em ,„ji rt ^
King's Abfence, to get their Doctrine approved by the"""*'
Parliament, put the BiShops upon taking other Meafures. Caam *
Thefe pretended Hereticks finding themfelves fupported
by an infinite Number of Followers, prefented to the
Houfe of Commons a Remonftrance (a^, containing thefe
twelve Articles.

I. That when the Church of England, treading ins pP Jm*n.
the Steps of the Church of Rome, began to make an G nc. T. n.
ill ufe of her Temporalities, Faith and Charity began to *' 6 + 6,
difappear.

II. That the Englijh Priefthood derived from Rome,
and pretending to a Power fuperior to Angels, is not
the Prieflhood fettled by Chrift upon his Apoftles.

III. That the Celibacy of the Clergy, was the oc-
cafion of many fcandalous Irregularities in the Church.

IV. That the Doctrine of TranfubStantiation, renders
the greateft part of Chri/iendom guilty of Idolatry.

V. That Exorcifms, Benedictions pronounced over
Water, Bread, Oil, Stones, for the Altar, Church-
Walls, Prieft's Veltments, the Mitre, Crofs, Pilgrim's
Staff, have more of Necromancy than Religion.

VI. That it was a great Crime, to join in the fame
Perfon Ecclefiaftical and Civil Offices.

VII. That Prayers for the Dead, in which one Per-
fon is preferred to anothsr, are not conformable to the
Charity prefcribed by the Gofpel.

VIII. That Pilgrimages, and Offerings made to Images
and Croffes, and efpecially the Pictures representing the
Holy Trinity, are a fort of Idolatry.

IX. That Auricular ConfeiTion ferves only to make
the Priefts proud, and by letting them into the Secrets



'■'] " e c 6icd „ of th = Pally, December 31. ,385. Waljing. Ypoiig. p. c, 7 .
-, KySir R.cbard Stwy, Liwii Ct'fvJ, TbiMl Latymtr, ftc, HVj.-g. p. 3i r.



Of



Book X.



The State of the Church.



481



Spelman.
Cone T II
p. 662.



Councils
Council of
Lyons.
1274..



Symd of
Reading.
1279.
M. Wed.
T. Wikes
Spelman
Cone. T. II
p. 523



of the Penitent, gives opportunities for many Sins, and
fcandalous Intrigues.

X. That the taking away any Man's life, either in
War, or Courts of Jultice, is contrary to the Doctrine
of (lit- Gofpel, which is a difpenfation of Grace and
Mercy.

XI. That the Voiv of fmgle life, undertaken by Wo-
men, is the occafion ot numberlefs diforders, and of the
murder of multitudes of Children unbaptized, or even un-
born.

XII. That it is nccefTary to banifh from civil Society
all ufelefs Trades, which ferve only to fupport pride and
luxury.

All thefe Articles were backed with proofs too long to
be inferted.

This Remonftrance, which very likely was privately
approved by fevcral Members of Parliament, fo alarmed
the Clergy, that they immsdiately deputed the Aichbi-
fhop of lork and Bifhop ol London to the King ; praying
him to return with all (peed into England, that he might
by his prefence and authority check the growth of the
new Doctrine , as was related in the Reign of Ri-
chard II.

Some time after, Thomas Arundel, Archbifhop of Can-
, terbury, fummoned a Synod at London, where eighteen
Articles extracted from Wickliff's Book, entitled Trlalogus,
were condemned.

Thefe are the moft remarkable particulars concerning
Wicklijf and his Doctrine, before the depofing of Richard
II. But I muft not forget to add, that certain Bohemian
Students, being at Oxford when II ickllff began to publifh
his Doctrine, they carried it into their own Country, where
it fpread wonderfully. It is time now to proceed to other
affairs relating to the Engiilh Church, and in the firft
place to the Councils.

I fhall begin this head with the General Council of
Lyons, opened May 1. 1274. This Council was fum-
moned chiefly to receive the Greeks into the Communion
of the Church of Rome, from which they had feparated a
fecond time, upon the Latines being driven out of Con-
Jlanthwple. This union indeed was accomplished , but
did not laft long. Another reafon of the Council's
meeting, was to reftore the affairs of the Chriftians in
Syria. As great endeavours were pretended to be ufed in
their favour, the Pope demanded a Subfidy of every Church.
It was ealy to fee the Pope's intereft in this demand. His
Predeccffors had made fo frequent ufe of this means to
procure Money, that there was no being deceived. How-
ever, not a Prelate dared to open his mouth againft it,
and the Archbifhop of Canterbury, who Was prefent, kept
filence like the reft. Richard Mepham (1) Dean of Lin-
coln, was the only Perfon that ventured to fpeak for the
interefts of England. He boldly faid, the Engli/h Clergy
were not able to contribute to the War, by reafon of the
continual exactions of the Court of Rome, which fcarce
left them wherewithal to fubfift. This freedom coft him
his Deanery, of which the Pope inftantly deprived him.
Hence we may judge of the liberty in this Council. I
come now to the Councils held in England during the four
laft Reigns.

The firft was convened in the Reign of Edward!. (2),
by "John de Peckham Archbifhop of Canterbury. In this
Council were ratified the Canons of the General Council
of Lyons, concerning Pluralities. Then the Archbifhop
palled fome Canons directly contrary to the Prerogative
' Royal, and for that reafon he was obliged to repeal them
afterwards.

The firft decreed Excommunication againft fuch as fued
for the King's Letters, to prohibit certain Caufes from be-
ing tried in the Ecclefiaftical Court.

The fecond rendered liable to the fame Penalty the Ma-
gistrates, who refuted to imprifon excommunicated Per-
fons, after the forty days allowed by the Canons.

By the third, they that invaded the Church's Lands,
were likewife to be excommunicated.

The fourth prohibited under the fame penalty the fel-
ling of Provisions to the Archbifhop of York, whenever
he fhould come within the Archbifhop of Canterbury's
Jurifdiction.

This was a ftiort and fure way to end his difpute with
the Archbifhop of York, about carrying the Crofs. So,
in cafe this Canon had not been annulled, the Archbi-
fhop of York would have found it dilricult to be pre-



fent at the Parliament, which was generally held at Lon-
don.

The fifth ordered the Copies of Magna Charta to
be fet up on Church-doors, that every one mi^ht read
them.

Hence may be judged wi'h what fpirit this Prelate,
who had long fojourned at Rome, was returned to Eng-
land, and how far he won!. I have extended the Churcii's
power, if the King had not oppofed his defigns ( [).

In 12R1, the fame Archbifhop convened at Lambeth a j
provincial Synod , where, among others, the following ,
Canons were made.

The fecond enjoined the PrieftS to ac.|ii: : .it the more
ignorant fort of the Laity, tint the Body and BIo d of
Jefus Chrijl are delivered to them, together with the S|
cies of Bread, and that what they receive in the C
lice, is not holy, but only mere Wine, to , to

fwallow the other Specie, with Wore cafe. For ( as the
Canon goes on) the Blood •' 1 iir Lord is allow
to the Priefts that celebrate divine Service in thefe lei
Churches (4).

The Hid Canon forbids Priefts to re-baptize the Children
that had been baptized by the Laity, unlets there is reafon
to doubt, whether the Child was baptized or not.

In that cafe, the Canon allowed the Prieft to baptize tl ■
Infant, with thefe additional words, If thou art not
already baptized, I baptize thee in the A'ame of the Fa-
ther, &c.

The Xth enjoins the Priefts to inftruct the People
committed to their Charge in plain intelligible Lan-
guage, without making ufe of fcholaftick terms and dif-
tinctions. Then the Canon lays down the Heads thev
were to expound upon, and the fenfe they were to give
them.

In 1287, Peter gh/ivil Bifhop of Exeter, held a Dio- Synod of
cefan Synod, which enjoined, that care fhould be taken E ,"l"'
to inftruct the People concerning the doctrine of Tran- Spelman
fubftantiation. They wefe to be told, that the adoration Co"- T - "»
of tlie Hoft could not be carried too far, fince they receh- p ' 3:> °'
ed under the Species of Bread, the fame Body that hung
upon the Crofs for their Salvation, and under the Specie;
of IVine, the Blood which was fhed from Chiift'r fide. It
feems that we may infer from hence, tli. t in the Church
of Exeter, the Laity received the Sacrament then in both
Kinds (5).

We meet but with one remarkable Council in the V ; *-
Reign of Edward II, held at London in nio, whei
the templars were condemned to perpetual Iiripruon- 1310;
ment.

In 1328, in the Reign of Edward III, Mepham Arch- Ss "' J at
bifhop of Canterbury, held a provincial Synod at London, j*.
By this Synod, Good-Friday, and the Conception of the
Bleffed Virgin were made Holy-days, and all work forbid-
den; but however, the Country People were allowed to
follow their buiinefs after divine Service. By the fame
Synod, all Monks, Hermits, and Canons regular, were
prohibited taking Confeflions. A Canon made in a former
Synod at Oxford, which admitted Appeals only after a de-
finitive Sentence, was revoked.

In 1332, Mepham held another provincial Synod at SjmJ at
Magfield, which fettled all the Holy-days obferved in the Mi e field -
Province of Canterbury. Among the Feftivals we find 1331 '
St. George's day, and St. Augujlhis firft Archbifhop of
Canterbury (6).

Stratford Archbifhop of Canterbury, held at London in Synod a,
1142 a provincial Synod, the moft remarkable Canons ^°"ian
whereof are thefe : venjf ant'

The IVth enjoined the Monk?, who had any appropri- Frim.
ated Livings, to relieve the Poor in proportion to the va-
lue of the Benefice. In cafe of failure, the Bifliops were
impowered to compel them to their Duty, by fequeftring
the Profits.

The IXth was levelled againft the mendicant Frier?,
who abui'ing the confidence of dying Perfons, perfuaded
them to make Wills prejudicial to their Families. As the
Synod durft not directly attack the Friers, who were under
the Pope's protection, thofe who were prevailed on to
difpofe of their Eltar.es fo unreafonablv, were barred the
benefit of Chriftian burial.

During the Reign of Richard II, we find no remarka-
ble Council?, but thofe held on occafion of Wickliff and
his Followers. But as thefe have been mentioned elfe-
where, it will be needlefs to repeat here what has been
faid.



(1) Rapin by miliake calls him Richard dr Teckkam. It wi Richard Mepham, who is fuppofed to have died at the Council cf Ly:r.s.

(2) July 30 Spelman Or Tim 2. p 320.

(31 There was a Counci .<! Lumbtth , in 1280 ee 7 W'iitl, p- log. Spelman Cone- Tom. 2. p. 327.

(4) Snll'.cite cos nftruan fob pans fpecie iimui eis cl-t corpu> & Tngumcm D mini, immj Cnriltum in'eerum, vivum, & verum, qui totus e:r

fub Ipecie Sjcramcnt:. Spelman Cone T m- 2 p 3:9. V.o ft ous A fureBt es ! By this Canon it ffliou d kern, tr.at the Innovaticn of Communion in
one kind, had n 1 yet prevailed in Catheanl and Cunvenrua Chinches ; ana was to oe inculcated only upon the illiterate, whole ljnorance was rcoft iikeiy
to make th-m aam t 1, unprimilive a PraSiee.

(5) In Il 9S» a ivn d w ^ held at St Psul'>, London, July 6. M. Weft. p. +24. And 1296, September 14, another was he'd at the fame place. Idfr..
P- 4-9' (°) And ot- 'Ibomat of Canterbury's, which is placed between Imccenrt and the Cirxumcrfion*. en Dteemier 20.

No. XXV. Vol.1. 5 F Though



4.82

Of the

■■■.



The HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



John XXII

and Nicho-
las V.



Mat. Weft,
p. 44.7.
Walling,
p. go.



Sckifm of
Urban Vf.
and Cle-
men: VII.



Kilwarby-



Burnell.
Peckham.



Winchelfey<



Though England was no more concerned than other
Christian States in the Schifms that happened in the Church,
I do not think it proper wholly to pafs them over in fi-
lence. This knowledge is not only abfolutely neceiTary,
for the underftanding of the Ecclefiaftical Hiftory of thofe
tunes, but it may in fome rneafure be faid, that the bed
part of that Hiftory confifts of what followed from thefe
fcandalous Schifms.

From the beginning of the Reign of Edward I, to the
end of the Reign of Richard II, Chrijlendom was divided
by two Schifms. The firft lafted not long. Cle-
ment V, removing the Papal Chair to Avignon, died there
in 131 4, and was fucceeded by "John XXII, who kept
his refidence at the fame place. This Pope's election
was after an extraordinary manner. The Holy See re-
maining vacant about two years after the death of Cle-
ment, becaufe the Cardinals could not agree, they met at
length at Lyons in 1316, in order to chufe a Pope. But
the fame divifions ftill reigning among them, they agreed
to refer the matter to the Cardinal of Ojlia (1) Bifhop of
Oporto, who, without any fufpence, nominated himfelf,
and took the name of John XXII. At the fame time
the Empire was divided by a double Election, one part of
the Electors voting for Lewis of Bavaria, and the other,
for Frederic Duke of Aujlria. 'John's refufal to acknow-
ledge the firft, occafioned a quarrel between them, which
continually increafed till 13:8, when Lewis pafling into
Italy degraded Pope John, and caufed Peter de Corbaria
a Coulelier, to be elected, who a/Turned the name of
Nicholas V, and redded at Rome. This Anti-pope being
fupported by the Emperor and the General of the Cor-
deliers, kept his ground fome time. But at laft the Em-
peror being forced to quit Italy, and diflention ariling
among the Cordeliers, Nicholas having none to defend him,
was taken and carried to Avignon, where he asked John's
pardon with a halter about his Neck. After this fubmif-
fion, he was put into clofe confinement, where he died in
a lew months. *

The fecond Schifm between Urban VI, and Clemen^ VII,
was more confiderable and of longer continuance. I have
related the rife of it in the Hiftory of Richard II, for
which reafon I fhall only fhew its effects, to the end of
this Century.

To Pope Urban VI, fucceeded in 1389, Boniface IX,
who, as well as Clement, pretended to be defirous to put
an end to the Schifm ; but nothing was farther from their
intentions. Clement VII, who died at Avignon in 1394,
had for fucceflbr BcncdidJ XIII.

All Chrijlendom being tired and offended at the Schifm,
the Court of France endeavoured to perfuade the two
Popes to refign their Dignity, that another Pope might be
canonically elected. They both confented, but broke their
word, henedicl efpecially ufed fo many evafions, that
the King of France refolved to withdraw his Kingdom
from his obedience. For that purpofe, he gained the C?r-
dinals of that Party, who promifed to defert him ; but Be-
nedict having notice, fortified himfelf in his palace of Avig-
non, by introducing an Arragonian Garrifon. He was be-
fieged by Marfbal Boucicaut, but fhortly after, that Gene-
ral had orders to raife the Siege. Thus by the Intrigues
of fome Princes of the Court of France, the Schifm ftill
continued , notwithftanding the King's endeavours to clofe
it.

Nothing more remains but to give a brief account of
fuch Ecclefiafticks as were eminent for their Merit and
Learning, in the Reigns of the three Edwards and Ri-
chard II.

Robert Kilwarby, a Cordelier, or Minorite, was Arch-
bifhop of Canterbury in the Reign of Edward I, and a
Prelate of eminent Learning for the age he lived in. He
wrote feveral Theological Trails, which were in great re-
pute in thofe days. His Merit having raifed him to the
dignity of a Cardinal, he refigned his Archbifhoprick, and
went and lived at Rome, where he died.

Robert Burnell, Bifhop of Bath, was chofen for Succeflor
to Kilwarby ; but the Pope, by the plenitude of his Apo-
ftolick Power, gave the See of Canterbury to John Peckham
an Englijh Francifcan, who was Auditor of his Chamber.
This Prelate had great contefts with Edward I, as well
on occafion of the Canons of his Synod, before-mentioned,
as upon other accounts. The quarrel went fo far, that
the King was going to banifh him the Realm. He was
reckoned very learned, particularly in the Civil and Ca-



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 203 of 360)