M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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non Law. There are fome Theological Tracts of
his, with Commentaries upon feveral Books of the Scrip-

Robert IVinchelfey, Succeflor of Peckham, preferred his
Archbifhoprick to a Cardinalate which the Pope would

have honoured him with. This Prelate is chiefly praifed
for his Charities. He ufed to relieve four thoufand poor
People twice a week at his Houfe, befides his maintaining
many young Scholars at boA the Univerfities. Thefe
Charities gained him the affections of the People, who,
after his death, flocked in crouds to his Tomb, and payed
him the regard of a Saint. Mean while, this Archbifhop, M. Wen,
fo beloved by the People, had great contefts with Ed- ^i 1 ''?',
ward I, for being deeply concerned in the Intrigues of the n. », ^-.^
Lords who oppofed the defigns of the King. The Pope, 1G °z.
whom Edward knew how to gain to his intereft, cited
the Archbifhop to Rome, to juftify his conduct, and laid
him under a fufpenfion. It was not till the Reign of Ed-
ward 11, that he was reftored.

John Britton Bifhop of Hereford, chiefly excelled in the Britton.
knowledge of the common Law. He wrote a Book much
efteemed, de Juribus Anglicanis, and died in 127;.

Joannes Duns Scotus, commonly called, Doctor Subtilis, Dun '
lived in the Reign ol Edwatd II, and is too well known Scotu3 '
to be inlarged upon. It fufhees to obferve, that he dif-
fered in many tilings from the opinion of Thomas Aquinas,
and was a great Champion for the immaculate concep-
tion of the blefled Virgin. After being Profeffor in Divi-
nity at Oxford and Paris, he died at Cologn in the fame
Office, in 1309 or 13 10.

Walter Stapleton Bifhop of Exeter, was eminent for his Stapletos.
Learning, and Capacity in the adminiftration of the pub-
lick affairs ; and particularly for Loyalty to Edward II, his
Sovereign, for which be loft his life, as was related in the
Hiftory of that Prince (2).

Stratford Archbifhop of Canterbury under Edward III, Stratford,
was more famous as a- Statelinan, than as an Archbifhop.
I have related elfewhere his conteft with Edward III,
who accufed him of mifdemeanors. But afterwards, the
King commanded his accufations againft him to be can-
celled, as containing things neither true nor reafonable.

Thomas Brsdwardin Succeflor of Stratford, was a great Bradwardia.
Philofopher and Mathematician, and withal a veiy learned
Divine. He was commonly called the profound Doctor, ac-
cording to the cuftom of thofe days, of giving fuch Titles,
to thofe that were eminent for their Learning. He wrote a
Book againft the Pelagians, which gained him great repu-
tation, intitled, Of the Caufe of Gcd. But what rendered
him ftill more efteemed than his learning, was, hia humi-
lity, and his zeal to inftruct the People committed to his
care. Before his promotion to the Archiepifccpal See, he
was Confeflbr to Edwardlll, and attended that great Prince
in all his expeditions. Some have done him the honour to
fay, that the progrefs of Edward's Arms, in France, was
in great rneafure owing to his prudent Counfels.

William Occam, of the Order of St. Francis, Difciple of Occam.
Duns Scotus, is famous for being head of the Nominalijls
againft the Rcalijls, of whom his Mafter Scotus was chief.
It would be needlefs to explain here, wherein cor.fifted the
difference between thefe two Sects of Philofophers, with
which, God be thanked, the publick Schools are now fel-
dom troubled.

Richard Fitz-Ralph, Archbifhop of Armagh (3), born Fitz-Rabh
at Dundalk in Ireland, was a great enemy to the mendi- Waiting.
cant Friers. He attacked them vigoroufly in his Sermons p - J 73»
preached at London, wherein he undertook to prove the
nine following Propofitions :

I. That, with refpedt to the place where ConfefEons
are to be made, the Parifh Churches are to be preferred
before thofe of the Friers.

II. That Parifhioners ought rather to confers to a Cu-
rate, than to a Frier.

III. That, notwithftanding Jefus Chrijl was poor whilft
upon earth, yet he never affected poverty.

IV. That Chrift did never beg, nor make profeflion of
voluntary poverty.

V. That he never taught people to make profeflion of

VI. That Chrift held the contrary, namely, that Men
ought not to beg by inclination and choice, but only when
forced to it by neceflity.

VII. That to profefs beggary, is a thing contrarv to
Religion and common Senfe.

VIII. That to be under engagements of voluntary po-
verty, is not agreeable to the Rule of the Friers Minorites^
or Cordeliers.

IX. That the Bull of Alexander IV, which condemns
the Libel of the Doctors of Paris, cenfures none of thefe
eight Propofitions.

Thefe Articles, which attacked the mendicant Friers
in the moft fenfible part, it being by their voluntary

(1) Rapm fays by rr.iftake a" OJJa.

(2) with him may be joined Walter de Merton, Bifhop of Rocbejler, and Founder of Merten College in Oxford, in the Year 1267, who died in 1277.

1. IVd-:,, p. 106.

(3) He was inftalled Dean of Litbfield, Afrit 20. 1337, and tranflated to Armagh, 1347, He died in 1360






i -








3 1



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V |

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$ J






. -SO ^






- St

j i



i 5 ?


Book X.

Ihe State of the Church.

poverty that they had gained, and preferved their credit
with the People, were carried to the Pi>pe, who cited the
Archbifncp before him. lie appeared, and couragiouflv
maintained all his affcrtions. Jnit before this affair s'^%

ided, he died at Avignon 1360. He tranflated the Bible
into Exglijh, and wrote two Trcatifcs, one in defence of
uc Pariih Prieils, againlt the Friers ; the other, dg Audi-
tntia Confejfi-jnum .

"John de Trevifa, a CornifoMm, who lived in the Reign
of Edward III, tranflated the Bible, and feveral other
Books into Englijh. He was of the fame opinion as the
Archbifhop of Armagh, and maintained, that Jefut Chrijl

Thefe i-re almoft all th I linent icr their Piety

and Learnii ir M Reigns, unless 1

among the far. aroed Men, a Company of Sdi

men, who, in my opinion; deferve not to be placed
that Clafs. Some add, th leges and iV

nafteries, as meriting to hold a confiderable rank, am
the devout. But thefe are biguous marks to

lied on. One . by this fmall number of learned

Perfons, how the Sciences were degenerated, fince, a-
mong all the above-named, hardly is there one truh
learned. In fpitc of the prejudices of IVtcldiff'i enemi

le t 1 except that Dcxftor, of whom

fent Apoftles, but never mendicant Friers, to preach the I have air ' faid en lugh t,o •; :1c me from adding: an-
GofpeL thing fartl ir(i).


near Oxfer t,
How him io oo

t r) The moft noted Hiftorlans of the Fourteenth Ceniuty were :

Wikcs. TiWMAi Wills. His Hiftory begins at the Cmqueft, and ends .it the Dea'h of Edward I, 1304.. Hi- wa- Cjnon Regular of Ojnty

and write; as clearly and fully ( especially in fomc Palbges relating to the Barons Wars | aj fa c imjefi I micle as hij i- would alio

Er- Gale has publ.fhcd this Hlltory in his Hijl. Angl. Vol. II.

Brompton. The Author of the Chronicle, which goes under the Name of J o h n Brompton, Abbot,' J -vaulx \n Tor /hire lived about thi

time. The Chronicle begins with the coming of Aufiin in 5K8, and ends wan the Death of Richard I ,~ r 1 e> - - It it plain from this Hi'ltoiy'l 1 I

notice of the Foundation .if that Monaflcry, &c. that neither Bromftm, nor any Member of that Religious Hoofe was Author ot tbii Ctnniele but th-r

it was procured by that Abbot, and by him bellowed on his Monaftery. The Author (whoever he be 1 . , his ColleOi I I "ax'r.

Times, b«tak.-s no notice of the t honological part it. ihe whole Hiitory of the Heflanh]. He gives the ton Lawj ae large, and trariflAes pretti heneft v

This Cbrmclt is publifhed among the Dei em Serif lont, ' ''

Higden, Radulph flictu, Monk of St. tTcrblirgb'* in Cte/ler, where he died very aged in 1-577, «"« > downright Plagiary. H- foils foul on miliar*

cf Main-bury m many Places. He ftiles h s Work, PclychroHicm. What he collefted relating to the Times of the Britain and Saxem has been

pubhfncd by Dr. Gale, Vol. I. who commends him for preserving many Remains out of ami. nt Chr. nielcs, now wholly loll Or mlfljid.

Matthew cf M- A T T » >'■ w . a Bentdi.lim Monk ot Westminster, ended his Hiltnry at the Year 1 307, though i I, '. ontinned bv othrr Hmd>

V/eftminftef He w « a choice Colleflor of the Flowers of former Hiftorians, from whence he is ufualiy ltiled Fioriligiit. He entirely tnfnfcribes Matthew /',>,/». Hig

Merimuth. n "> ft eminent Continuator was Adam Merimuth, Canon Regular of St. Paul;, and an eminent Civilian, who in hi, Utter Day* gave himfe'lf wholiv to the

Reading and Writing En^U/h lliffcry. He begins his Work at 1 302, and reaches to 1380.



B*«* ~a




The Reigns s/'Henry IV, and Henry V ; Containing the Space of Twenty two Years

and Ten Months.

15. HE NRYflVi Strnanid of Bullingbroke.


ed the 30th of September, took that
very day the reins of the Govern-
ment. As the Parliament then af-
fembled was called in Richard's
name, and as their Authority ceafed
upon his being depofed, Henry's firft
care was to call another. To proceed according to cuf-
tom, the Reprefentatives mull have been chofen anew.
But Henry did not think fit to run the risk, of having a
lefs favorable Parliament than that which had fo heartily
efpoufed his Caufe. He was contented therefore, with im-
powering the fame Reprefentatives, to make, with the
Houfe of Lords, a new Parliament under his Authority.
I (hall not venture to decide, whether this proceeding was
fomewhat irregular, or authorized by any former prece-
dent. Be this as it will, after a few days interruption,
the fame Parliament met again on the 9th of October, as
if called by the new King.

Mean time Edmund Mortimer Earl of March, confi-
March ,Cf." dering: it would be no lefs dangerous than fruitlefs, at fuch

tires to Wic~ o z> *

more. a juncture, to afiert his juft right to the Crown, retired

to his Lordfhip of IFigmore (2), near the borders of
Wales. The more inconteftable his Title was, the more
reafon he had to dread the new King's jealoufy. So,
giving way to the torrent which he could not ftem, he
refolved to live in retirement, without fhewing the leafl
ambition, or the leaft uneafinefs at the injuftice that was
done him. He had no other way to fecure his repofe,
and even his life, againft the fufpicions of a Prince whofe


(1) A Town in Lmcdnfhirc.

(3) Ortobrr 21. See Rymcr's Ford. Tom. 8. p. 96.

(4) There was given him by the King, as a Badge of that Office, a gold'
end, and his tiwn at the lower. All the MarihaU be/ore him wore a wooden
Richmond. Waljing. p. 361.


Tie Ear! of

Intereft it was to deftroy him. It was but too probable, 1399.
that the new King would embrace the firft occalion, to
free hirnfelf from the uneafinefs which fuch a Rival could

The Parliament being aflembled, as I faid, Thomas iu Arcb.
Arundel Archbilhop of Canterbury made a long Speech, i 'fi"P ba -
tending to infpire a high opinion of the advantages pro- pjf/"" m '^
cured to the Kingdom by the late Revolution. He enlarged ixfraift of
chiefly on the diforders of the late Reign, and allured, ,be " w
that the new Sovereign propofed to govern after a very , ^a.
different manner, and to preferve to All their Rights and ibid.
Liberties. This Prelate was banifhed the Realm en the
late Reign, and Roger JValden, who was appointed in his
room, had hitherto performed the Archiepilcopal Func-
tions. But as Arundel was not canonically depofed, the Par- Acl. Pub.
liament in their firft Seilion (3) ordered that he fhould re- VI1; -P-9 6 »
fume his Dignity, and the rather as the other had not yet
obtained the Pope's Confirmation. The Arcbbifhop's
Speech, and fome preliminary P'ormalities, were the onlv
things remarkable in the firft Seilion of the new Parlia-
ment, which was adjourned to the 14th of Oilober. This
Adjournment was neceffary in order to prepare for the Co-
ronation, which was to be on the 13th.

During this interval, the King filied feveral Pofts, which Tee King
were vacant, or poiTefTed by Perfons he did not like. fi ,h ,kt v1 '
Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland, and Ralph NevUl'"Zfrtd.
Earl of IVeJlmoreland, had fhewn too great a zeal for the Eath of
King, by joining him at Ravenfpur, prefently after his N ° rthum -

, ,P 1 n. ■ u- 1 tt •, bertanl and

landing, not to have a inare in his favours. Henry wil- Weffmore-
lingto (hew his Gratitude, made the firft High-Conftable, land.


and the other, Earl-Marfhal (4). A few days after, he A ^, Pub 8 -
gave alfo to the Earl of Northumberland the Ifle of Man, go , ' 9 P ;.


(2) In Herefordjbire.

n Staff, enamelled with bick at both ends ; the King's Arms at the upper
Staff. Rimtr'i Fad. Tom. 8. p. jij He was alia created Earl of


Book XI.

13. H E N R Y IV.



Thomas his
fecund Ssn
made High-
' f Act. Pub.
VIII. p. 90

The King it

and anointed
ivitb an ex-


p. 360,361.
1. 4. c. 55.

Henry re-
Jitfft to own
he holdt the
Crwn of
tie People.

Ibe King's
on to fhcno
hit Title to
the CrozLtl.
1. 4. c. 5.

fituatcd between Scotland and Ireland, with the privilege
of carrying at the Coronation the Sword called Lancajler,
on the King's left hand (1). This was the fame Sword the
King wore when he landed at Ravenfpur.

After Henry had requited thefe two Lords, whom he
confidered as moft attached to his Intereft and Perfon, he
made Thomas of Lancajler his fecond Son, High -Steward.
It was abfolutely neceilary to fill this Port before the Co-
ronation, becaufe to the High-Steward's Court all muft
apply who claim any fervice in that Ceremony, in order
to be maintained in their Rights. But as the Prince was
not above ten years old, the King gave him for Deputy,
Thomas Percy Earl of IVorceJlcr, Brother to the Earl of

On the 1 3th of October, Edward the ConfeJJbr'% day,
Henry was crowded with all the ufual Formalities, being
then thirty three years of age (2). He was anointed
with a certain Oil, pretended to be brought by the blef-
fed Virgin, to Sf. Thomas of Canterbury , whilft he was
in France. The Vial which held this precious Oil, was
fallen into the hands of a Hermit, who prefented it to
Henry Duke of Lancajlcr, Grandfon of Henry III, with
this Prophecy, That the Kings which Jliould be anointed
with that J'acred Oil, Jhould become true Champions for the
Church. The Duke of Lanca/ler gave it afterwards to
the famous Prince of Wales, Son of Edward III, who
was refolved to be anointed with it when crowned. Af-
ter the death of that Prince, the Vial, which was of
ftone, having on the top a gold Eagle fet with Dia-
monds, was laid up among the Jewels, without being
minded. Richard II, his Son, finding it, fome time be-
fore his laft Voj age into Ireland, defigned to be crowned
again, on purpofe to be anointed with this divine Oil.
But the Archbifhop of Canterbury oppofed it, by repre-
fenting, that the undtion of Kings ought not to be re-
peated. At length , the Vial was fallen into Henry's
hands (3), who, either out of devotion, or becaufe it
came from the Duke of Lancajler his Grandfather by the
Mother's fide, was pleafed to be anointed with it at his
Coronation. But if we examine the Reigns of this Prince,
and feveral of his Succeffors, who were anointed with the
fame Oil, we fhall not find, that the good Hermit's Pro-
phecy was accomplifhed.

I have obferved, in the Reign of Richard II, that
when, after the depofing of that Prince, Henry claimed
the Crown, he afFecled to ufe obfeure expreffions. His
aim was to make the People believe, there was fome
foundation in the right, he pretended to derive from the
firft Houfe of Lancajler, of which he was Heir by his
Mother. But this pretext, which might then have fome
effect upon fuch as voluntarily fhut their eyes, was too
grofs to deceive any longer. It was therefore neceflary
for the new King, to find fome pl.iuiible Title, to juflify
the Nation's choice of his Perfon. There was none
more lawful than the fervice he had fuft done the State.
But he judged it dangerous to reft his Right upon fuch
a foundation. When he was to receive the Crown, he
very willingly owned the Parliament's power to confer it
upon him. But when it was once placed on his head, he
was afraid, from that principle it would be inferred, that
they who had given the Crown, had power to take
it away. He was therefore under fome perplexity. It was
requitite the People fhould be fatisfied, that the Parlia-
ment could lawfully depofe Richard, and that their Au-
thority was fuperior to the King's. On the other hand,
it was convenient to let them underftand, that in placing
Henry on the Throne, the fame Parliament proceeded not
by way of Authority, and could not difpenfe with owning
him for King. In a word, they were to acknowledge
in the Parliament an unlimited Power with refpedt to
Richard's depoling, and to decline their Authority in the
late Election. Thefe two things feemed irreconcileable.
But when a Man has power on his fide, he does not lb
much trouble himfelf about finding good reafons, as a-
bout dazzling the Publick with appearances. Henry ,
perfuaded that in this juncture, no one would have the
boldnefs to contradict him , refolved to let his Subjects
know, he did not mean to derive his Right from their
bare confent. On his very Coronation day, he pub-
lifhed a Proclamation, declaring, that he afcended the
Throne, Firft, by right of Conquer! : Secondly, by vir-
tue of Richard's refignation, and deiignation of him for his


Succefibr ! Laftly, as he was the next Male-Heir of the
late King (4). By this means he excluded the only law-
ful Title he had, namely, the general confent of the
People, in order to build his claim upon three mamfcftly
weak foundations. In the firft place, bow could he pre-
tend to a right of Conqueft ? He entered the Kingdom
but with fourfcore Men, who, probably , were for the
moft part Englijh. Befides, his good fuccefs was entirely
owing to the concurrence of all England, and confequent-
ly he could not fay he had conquered the Kingdom. In
the next place, it was not true that Richard religned the
Crown to him. It was feen in the Reign of tli3t Prince,
that Henry himfelf, as well as his Friends, did not think
it proper. Richard was only obliged to make an abfo-
lutc refignation, leaft it ihould appear too conftraincd, if
he did it in favour of a Prince, to whom he was actually
a Prifoner. Moreover, fuppofing Richard had appointed
Henry for his Succcflor, how could a Kinrr, depofed for
Tyranny and Inability , be allowed a Right to chufe
the Perfon who fhould fucceed him, efpecially as the no-
mination was contrary to the Laws of the Land? Laft-
ly, it was ftill lefs true, that Henry was Richard's next
Heir, unlefs the Salic Law had been rc\ ived in England,
as in France, and the defendants of the Daughters were
debarred the Succeffion. It is true, in the third Title al-
leJjed by the King, there was a fort of equivocation ca-
pable of deceiving. He was Coufin-German of the late
King, and confequently a ncaier Relation than the Earl
of March, who was one degree farther removed. B("t
it did not follow, that he was the next Heir, fince, with
refpecl to the Succeffion, the Branch, and not the Degree
of Relation, was to be regarded. Thus, alter the death
of Edward III, Richard his Grandfon fucceeded him,
though he was one degree farther removed than his Un-
cles. Again, fuppofing this rule had not been inviolably
obferved, Henry could not fay, he was the neaicft Rela-
tion of Richard. He was firft Couiin ; but the Duke of
York, who was Uncle, had no lelV. right than he/ So,
on which fide foever Henry's pretended Titles were viewed,
they muft have appeared ill-grounded. The only 1 itle he
could have produced with any colour, was the confent of
the People. But he would not ufe it for the reafon above-

The fame day the King ifliicd his Proclamation, he Aa P " D -
created Henry his eldeft Son, aged thirteen Years, Dake !? a 't-9U
of Cornwal, Prince of Wales, and Earl ot Cheftcr. But Walling.
he added not to thefe Titles, as fome affirm (5) that of
Duke of Aquitain.

The Ceremony of the Coronation being ended, the Par- The Parlia.
liament met the next day, being the fourteenth of Oilober. """ "["'"'
The importance of the A£b palled in this Seliion, obligoi Abiide.
me to defcend to particulars, abfolutely neceflary for the
fequel of this Hiftory.

In the firft place, was paiTed an A£f. of Indemnity, to -f 1: ° r
fcreen thofe, who during the late troubles, had taken Arms ■' w '••""' n, ''
in favour of the King, then Duke of Lanca/ler. This Ai\
was abfolutely neceflary, fince the Laws condemned, with-
out diftin&ion, thofe that oppofed the Government efia-
blifhed, which was precifely the cafe of the King's Friends,
and of the King himfelf.

After this A£t was palled, the Parliament examined Th Pj ' ; "-
whatever was done in the late Reign, to ftretch the^'".,,'^"
Prerogative Royal beyond the ufual bounds. They ap- traiti>*gt
plied themfelves chiefly to the Proceedings of the Pailia- ° f ,b 'J or '
ment begun at JVcjlminJlcr in 1397, and continued at Waluotr.
Shrewsbury in 1 35 S. All the Afts, as well with regard
to the three Lords unjultly condemned, as to the exor-
bitant privileges granted to the King, were fo mamfcftly
deftruc'tive of the Nation's Liberties, that they were una-
nimoully repealed. At the fame time were reived and
confirmed, the Statutes of the Parliament o*' rj88, an-
nulled by that of Shrewsh:ir\-. It was tftought likewife
abfolutely neceflary to pafe a particular A&. againft the
Pope's Bull, ratifying the Statute? 01 Sbnwsbuty. This
Bull , whereby Richard II pretended to give imre
ftrength to Acls of Parliament, was founded on a Prin-
ciple too oppolite to the Rights of the People :o be fuf-
fered to fublilt. For the Pope's power to confirm Ads
ot Parliament could not be acknowledged, without afcri-
bing to him a Right of Sovereignty over England. Where-
fore, the Pai liament declared in this Aft, that the King-
dom ot England was independent of all foreign power,

(1) He was to hoU the Hie of Man by that Office* Rimer's Feed. Torn. 8. p 91, 9c. per fervitmm portardi, d : tbus CfynnatTqnti noftrae &

Hsredum noltrorum, per le ipfum aut fuffkientem & hunoritkum DcpuLatum i'uum, ilium gbdium nudum, quo cin&i eramus qu.;ndo in partibus de Hoider-
r.ejfe applicuimus, \ocjtum Ldncafire Siverde.

(2) He lodged the Night before in the Tower of London, where he made his three Son;, with feveral of the Sons 0/ the Nobility, and others, to
the Number of foity tiic, Knights of the Bath. Comf. Hifl. p 213.

(3) He had it < f Richard II, at Cbefier, by the Archb.uV.u's Means. Walfing. p. 361.

(4.) Th's laft Reafon in the Proc amation occafioned that Pun of ihe Earl of Match, th3t he wis Harre! mibt.

(c, Safin is ler:in miftaken, for it appears <rom Cotton's Abridg. That Xing Henry now er.a;ied, that h ? eldeft Son Henry fhould be calied Prince of
Wttltt, Dtikeoi Ajuttam, Lancajler, and Ctiitv.aU, and Earl ot Cbeptr, p. 301. See H'al/rg. p. 361.

No. 25. Vol. I.

6 G


4 S6


,399. particularly of the Court of Rome, and that the Pope had
no right to interpofe in the civil Government of the


The Shrewsbury Parliament defigning to extend the
Royal Authority as much as poffible, had lb multiplied the
Cafes of High-Tieafon (1), that none, but fuch as ac-
knowledged in the Sovereign an unlimited power, could
poiiibly avoid ihe penalty of it. To redrefs fo dange-
rous a Grievance, which tended to render the King abfo-
lute matter of the Lives and Fortunes of his Subjects, the
Parliament revived a Statute, made in the Reign of Ed-
ward III (z), and enacted, that nothing fhould be adjudged
to be Treafon, but what was contained therein.
R;cV"d'i After the Rights and Privileges of the People were, by

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 204 of 360)