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p &V? ' bl applied himfelf to what might contribute to fupport him on
JZftion, the Throne. Two things were ablblutely neceffary for
that purpofe. Firft, to preferve the affection the People
had hitherto exprefled for him. Secondly to guard Ri-
chard Co ftrictly, that it fhould be impoflible for him to
make his eicape. As to the firft, he affected to make
himfelf popular, by mowing, upon all occafions, a detefta-

tion of his Predeceflbr's Tyrannical Government, and 1399.
a greater concern for the People's intereft than for his
own. To that end, he ordered all the fubferibed Blanks Ue barn, tht
extorted by Richard from the Inhabitants of London, and Bond. Ri.
the feventeen condemned Counties, to be brought into

chard tad

Chancery and publickly burnt. Thefe Blank Bonds, a« Pub.
which were called Ragmans, had been filled, not only Vni.p.109,
with the Sums, Richard was pleafed to exact from the Sub-
fcribers, but moreover with an engagement to obferve,
under certain Penalties, the Statutes of Shrewsbury and all
the confequent Acts. In burning thefe Bonds, Henry's
intent was to inlinuate to the People, that he defigned not
to make an advantage of thefe extorted engagements,
much lefs to practice the like Methods himfelf to fill his

As for the depofed King, he did not think proper to Richard it
keep him any longer in the Tower of London, for fear he l hu! "t "•
fhould move the companion of the Citizens, but order- c °/^."
ed him to be conducted to the Caitle of Leeds in the
County of Kent. Some time after, fearing ftill, that Ri-
chard's Neighbourhood to London would give too frequent
occafion to talk of him, he caufed him to be removed to
Pontfrael Caftle in the North.

This year in November, John the Valiant, Duke of Death of
Bretagne, departed this Life in his Capital City. His '^"^f
firft Wife was Daughter of Edward III, by whom he
had no Iffue. By his fecond, Joan of Navarre, he left
two Sons, of whom John the eldeft fucceeded him, un-
der the Guardianfhip of the Duke of Burgundy and Oli-
ver de Cliffon (5).

In this manner palled the three firft Months of Hen-
ry's Reign, in a deceitful Calm, followed by violent Storms.
It was neceffary to enlarge a little on the firft events of
this Reign, becaufe they ferve for Foundation to all the

The year 1400, began with a Confpiracy againft the 1400.
King, from which he was as it were miraculourty deli- Cmjpiraef
vered. Hiftorians fomewhat differ concerning the firft "^'"f ,ht
Author of this Plot, commonly afcribed to the Abbot of w a'fing.
IFejhninjhr. However it is more likely, the Abbot was J">HUrt,
only the Agent of the Lords Confpirstors, and lent them A q pub 7 *
his Houfe for their Meetings. Perhaps he was employed VUl.p.no,
to found the inclinations of feveral Perfons, according to &c -
the direction of Men more powerful than he. However Chief Cm.
this be, it is agreed, that in his Houfe the Plot was form .Jfratwu
ed, into which came as Heads, the [ late ] Dukes cf Al-
bemarle, Surrey and Exeter, the [ late ] Earls of Gkcejler
and Salisbury, the Bifhop of Carlifle, and Sir Thomas
Blunt. All thefe Lords had been in great favour with
Richard II, and were the fame Perfons to whom the
King had left their Honours and Eftates, taken from
them by the Parliament (6). Among thefe Confpirators,
John Holland Duke of Exeter was his Brother-in-law, and
Edward de Langley Duke of Albemarle his Firft-Coufin.
Notwithstanding thefe Relations, and the favours they
had all received from the King, they refolved to aflaf-
finate him and reftore Richard to the Throne. The af-
fection fhown them by that unfortunate Prince, the de-
fire of revenging their late difgrace, of which they looked
upon the King as the principal Author, and perhaps the
fear that the pardon granted them was not fincere, con-
curred to ir.fpire them with this furious refolution. They Thtyfet up
had drawn into the Plot one Maudlin a Domeftick of Ri- a Pretender
chard's (7), who refembled his Matter fo perfectly, that /:r ***»**•
many were deceived. The refult of their debates was,
that the Duke of Exeter and John Montacute Earl of Sa-
lisbury, fhould pretend to challenge one another at a Tour-
nament, to be held at Oxford, and defire the King to
honour it with his prefence ; and, whilft he fhould be in-
tent upon the Sight, an opportunity fhould be taken to
murder him. To the end each might know what part
he was to act in this Tragedy , they carefully fet down
all the particulars in writing. Then they tranferibed fix
Copies under their Hands and Seals, of which each of the
principal Parties took one. Purfuant to this Plot, the
Duke of Exeter waited upon the King at If'ind/or, and
invited him, as was agreed. The King not miftrufting
a Brother-in-law to whom he had juft given fuch fignal
Marks of his favour, promifed to be at Oxford on the day
appointed. Thus the Confpirators, pleafed with this firft
fuccefs of their entcrpiife, went and prepared to put it in

(1) The Count cie St. Pol, and other great Men of that Kingdom, fent him very abufive Letters of Defiance, as the Reader may fee in Mmjlrelet,
beginning of Vol I.

(2) Walter SHirlowe, and Ibcmai Pe r ey.

(3) Fmtjfart fays, he was immediately lent from England, 1. 4. c. 56.

(4) They not only took it, but alfo razed -t to the Ground. Sir Thomas Gray, the Governor, wat then at the Parliament. If'alfing. p. 362.

(5^ This Year alfo, on Otlober 3, died Eleanor de Sobun, Relief of 'Thomas of Wrxiiftock, Duke of GhetHer, and was buried in IVedmsnflcr ASbey,
where her Tomb is flill to be feen. See Sandford'i Gmeal. Htfi, p. 231, 232. Their only Son, Bteppbrey, died of the Rjague in belaid. fPal/ing.
f. 362.

(6) Their new Titles of Duke, Marcjuifs, and Earl, were taken away, with all the Lands, Caftles and Manors belonging to the condemned Lords, of
whom they were the Accufers.

(7) A Pricft, and enc o( his Chaplains.


Book XL


4 §9

»4O0. Under colour of the pomp and magnificence ufual

The Confii- upon fuch occafions, the Lords Confpirators came to Ox-
T*cy<-ctj- yj rt / 5 w j tn a numerous Train of armed Domclticks, and
many other Attendants, who pretended to come only out
of curiofity. The Duke of Albemarle was the only Per-
fon wanting at the Rendezvous. He had a mind firft to
vifit his Father the Duke of York, then at his Seat at
Langhy (1), not to communicate the Plot, but upon fome
other bufinefs. Whilft they were at dinner, the Duke
of York feeing a Paper in his Son's bofom, asked him
what it was. The Son confounded at this unexpected
queftion, replied, but with a vilible concern, that the
Paper contained nothing of moment. But, whether the
old Duke had received fome dark intimations of the
Plot, or his Son's confufion infpired him with the curio-
fity, he fnatched it out of his bofom. This Paper was
one of the fix Copies figned by the Confpirators. His
furprize was extreme, at feeing all the particulars of the
Plot. He reproached his Son the more juftly, as, befides
the blacknefs of the crime, he had not fcrupled to expofe
his own Father's life, who was bound for his Allegiance.
But his reproaches being uncapable of remedying the
evil, he refolved to prevent it, by acquainting the King
with what was come to his knowledge. To that end,
he ordered his Horfes to be faddled immediately, in order
to go him r elf to IVindfor, and carry the Paper to the
King. The young Duke feeing himfelf infallibly ruined,
if the King was informed of the Confpiracy by any but
himfelf, refolved to be before-hand with his Father. As
he> was better able than the old Duke to take this jour-
ney, he rode another way, and came full fpeed to iVind-
fo Upon his arrival he caft himfelf at the King's
Feet (2), and difcovered the whole Plot. Henry was fo
f r from imagining, that the Duke of Exeter and the reft
of the Confpirators, had plotted againft his life, that he
believed at firft, the Duke of Albemarle had invented this
accufation, on purpofe to ruin them. He told him, if
tlie- thing was true, he would pardon him upon his re-
pentance ; but if it was a malicious accufation, he fhould
find no favour. The Duke of York arriving foon after,
put him out of all doubt, by delivering him the Paper
taken from his Son. After fo convincing a proof, the
King no longer queftioning the truth, broke oft" his
journey to Oxford, where he was to be the next day.
However, he refolved to ftay at IVindfor, to fee what
courfe the Confpirators would take, when they faw them-
felves difappointed.
lit Ctnfpi- Mean while, the Lords were extremely uneafy at
raion m Oxford, becaufe the Duke of Albemarle was not yet ar-
fitj&xtj. r j ve( ^ They had already fent to his Houfe to know the
realon of his delay, and were told that he was fet out
for Oxford, but by the way of Langley, to vifit the Duke
his Father. Tnis vifit giving them fome fufpicion, their
trouble incieafed, upon hearing that the King deligned
not to come to Oxford, and had feen the Dukes of York
Tbey r'flvi and Albemarle. Then , no longer doubting that they
t, take «f> were d'feovered, they refolved to accomplilh by force,
mt"wtR.i- what they c uld not etF.-ct by other means. Accoiding-
chatrf ivj, \y they drefled up Maudlin in Royal Robes, and gave
with item. out j ie Was R.i c !, arc [ j wn0 ] )a ving efcaped out of Pri-
fon, was come to implore the affiftance of his good Sub-
jects (3).
The People Fhe readinefs wherewith People lifted under the banner
/«* u the of the pretended King, plainly (hewed, that all had not
fcf.iei approved the depofing of Richard, though the Parliament
ailed in the name of the whole Nation. Wneretore,
tnere is nothing more liable to miftake, than judging of
the fentiments of the People, by thofe of their Represen-
tatives. The reafon is, becaufe the Representatives de-
biting upon matters laid before them, without any in-
ftiuctions from thofe they reprefent, their refolves can
be conlidered but as private opinions, though they are of
force to bind the People. Upon this account it is, that
the People fometimes appeal to arms from the decifions
of Parliaments, when thought too prejudicial to the Na-
tion. Of this we have many inftances, but particularly
in the Reign of Henry IV. Though Richard was de-
pofed by the Parliament, it appeared, upon feveral occa-
fions, that the People fubmitted to the fentence, purely by
conftraint; fince, not only at the time we are fpeaking

of, but, upon other occafions, they were always ready 1400.
to run after any counterfeit Richard that was prefented

In a very fhort time, the Lords Confpirators fiw .vaifing.
themfelves at the head of fo formidable an Army, that
they thought themfelves able to feize the King zi IVind-
for. It is faid, that in two or th ce days, their Army
confifted of forty thoufand Men. With thefe numerous
Troops they began their march to IVindfor, which lies but
thirty miles from Oxford, and arrived at break of day | j),
in great expectation of furprizing the King. And in-
deed, Henry not imagining they could poffibly be fo foon
in condition to execute fuch an enterprize, ftaid at
IVindjor till that very night, and was gone but a few
hours before their arrival. His retreat Wafting their de-
fign, they were in great perplexity. Some weie for
marching directly to London, before the King had time
to fecure the City. Others affirmed, their bufinefs was to
go to PontfraR, to free Richard and fet him at their head.
This diverlity of opinion made them lofe in debates, the
time they fhould have fpent in action. So the Kir.g had
leifure to provide for his defence, and atiembie an A.-r.iy
of twenty thoufand Men. As he did not queftion but
the Male-contents would take the road to London, he
went and expected them on Hounflnv- heath, in hopes his
Army would daily increafe. However, he was refolved,
though much inferior, to hazard a battle. Th ; s refolu- The K ''Z"'
tion infpired his Troops with courage, and made them Mf"'""'/
imagine, the Male-contents were not fo formidable as re- r. bm.
ported. It was likewife the caufe, that many, feeing the
King march unconcerned towards his enemies, came and
joined him, in order to lhew their diligence ; which doLbt-
lefs they would not have done, had he fhewn, on this
occafion, the leaft figns of fear or diffidence. At fuch
junctures, the majority of the People, without considering
right or juftice, generally declare for the fide that is molt
like to fucceed.

Mean while, the Confpirators feeing the Kin"- able 7 *' Cujpi-
to withftand them, durft not cope with him. Whether ""°'' j vud
it proceeded from their little capacity, or from a fear of"
being deferred by their Army, they only thought of a-
voiding a Battle. Inftead of marching to London to meet""'' ntirt,
the King, they took the road to Reading, and encam- Walfin fr
ped near Co/ebrook, where the young Queen Ifabella re-
fided (5). Here they refolved to put an end to Maud-
lin's acting the part he had hitherto played, thinking it
more ^ proper to fpread a report, that Richard was in
York/hire, at the head of a hundred thoufand Men. Their
defign was not only to avoid the King, but, in all ap-
pearance, to approach IVales, from whence they expedt.-d
affiftance, as Richard was well- beloved in that Country.
Be that as it will, encamping near CWenceJlcr (6), the
Generals took up their quarters in the Town, wnilft the
Army lay without. The Duke of Surrey, and the Earl
of Salisbury lodged at one Inn, and the Dake of Exeter
and the Earl of Glocejler at another. Their little ex- The /.*<•
perience caufing them to neglect to fet Guards at the Cr: '') "'
Gates, the Mayor of the Town, a Man of fenfe and % '"utjJef
courage, took advantage of their negligence, to do the Cm-nceiUr. '
King a fignal fervice. He privately drew together in the J*^
Night, four hundred Townfmen, and ordering the Gates ^ ? ' i0 '
to be fhut , divided his followers into two Companies,
and attacked at once the two Inns where the four Ge-
nerals were lodged. Though thefe Lords fud only their
Domefticks with them, they defended themfelves the
beft part of the night. During the conflict, one of their
People bethought himfelf o* r fetting fire to a neighbour-
ing Houfe, imagining the Townfmen Would run to ex-
tinguifh the flames, and thereby give the Lords oppor-
tunity to efcape. But this Stratagem had a quite con-
trary effect. The Townfmen, ftill more Lncenfed by
this action, redoubled their efforts, and at length broke
open the Inn, defended by the Dake of Surrey (7), and
the Earl of Salisbury (8). Thefe two Lords being much Tat are
wounded, were, by the Miyor's order, im nedhtely be- '**«■ ani
headed. On the other haul, the Dake of Exeter (9), f^^ "
and the Earl of Glocejler, perceiving they were no longer
able to reiift with (o tew attending, found means "to
efcape over the Houfes, and get out of the Town by the
help of fome of the Inhabitants. They intended to march

(1) In Htrtfirdjbir:

(2) He pretended very earneft Bufinefs with the King, and having caufed the Gates to be locked, took the Keys along with him. Camp'.. H-Jl. p. 278.
(31 They aifo f ;n t to the King of Frame for affiftance. Pol. Virg. See Rymer'i Feed. Tom. 8. p. 123, (stc.

(4) January 4.. rValfing. p. 362.

(;) Accordinj to ffalfingbam, the Confpirators ( headed by the Earls of Kent and Saliibury ) cirne to lfindf>r the fame Night the King was retired from
thence to Lsndm ; and being difappointed in their Defign of leit'ng him, they paid a Vifit to Q^aeen [fabejh, at Sinning, ani from thince wear to Wak'Hl-
fird, Abbingion, and Cirencefter, in their way to PontfraH, where they intended to go, and rcieafe the late King Ri'ebard. hfjljing p. 36a 363,

(6) And not Cbichtjier as fome have affirmed. Atl. fob. Tom. 8. p. 89. Rapm- ( 7 ) Tbtmai H'l/ond.

(8) Jtbn de Mmlacute. This Lord was a greit Kavourer of the LMardi. iVtlfing. p. 363.

(9) Waljingbam affirms, he ftaid all the while in Londin, ta wait for U»e Woe of hii Accomplices Enttrpriie, p. 363.

No- 25. Vol. I.

6 H




Vol. L


the Aftriy into the Town, but upon coming to the

Camp, found it deferted. The report the Soldiers had

heard, and the fire they had feen in the Town, making

them believe the King's Army was there, they had all

taken to fudden flight, feized with a panic, which made

them fee danger where there was really none. So the

two Lords, perceiving it out of their power to execute

their defign, parted, the better to make their efcape.

o»e other But they had the misfortune to be taken (1), and fhort-

fwoarthkt- jy a |- ter j fl. their Heads on the Scaffold. Maudlin was

We.vnW. a "° apprehended (2) as he was flying into Scotland, and

condemned to he hanged. The Abbot of Weflminjler


years between the two Crowns, was confirmed in May
this very year, and all the pretended Motions of France
ended only in a Negotiation , to draw from England
Queen Ifabclla, with whom Richard Lad not confumma-
ted his marriage. It was not without reafon, that Henry
endeavoured to preferve the Truce with France He had
a quarrel with the King of Scotland, which would not
fuffer him to carry his forces out of the Kingdom. The
occafion of the rupture between thefe two Princes was

Robert Stuart King of Scotland, the third of that Thi Cdufe °f
"Name, was defirous to marry Prince David his eldeft ,ht F£L
likewife withdrawing, was feized with l~o violent a fright, Son, to a Daughter of George Dunbar, Earl of Alarcb. u,'d. "'
that he fell into a fit of the Apoplexy, and died. As for The Earl thinking himfelf honoured by this alliance, joy- Buchanan,
TbeBijUpofxhe Bifhop of Carlifle, he was taken alfo, and fentenced fully received the Propofal, and even paid before-hand
Carii He dies to d ea th. But though, out of regard to his Character, the part of the Portion. However, fhortly after, by Intrigues
Afl. Pub? King pardoned him, he was not in a capacity to enjoy the foreign to our purpofe, Prince David married a Daughter
VlII.p. 1 65. benefit, when the news was brought him. The terror of of Archibald, Earl of Douglafs. Dunbar was extremely
his punifhment made fuch an impreflion upon him, that it mortified at this affront, to which the King added ano-
occafioned his death, when mercy was influencing the ther caufe of difcontent, by refufing, or delaying to re-
King to fpare his life. pay the Money he had received. The defire of being
In all likelihood, the ill fuccefs of this Enterprize ha- revenged, and making the King fenfible that he deferved a
flened Richard's end. There is fome diverfity among better treatment, infpired the Earl with a refolution to
the Hiftorians concerning the manner of his death , throw himfelf into the Arms of the King of England, and
though all agree, it was unnatural. Some affirm, he was do his enemies all poffible mifchief. To that end, he A a. p,a
ftarved to death. Others, pretending to be better informed, imparted his defign to the Earl of Northumberland, Go- viii.p.rji,
relate his death with thefe circumftances. After the vernor of the northern Counties, who, prefently after, fent ' 33, '* 9 *
troubles were appeafed , by the death of the principal him a Safe-condudt, from the King his Mailer. Upon ' 53 '
Confpirators, one Sir Pyers Exton (3) came to PontfracJ, receiving this affurance, he repaired to Henry, and had
with eight attendants. On the day of his arrival, Ri- feveral conferences with him (9). The King of Scotland
chard perceived at Dinner, that the Victuals were not being fenfible, that the Earl ol March was contriving fome
tailed as ufoal. He asked the reafon of the Tafter, and Plot againft him in England, fent Ambaffadors to Henry
upon his telling him that Pyers had brought an order from to demand the Fugitive, and upon his refufal, proclaimed
the King, took up a carving Knife, and ftruck him on War againft him.

the face. Pyers coming in, with his eight Attendants, Henry not thinking fit to expect his enemy in Eng- Henry
at the noife, Richard found he was a loft Man, and re- land, prepared to carry the War into Scotland. As foon marches urn
folving to fell his life dearly, wrung a Pole-Ax out of one as his Enemy was ready to march, he came to Newcallle Scotland -
of their hands, and defended himfelf fo bravely, that he and fent Robert a Summons to appear in Perfon (10) and BuchT-f'n
flew four of them. But at length, ftanding accidentally do Homage for the Kingdom of Scotland. In the Summons, Aa Pub."
near Pyers, who was got upon a Chair, the Villain dif- he revived the pretenfions of Edward I. to the Sove- Y^ 1 ?- 1 * 6 '
charged fuch a blow on his head, as laid him dead at his

Death of
Richaid II



feet (4).

Thus died this unfortunate Prince, thirty three years
old, of which he had reigned twenty two (5). A melan-
choly reward for the many fignal Services his Father had
done England ! He was carried to London in a Coffin,
with his face uncovered, to be feen of all Perfons. His
Funeral was folemnized at St. Paul's, the King himfelf
being prefent. After that, he was carried to Lengley Abby,

reignty of that Kingdom, from the time of Locrinus Son -V.ti//. 5 '


of Brutus, firft pretended King of the whole Ifland of
Albion. Upon Robert's refufal to do any fuch Homage
Henry entered Scotland, and made fome progrefs. To- jji beg
wards the end of September, he befieged the Caftle of Edinburfi
Edinburgh, defended by Prince David and the Earl of
Douglafs his Brother-in-law. But the feafon being too Rai r es tb
far advanced to continue the Siege, he fuddenly raifed it, Sug".
and retired into his own Dominions. As foon as he was n <v.
and buried (6) without any ceremony. Henry V, ordered gone, the Scots, under the Conduct, of Sir Patrick Hep- iraiSj-
his Body to be removed to Wejlminjler Abby, and laid burn and Sir Thomas Haliburton, made an inroad into hrd > ""'
among his Anceftors (7). Though it was reported all England, and cruelly revenged the Ravages committed by \l' d 'f""?'
over the Kingdom, that he was murdered, no inquiry was the Englijh in Scotland. But in their return, they were ' P " '
made. This neglect confirmed the People in their belief, met by the Earl of Northumberland, who defeated and
that the King was not innocent. And indeed, if Richard ftript them of their booty. Hepburn, one of the Scotch
died of a natural death, it would have been neceffary to Generals, was flain in the action (11). This victory
undeceive the Publick. But if his life was taken away procured between the two Nations a fix weeks Truce J^" *i~
by violent e, it was difficult to do it without the King's which was afterwards prolonged, by reafon of the pofture '»<"> King.
knowledge (8). of Henry's affairs. Hardly had he begun the W?* with dimu

Though Richard was not beloved whilft he fat on the Scotland, when he received certain advice, that the JVellh 16 P \ 66 '
Throne, his misfortunes failed not to raife the compaf- were about to revolt, and intended to raife commotions in

their Country, which could not but be attended with
fatal confequences. This was the reafon, that notwith-
ftanding his fuccefs againft the Scots, he would not improve
his advantages, for fear of exafperating them too much.
Buchanan himfelf gives this Teftimony, afcribino- to his
Generofity what was entirely owing to his Policy ; for
the motions of the JVcljh had rendered a Peace with Scot-
land abfolutely neceffary.

The JFelfo, who, lince the Reign of Edward I, were Revolt cfti*
feveral of Henry's Orders relating to the preparations in fubject, or rather united to England, believed they could Wcllh "'"l*
France, to invade England; but that might be an effect improve the prefent juncture, to recover their former a '^""p"!,"
of Henry's Policy, tofhew thereby, the neceffity of Ri- State. Owen Glendour or Glendourdy, as he is always Vnip.159,
True ii>iib chard's death. And indeed, the Truce of twenty eight called in the Collection of the Publick Atis (12), was the ,6 3-

France con- \VaJG»g.

fion of the very People that were fo ready to defert him.
It is peculiar to misfortunes, el'pecially to thofe of Prin-
ces, generally to turn hatred into pity. Of this we fhall
fee in the courfe even of the prefent Reign feveral in-

The EngliJIi Authors pretend, that Charles VI made
•P 22 3' great preparations to reftore Richard to the Throne. But
the Hiftory of France does not obferve that there were any.
p. 138,144. It is true, there are in the Collection of the Publick Atis

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