M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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(1) John de Holland, Duke of Exeter, attempted more than once to efcape out of England, but was always blown back by contrary Winds. He wa

VIII. p. 142. ' a ^ takcn - n Efftx, and carried Prifoner firft to Chelmsford, ana afterwards to Pltjhey Caftle ; the very Place, from whence by his Counfel and Contrivam

' the Duke of Gloeefter was enticed away, in order to be fent to Calais, as is related above. In this Town of Ptejhey, the faid Duke of E.xeter was beheaded
on September 7.1. Ibomai le Spencer, Earl of Ghcefter, was taken at Brijtol, and beheaded there. Waljing. p. 363.

(2) He, and one William Ferby , were apprehended in their Flight to Scotland, and being brought to the Tower of London, were hanged and Quartered

(3) Called by Rapm Sir 'Jbomas Fyers, but he is not fo named, as far as can be found, by any other Writer.

(4) This is Fabian's Account. Waljirgbam fays, He faded himfelf to death for Grief, at the Mifcarriage of the Plot, and d'ed on r,4. j^. „. -g._
Stciu fays, He wjs kept fifteen days together in Hunger, Thirft, and Old, till he died, p. 325. Poljaare Vtrgil Cays, He was not fu fit red to touch* ur
tifte ihc V:cmu1s which lay before him. littler Eccthtus will have it, That Richard fled inditgu.fe into Scotland, where giving himfelf up wholly to Con-
templation, he lived -nd died, and was buried at Sterling. Perhaps this was true of fome counterfeit Richard.

(5) The beautiful Piduie of a King ligh ng, crowned in a Chair of State, at the Upper-end of the Choir in St. Peter's Wejlminjler, is [M to be his.
Speed, p. 615.

(6) In the 1. hurch of the Friers- Preachers at King's Langley in Hertford/hire. Walling, p. 363.

(7) Henry V. creeled tor him and his firft Queen Ann, a glorious Tomb of grey Marble, on the Sauth-Gde of the Chapel of the K ngs, at the head of Ed-
ivarj JI I , up >n which lie their Portraitures of gilt Copper, with a prepofterous Epitaph in Latin.

(8 Sir Pyers F.xtzr., inrtead of being rewarded for this piece of Service, was quite put out of favour, and forced to fly to aicid the Puniinmenc he de

(9) He did him Homage at Nnvcajllc, July 25.

(10) At Edinburgh, ro AuguH 23. Ibidem, p.

(it) The Eng ijh did likewife the Scott much damage in the Ifles of Orkney, and took the greateft part of ih;'r Fleet, wl uh th;y bad lent out unler
the Command or Sir Roger Logan, to lurprize thr En^lijb Fifturmen. Waljing. p. 364.
(12J He is lomaimes called (Stydirdy, Ryrnir 1 Fad, Tom. 3. p. 163 ; but generally Glmdmidj, p. 182, 2; , <St,


Rymer's F&d. Tom. S. p. 153.
t c6.

Book XI.


49 r

1400. Perfon thnt infpired them with this defign. This Man,
though a private Gentleman only, had all the Qualities
proper for fuch an undertaking ; if Forces fo little confi-
derable as thofe of the JVclfli could have promifed him a
happy fuccefs. Neverthelefs, he fo managed this project,
that for feveral Years he freed his Countrymen from the
fervitude, wherein they thought themfelves kept by the
Englijh. A Law-Suit he had loft at London with the Lord
Grey of Ruthin, his Neighbour, was the firft occafion of
the difguft he conceived againft the whole Englijh Nati-
on (1). The Confpiracy before fpoken of, breaking out
in England at this very time, Glendour, not doubting it
would caufc great disturbances, thought it a favorable junc-
ture, to deliver his Country from the Englijl) Dominion.
He privately founded the ll'eljhmcn, and finding them
very inclinable to receive his impreffions, he eafily per-
fuaded them to refolve to throw off the Englijh Yoke.
He would have immediately difcovered his deiigns, if the
ill fuccefs of the Englijh Confpiracy had not reftrained
him. The moment he faw the King engaged in the
War with Scotland, he prepared to execute his project ;
and fo ordered it, that the JVelJh unanimoufly renouncing
their Allegiance to the Crown of England, acknowledged
Aft Pub. n j m f or Sovereign. From thenceforward he always ftiled
16- j'si. ' himfelf Prince of Wales, as appears in feveral Acts.

His firft exploit was againft the Lord Grey his adver-
fary, whom he took Prifoner in a Battle, and then made
him marry his Daughter, without giving him his Liberty,
contrary to his word.
Glendour Emboldened with this firft fuccefs he made an incur-

Mar'l'of '" 10n int0 Herefordjhirc. Edward Mortimer Earl of
Mmh March, who was retired to his Lordfhip of Wigmore,
pnfmrr. finding the King was employed in Scotland, thought to
Waiting. (] jjj,^ a f,g na [ S er vice, .by drawing together the Gentry
of the Country, in order to flop the progrefs of the Re-
bel. But he had the misfortune to be taken -Prifoner
in a Battle, and though he offered a large ranfom, could
not obtain his liberty. Glendour imagined, a Prifoner of
that confequence might be of ufe hereafter, or at leaft that
the King would fpare nothing for his deliverance ; and
therefore it would be more advantagious to treat with the
Henry a King, than with the Prifoner himfelf. But he was mif-
E rl°\ Mh ta ' cen m n ' s conjecture. Henry was too well pleafed, to
fortune. fee the Earl of March a Prifoner, and unable to hurt
him, to contribute towards his releafe. Glendour, how-
ever, ftill kept his Prifoner, in expectation that, by his
means, he fhould one day be able to give the King fome
difturbance, as it actually happened. The Earl was not
afterwards forry for being in the hands of the JVelJh.
Henry's jealoufy of every thing relating to his Crown,
and his feverity to thofe that would difpute it with him,
made the Captive Earl fenfible, that his Life was fafer in
Prifon than at his own Houfe. Mean while, the King
being bufied in a Scotch War, Glendour had fufficient time
to ravage the Country on the Weft of the Severn, and
carry away a great Booty.
•Thi Emperor About the end of this Year, Manuel Palaeologus, Em-
•/ Conftan- peror of Conjlantinople, arrived in England, to defire af-
ri%i*i?' hftance againft Bajazet Emperor of the Turks. The King
England, received, and prefented him honourably, but as for affi-
Waiiins- fiance, put him off till his affairs were better fettled in his
own Kingdom. The Emperor went from England into
France, from whence he departed not till two Years af-
ter, upon News that Bajazet his Enemy, was vanquifhed
and taken Prifoner by Tamerlane.
1401 O n the 20th of 'January 1401, Henry affembled a

Statutes in Parliament, which palled feveral Acts, with relation to
cburcb- tne Church. The firft confirmed the Statutes made in
CrWs the Rei S ns of Edward Ul and Richard II, againft fuch
Abridg. as follicited for papal Proviiions (2), or carried to the Ec-
clefiaftical Courts, Caufes belonging to the Cognizance of
the Judges of the Realm. This was the old fubject of
Quarrel with the Court of Rome. Whatever rigour was
ufed to flop the courfe of thefe abufes, it was not poffible,
becaufe it was the intereft of too many to counte-
nance the pretended Prerogatives of the Pope. But how-

ever this Parliament, confiden'ng the Pope ftill continued 1401
to engrofs the Collations of all the Church-Preferments of
the Kingdom, and that the Ecclefiaftical Courts were per-
petually encroaching upon the Civil, refolved at laft to
oppofe it effeaually. For that purpofc was revived v ic '■ • r„ »/
old Statute of Provifors in the Reigns of Edward III and l>r: "'
Richard II, commonly known by the name of Praemu-
nire. As this Term often occurs in the Englijh Hiftorv,
it will not be improper to explain it. By Praemunire Explicit™
then is meant, either the Statute itfelf, or the Penalty. '/•'""
Former Parliaments, led by the fame Motive as thisj had ' f,rm -
ordained punifhrnents againft the Provifors-, that is, againft
fuch as fued for Bulls, called Prvuifimes or Gratia: Ex'ec-
tativa, to the Court of Rove, for Benefices, that were,
or fhould be, vacant. The fame Punifhrnents were or-
dained againft thofe, that carried to the Ecclefiaftical Courts
what belonged to the Civil. When any Perfon was guil-
ty of this fort of crime, a Writ or Order was iffued againft
him, beginning with thefe Words, Praemunire facial,
whereby he was commanded to appear in the King's Court.
Hence the Statute, as well as the Penalty, were called
Praemunire (3). This Penalty confifted in forfeiture of
Lands, and Goods, and imprifonment during the King's
pleafure. In procefs of time, feveral other offences of a
like nature, with thofe that were the firft caufe of the
Statute, were made liable to the fame Penalty. So all the
Statutes of Praemunire, are only enlargements of thofe
made in the Reigns of Edward III and Richard II. In
general, the Praemunire, chiefly concerns offences com-
mitted in matters Ecclefiaftical, belonging to the Civil

The Clergy were always fo intent upon favouring the
pretentions of the Court of Rome, that the endeavours of
trm former Parliaments had been incapable to ftop the
courfe of this abufe. The Statute I have juft mentioned,
was but little more effectual. The attempt, laft j ear, to
dethrone the King, giving him occafion to fear the like
Confpiracies for the future, he had refolved to ihew great
regard for the Clergy, in order to attach them to his
intereft. Accordingly, though he did not think proper
to refufe his aflent to the new Statute, he connived how-
ever at the breach of it, as much, or more, than any of
his Predeceffors. But this was not the only thing he did
to gain the affection of the Clergy. His condefcenfion for
them in another Article, of no lefs importance, drew on
him the bleflings of the Ecclefiafticks, and caufed him to
be confidered by the whole Body, as a Prince exceeding
zealous for the Church.

Since Wickliff firft publifhed his opinions, about the Statute a-
end of the Reign of Edward III, this Doctrine was foZ""'J i fl ""
fpread, that the Clergy were in continual apprehenfions willing.
of its prevailing. I have already related, that, in the Reign
of Richard II, the Bifhops obtained a general Licenfe to
imprifon Hereticks, without being obliged to have a parti-
cular Order from the Court ; but that the Houfe of Com-
mons caufed it to be revoked. From that time there
was no alteration, except that the King more frequently
granted fuch Orders. However, as the Penalty of Im-
prifonment was not capable to check the pretended Evil,
dreaded by the Bifhops, Henry, ever propofing to gain
the affection of the Ecclefiafticks, earneftly recommended
to the Parliament the care of the Church's concerns.
How reluctant foever the Houfe of Commons might be
to profecute the Lollards, the credit of the Court and ca-
bals of the Clergy, obtained at length an Act for the
burning of obftinate Hereticks (4). This Statute was no A L ,| Iali
fooner paffed, but the Ecclefiaftical Court immediately hint.
condemned one IVilliam Sawtre (5) a Lollard, who be- Aa - p "'°-
ing delivered over to the fecular Arm, was burnt alive V l p ''"
by vertue of the King's Writ (6) directed to the Mayor (7)
of London. This Man was the firft who fuffered
death in England, for the fake of Religion. During
this Seffion feveral Acts were likewife paffed (8) con-
cerning the Difputes between the Englijh and the Court
of Rome, which I fhall have occafion to (peak of elfe-
where (9).

(1) He was brought up at the Inns of Court in London, and was, it feems. King Richard's Efquire : But in Hrnrfs time he retired to his Manor of
C/tndcurdy, where he had a Dilpate with Reginald Lord Grey, for having entered upon Part ef a Common lying between Rutbm and GUndoutdy. li jtjing.
f. 364-

(z) And made all thofe religious Perfuns that accepted Proviiions granted to the Pope, to be exempt from Obedience, to be within the Statute cf Pro.

(3) Suppofed to be ufed in the barbarous Law Latin, inftead of Pramonere.

(<)) By this Ait it was ordained, " That no Perfon Ihould prcfume to preach, hold, teach, or inftruct, openly or priviiy, or make or write any Bool:
«•- crntrary to the Catholick Faith, or Determination of the Holy t hurch ; or of any Sect make Conventicles, or hold and excrcife Schools. A; d if any
«« Peii'.n, of whatfoever kind or eftate, do any thing againft this Statute, or is evidently lufpeeted thereof, his Diocefan may caufe h ; m to be arretted, ar.d
" under fife (uftody in his Prif ns to be detained, till he purges himfelf, and abjures. And if any Perfon or Perfons refufe to abjure, 01, after legal Con-
" viction and Abjuration, do rel»pfc, then the Sheriff of the County, or the Mayor, or Bailiffs of the Place to which the Party belongs, dull be prcfent
« in preferring Sentence, when required by their Diocefan, or his Commiffaries ; and after Promulgation of the Sentence, receive, and do, ( or caufe) then
" to b- burnt bef re the Pe. pie in an hrgh Place." Rajldl's Statutes, Anno z. Hen. IV. This bloody Statute ftood unrepealed till the Year 1677.

(;; ^rifli Prieft of St. OJitb in Lond.n. "

(6) Writ de Hatetico Lotr.kurendo.

(7) To the Mayor and Sheriffs of Lcnd'.n, Feb. 26. See Rymer's Fad. Tom. S. p. 178.

(S) Particularly one forbidding People's carrying Gold or Silver out ol the Realm, except for their reafonable Expences, upon pain of forfeiture.
(9) This Parliament granted the King une Tenth and a Fifteenth, two Shillings of every Tub of Wine, and Eight-pence «f every Pound of Mcrchajiiiie.
'" P- V>i'

3 Since




Vol. I.

Since the Truce with France was confirmed, Charles liament (4), laid a Tax for the Marriage of his Daugh-
i, or rather the Duke of Orleans his Brother, and the ter. Though herein he had acted by virtue of an an-


Negotiation VI

ohovt fading j) u | ces f g err i an d Burgundy his Uncles, who governed
chard'jV;- in his name, often demanded the young Queen Isabella
Widow of Richard II. Henry deferred giving a pofitive
Anfwer, not that the demand was unjuft ; but two rea-
fons made him defirous of keeping that Princefs. Firft,
196—100, as he could not help dreading a War with France, he
p. 132,186. wantec | to m ake a firm and lafting Peace with Charles
VI, to which he believed the Marriage of Jfabella with
Henry it- the Prince his Son would greatly contribute. To that
minds ifa- en( j^ before he returned a pofitive anfwer to the Court
S™* "' of France, he frequently propofed that Marriage. But
He it put off. neither Charles's Brother nor Uncles would ever confent
to it, not being able to think of marrying the young
Queen to a Prince, whofe Father was generally reckoned
the Murderer of her firft Husband. They alledged, how-
ever, another reafon for declining it, namely, That her
Father not being in condition to manage his affairs, they
durft not treat of his Daughter's Marriage withdut his
Ke fcnJi her confent. A fecond reafon why Henry deferred Ifabella's



p. 14.1,151
164, 186

tient Privilege of the Kings on the like occafions, the
People however Teemed diffatibfied. There were not want-
ing in the Kingdom Perfons, who laid hold of every thing
to find fault with his Condud. About the middle of the
Year he had reafon to perceive, there was ftill a dan-
gerous Ferment among his Subjects, and if the Male-Con-
tents remained quiet, it was only in expectation of a favor-
able opportunity to rife. On a fudden, an unexpected A Rumour
rumour was fptead over England, that Richard was alive, 'fWdnti't
and had levied an Army in Scotland, in order to expel £'"* "£*"•
the Ufurper. The People muft needs have wifhed the 26 V, 261'.
news true, fince it every where met with fuch credit. At Writing,
the fame time, on Church-Doors, and in other publick "J."'"" "*
Places, Papers were pofted up, containing outragious in- WsJfog.
vedives againft the King. The Authors of thefe Papers
aflerted, among other things, that the crimes for which
Richard was depofed, were nothing in companion of the
tyrannical proceedings of Henry, fince his Acceffion to the
1 hrone. The King was Co provoked at this audaciouf- He pum/h:,

*«*• Reftitution was, becaufe he knew the Money, Richard nefs, that he fwore never to pardon the offenders. Sir Rth- 'W»/i«..

vni.p.i6s, received with her, would be demanded. However, as he ger Clarendon, natural Son of Edward the renowned

194,117, had no plaufible pretence to detain her, he confented at Prince of Wales, fell the firft facrifice to his Vengeance be-

ic, ~ laft to reftore her with part of her Jewels. He managed ing condemned to the ingnominious Death of \ Traitor.

fo artfully, that in the Conventions made at Lelingham, Eight Monks gu.lty of the fame crime, were alfo hanoed

there was no mention of reftoring her Treafure. That with him. Walter Ba/djrf Prior ot~ Laund (5), underwent

was the Subject of another Negotiation, fpoken of here- the fame fate, with a Francifcan Doctor in Divinity, who

a fter, wic hannwl in kie IT^'.a^'.. r-i^W.t. .._ *L_ . .-r


of Bhnch,
tuttb the
Earl Pala-

Whilft this affair was tranfacting, Henry had in Ger-
many another Negotiation on foot, about a Marriage be-
tween Blanch his eldeft Daughter, and Lewis of Bava-
ria, Grandfon of Robert Earl Palatin of the Rhine, who
was lately advanced to the Imperial Throne, vacant by
Ibid. p. 170, the death of Henry of Brunfwick Succeflbr of IVenceJlaus.
176, 179. This affair was concluded in May, to the King's great
j, ' % A' Satisfaction. The Princefs's portion was forty thoufand
tee.— -253. Pounds Sterling (1). At the fame time, a Treaty of
WjIG g. perpetual Alliance was made between the Emperor and

Since the revolt of the Weljh, Henry had made no
preparations to reduce them to obedience. Mean while
Glendour, taking advantage of this negligence, continued

Ibe Kmgt

agunfi ibe
Aft. Pub.
lb p. 225.

was hanged in his Frier's Habit, to the great mortifica-
tion of his Fraternity (6). Many more were apprehen-
ded, up:;n finding among the Papers of a certain Prieft,
a Lift of the names of thofe, that declared Richard was
alive. But upon ftrict examination, it appeared he had
made that Lift, on purpofe to make the news the more
probab,e, or upon groundlefs Conjedures. So, he fuffer-
ed alone the punifhmentof his rafhnefs. The King's great
feverity upon this occafion, contributed very much to
efface the good opinion conceived of his Clemency and

Whilft thefe things paffed in England, Henry was ne- M «ri« e . r
gotiating in foreign Courts, three Marriages at once. The 't' King
firft was between Philippa his fecond Daughter, and Eric ""''* ^"" a
King of Denmark, who was vet a Mir—- ■— >— iL .°/ N »™'«.

js,..„_»„,, l.«,„ 5 ou.a,,^ v, ....,;> ..wgngw"-, ""'"»«•'• "'"g "• ^enmuric, who was yet a Minor, under the Aft pT

to ravage the Counties bordering upon IVales. Far from Guardianfhip of Queen Margaret his Mother. The fe- vni>»57

dreading the King's -juft indignation, he ftudied to pro- cond was between the Prince of Wales, and a Sifter of 2,;9, 2 " 6 >''

voke him by continual infults. Henry's indolence appeared Eric's. And the third was his own, with Joanna of" Na- 283' 1% ''

ftrange to many People, becaufe they were ignorant of varre, Widow of the Duke of Bretagne. Of thefe three

the reafon. Before he took up Arms againft the Weljh,
he was defirous of finifhing his affairs with France, and
even intended to make a ftrict Alliance with that Crown.
As he knew the Rebels could have no alliftance but
from thence, he believed, if he could deprive them of that
protection, they would not be able to fupport themfelves
long. Mean time, the Negotiation with France procee-
ding more fiowly than he wifhed, and Glendour ftill
continuing to infefthis borders, he could no longer delay judicial to them. This was the reafon that the Duke of

Marriages, the firft and laft were concluded this fame year"
but the Prince of Wales's did not fucceed.

Henry, in refolving to efpoufe the Duchefs Dowager iuc n n.f
of Bretagne, had probably an Eye, by virtue of this Mar- Fra,lc = £«
nage, to the Guardianfhip of the three Princes, which the » ' b, ' r »
late Duke of Bretagne had left under Age. At leaf! the Per^'r
Court of France, taking it for granted, appeared very '*' f'S
much alarmed at this Alliance, which might be very pre- »".*L°L

Aft. Pub. taking U P arms. Before he put himfelf at the head of
vm.p iS:, his Army (2), he publifhed a general Pardon for the Wajh,
provided they fubmitted within a certain time. But find-
ing his clemency ineffectual, he marched to chaftile them.
Upon his approach, Glendour withdrew to the Mountains,
where it was impoflible to attack him. All the King
could do, was to ravage the Country, and then return to



An Innjcn.
I on to bit

tie King



Death of the

Burgundy, Guardian of the young Princes, took them
from the Duchefs their Mother, and carried them to Paris,
where they were educated. By this means, the Court of
France had the direction of the affairs of Bretagne, during
the young Duke's Minority. If it be true, that Henry
had an Eye to Bretagne, he not only was difapp minted,
but drew upon himfelf frefh Enemies. During the whole
time the new Duke was in France, the Bretons fcarce ever
1 he King s return to his Metropolis was immediately ceafed infefting the Coafts of England, though there was
followed by the difcovery of a Plot againft his Life, by no War proclaimed between .heir Sovereign and Henry
the means of an Iron Inftrument, with three fharp The King's Marriage was not confummated" till the year Ibid. -% u
opikes placed in his Bed. Had he chanced to lie down, following.

he muft inevitably have been run through the Body, but Thefe Negotiations being ended, Henry prepared in E.pedLU.
by good fortune, he perceived it juft as he was going good earneft to chaftife the Wdjfb. To that'end he drew ° f "" K '^
into Bed. What inquiry foever was made, there was no together a numerous Army, and heading them in Perfon, ibV-el'"
pomoihty of Jifcovering the Author of this traiterous at- advanced towards Wales. Upon his approach, Glendour »7«-
ten ?P t - ,. , retir ed to the Mountains of Snowdon, where he knew W,lfil *

It was this and not the laft year (3), as fome affirm, there was no poffibility of attacking him. Mean time

Dukecf that Edmund, Duke of York, the King's Uncle, died. He the King was preparing to ravage the Country ; but the
sZe'.Jed h £■ , tWC 'c^J EJm "*'l Duke of Albemarle, who took the Weather became on a fudden fo tempeftuous, that he
•/• So.. * TltIe ° f Duke of lori, and Richard Earl of Cambridge.
Walling. I lhall have frequent occafion hereafter, to fpeak of the

Pofterity of the younger, who, by his Marriage with a

Siller of the Earl of March, acquired to his Iffue, Rights

which caufed fuch terrible Commotions in the King-


1402. In the beginning of the next year, the King by his
•Tax raij,d fole Authority, and without the intervention of the Par-

J.r toe Mar-

*W, 5'' Fo "y 'houfand Nobles. xl. M. Nobilium Cunei Anglias Rumer't Ftrd. Tom. 8. p. 170. 206

I) lu btr (Z) Whth WaS '" 0a ° b " - ft" 1 ""- V- "5

A*l P b ^ Sand/ord fays, it was Augufl I, 1402

VIII.p.232, Eil

*37. J+2. Aft

was forced to retire. The ftorms were fo uncommon
for the Seafon, that the Englijh fancied Glendour had made
a contract with the Devil, to prevent the deftrudtion of
his Country.

Whilft the King was employed in thofe Parts, the,,
Scots under the Command of Hepbume, Son of him flain Jn-'Jd?'*
two years before, made an irruption into England, and Engird.
advanced as far as NewrCaJlle. The Earl of Northumber- ^f,; Pub -

V IJl.p. 1-.K

x 57-



(6) He being asked what he woirfd have done, if King Ricbard had been living, and in the Field; boldly replied he would have «nr«r.j >,• 1 r r„
turn •pinftm, Petfon whatever. Upon which he wa, hanged and drawn in hi, Habit, rTM/ng. p.' 3657557. *' 4 ^ Llfe f "


Book XI.

13. HENRY. IV.


140*. land, General of the North, was unprepared to repulfe unfuccefsful to the Earl of St. Pol. After plundering fome 1403.

■An dtftated the Invafion. But afterwards affembling a great Body of Villages, he w;ts difhonourably forced to re-imbarlc, though

AaPub" Troops, whilft they continued their ravages, he went and the Inhabitants of the Ifle had received no afliftance.

vnx.flr'jl. expected them at Nisid, where he attacked and defeated Henry complained to the Court of France of this Invafion,

Walling, them, feizing all their Booty. The Scotch General loft but could get no other anfwtr, Than that it was the King

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