M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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fuch fort of Precedents, which Princes upon occafion too
frequently call to remembrance.

The Severities exercifed upon the Authors and accom-
plices of the two late Rebellions, induced the Parliament
to petition the King for a general Pardon. Henry very
willingly complied with their requeft, but with fuch ex-
ceptions as rendered the Pardon of little effect, fince he
forgave only thofe whom he defigned not to punifh.

Henry's Severity to thofe who were infatuated with the
falfe Notion of Richard's being ftill alive, was not ca-
pable of undeceiving every Body. A rumour being once
more fpread that Richard was in Scotland, one Serle, who
had been Gentleman of his Bed-Chamber, went to fee his
old Matter. He met with People, who (hewed him a
Man fomething like Richard, but not enough for a Do-
meftick, who had long ferved him, to be deceived. Ne-
verthelefs Serle feigning to take him for Richa'd himfelf,
wrote to feveral Perfons in England, that he was actually
with him. The Teftimony of a Man who could not, as was
thought, be miftaken, produced fo great an effect, that many

fuffered themfelves to be feduced with this impofrure. The 1404.
Countefs of Oxford, Mother of the late Duke of Ireland, Walfinf.
Richard's Favorite, believed, or pretended to believe, it,
and took care to fpread the report. She even fent to fe-
veral Perfons in Richard's name, little Silver Harts, fuch
as that Prince ufed to give his Favorites. Mean while
the King's diligence prevented the ill effects, this Impof-
ture might have caufed. He ordered the Countefs to be H-myfu.
taken into Cuftody (7), with her Secretary who wis in"^*?'*'
the Secret. Some time after Serle was feized on the bor- tb^Replee.
ders of the North (S), and hanged at Berwick. As lie con- Aft- P"o*
felled the Cheat, and that he was cor.cerned in the Duke of^Jj P379 "
Glicrjler's Murder, the report died away by degrees.

I his year the Bretons made a defcent near Port - The Bretona
land (9), and plundered fome iloufer, on the Coaff. But;',""*,"'
advancing farther into the Country, they met a Body of ^'^
Militia ready to receive them, who drove them back to vji'j .-."3,5.
their Ships, and took feveral Prifoners of diftinction. Hi- WJ **
therto there was no Declaration of War between England
and Bretagne : But the two Nations however continued
to infeft one another, though without the confent of the
Sovereigns. France, which then managed the Breton',
was very glad to fow difcord between them and the F.n-
glijh, left Henry fhould ftrengthen himfelf with the Alli-
ance of Bretagne, when the Duke was of Age. For the Hcnrr cm-
fame reafon Henry connived at thefe infults, lor fear of de- "•"«»**
priving himfelf 01 that advantage. Befides, he feemed re-
folved to avoid, as much as poflible, ingaging in any War ;
being apprchenlive, that the Male-contents would raife
troubles in the Kingdom, in cafe he was obliged to fend
his Forces abroad.

It was probibly with the fame view, that he conclu- Tnmtvieb
ded with Scotland a Truce, from the zoth of July this Scotl »n*'
year to the Eajler next enfuing. yf n ™!

However, he could not think that all his precautions 30S.
would for ever prevent the dreaded War. Befides, that lbl p- "*'
he plainly faw France only fought an occafion of Rupture,
he coniuiered the affairs of Wales were in a very ill way.
Glendour not only perfifted in his Rebellion, but hod even
feized fome Places on the Weft of the Severn. More-
over the Truce with Scot/andhcing to expire in the Spring,
there would be a neceffity of fending an Army into the
North. I hefe confiderations determined him to fummon
a Parliament, in order- to obtain an Aid to enable him
to carry on thefe Wars.

The Parliament met Oilober the 6th (10). It is faid, ■n-' ffT jin-
the King in the Writs of Summons commanded the She- FtrHmmm.
riffs [ and Mayors ] to return none but fuch as were un- w ' ir,n E-
learned, and that from hence, this Aflembly was called Ab^s'
the Illiterate or Lack-learning Parliament (11). It is a
queftion however, whether the King's Command was fo
exprefs as is affirmed (12). The bteach Richard II, had
made in the Nation's Liberties by the like Method, and
the punifhment which followed, were yet too frefh for
Henry fo publickly to imitate his Example, and expofe
himfelf to the fame danger, in the prefent Juncture. It
cannot be denied however, that the Court, on this occa-
fion, had laboured to caufe fuch Reprefentatives to be
chofen, as were not too much prepoftelTed in favour of
the Clergy, for reafons we (hall fee prefently. Be this Tbe'Comm-n
as it will, the King reprefenting to the Parliament thus petition tbt
compofed, his great want of an extraordinary aid, the f' ng '?
Commons went in a Body, and addiefled him, remonfrra-(>7'.-i!'
ting, " That without burdening his People he might Lams.
" fupply his occafions, by feizing the Revenues of the V»l1ni>
" Clergy. " They fet forth, « That the Clergy pof-
" felled a third part of the Lands of the Kingdom, and
" not doing the King any perlonal Service, it was but
" juit, they fhould contribute out of their Revenues to-
" wards the pre/Ting neceffities of the State. That it was
" evident, the Riches of the Ecclefiafticks made them
" negligent in their Duty, and tiie leffening of their ex-
" celfive incomes, would be a double advantage to the
« State and Church. "

The King (o received this Addrefs as plainly fhewed
it was not difagreeable to him, and in all likelihood, it
was he that by his Emiffaries had chalked out what this

(1) On June 14, in 1404., they entered into a League offenfive and defenfive with Owen Glendour. See Rymer's Feed. Tom. 3. p. 356, 365.
1.2) And burnt Plymouth, tFalfing. p. 369.

(J) He took forty Merchant Ships, burnt feveral more ; and making a Defcent, burnt and plundered the Villages and Country for near twenty Miles to-
gether. Ibid.

(4) Which met September 30, at IVuftmmfter. See above, p. 493. Note (1).
t5) January \ j. Cotton's Abridg. p. 415.

(6) This Tax is faid to be twenty Shillings of evoty Knight's Fee, and Twenty pence of every one that had twenty Pounds a Year in Land ; and en*
Shilling in the Pound for Money or Goods, and fo upwards, according to that rate. Com. Hiji. p. 2S9. Or rather, it is not known what it was, f r all

the Records relating to it were ordered to burnt. ConcelTores ipli, & authores dicti tallagii, in perpecuum latere pofterns v.luerunt : nrmpe fub ea tantorn

couditione concedebatur, ne traheretur pofterius inexereplum, nee fervareotur ejus evidential: in thelauraria regit, nee in :caccan<v fed fenp^unc vel rec 'M-

tiones eJvifdero, protinus port datum compotum cremarrntur. IVaiJmg. p. 369, 370. The Clergy granted the King this Year, in Afrit, a Tenth;

and in the lalt Parliament, they had granted a Tenth and a half. Idem. p. 370, 376.

(7) Bui lii? was loon after pardoned and re'eafed ; as appears by her Pardon, dated Decern. 5. 1404.. See Rymer'i Feed. Tom- S. p. 379.
(Sj K) Sir William Clifford, Governor of li-fwici. Waljing. p. 370.
(9J \t. Dartmouth, and places adjacent, Ryme-'t Feed. Tom. 8. p. 381. The Lnrd De Caliel, the'r Leader, was flain ; and three Lords.

Ku.sth'*, 'aic-n 1'riloners. Wolfing, p. 370. The Women of thole parts signalized themfelves upon this occafion, and loojht bravely. Ibid.
( 1 cj A; Covtntri/. Cottlni Abridg. p. 437.
■ . I [t is moft probable, that it was 10 cat el a.V'wards, upon account of its defi^ns againlt learned Men, or the Clergy, Sp el, p. 610.
•1 ' < 01! 01 the Hulorians fay, filch were to be chofeD as hsd no Siilt in lit Lawi. ffulf. p. 371, &c.

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Henry goes
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cf raifing the Money he wanted. The Archbifhop of
Canterbury being prefent, thought it- his Duty to fpeak
on an occafion, where the intereft of the whole Clergy
was concerned. He reprefented to the King, "That
" though the Ecclefiafticks ferved him not in Perfon, it
" could not be inferred, that they were unferviceable,
" fince they fent into the Field their Vallate and Tenants
" whenever there was occafion : That the ftripping the
" Clergy of their Eftates, would put a ftop to their
" Prayers Night and Day for the welfare of the State,
"■ and there was no expecting God's protection of the
" Kingdom, if the Prayers of the Church were fo little
" valued. " He added, with a menacing Tone, " That
" if thefe confiderations were not capable of fupprefling
" the Plots againft the Clergy, it would be found dif-
" ticult to deprive thelii of their Eftates, without expoling
** the Kingdom to great danger ; and fo long as he
" was Archbifhop of Canterbury, he would oppofe this
" injuftice to the utmoft of his power. " Then fudden-
Iv falling on his Knees to the King , he ftrongly preffed
him in point of Confcience, endeavouring to make him
fenfible, that of all the crimes a Prince could commit,
none was fo heinous as the Invafion of the Clergy's
Revenues. Whether Henry was moved with the Arch-
bifhop's Speech, or the ftrong oppofition he forefaw from
the Clergy, convinced him of the difficulty of accom-
plifhing his defign, he fuddenly refolved to defift. He
anfwered the Archbifhop, that though be blamed not
his zeal, he could not help faying, his fears were ground-
lefs ; for when he mounted the Throne, he made a firm
refolution to favour the Church with all his Power, and
hoped by God's Grace to leave her in a better State than
he found her." The Archbifhop encouraged by this an-
fwer, turned to the Commons , and fpoke to them in a
manner not very proper to gain their Good-Will, telling
them, their demand was built wholly on Irreligion and
Avarice ( 1 ). The Commons made no reply to this offen-
five Speech, but when they came back to their Houfe,
refolved to perfift in their demand, and brought in a
Bill to feize the Clergy's Revenues. But there was no
poflibility of fucceeding in their project. The Sollicitati-
ons of the Archbifhop and the reft of the Clergy, were fo
prevalent with the Lords, that they threw out the Bill.
So the Commons were forced to find other means to fup-
ply the King's occafions (2).

Towards the latter end of this year, Innocent VII.
notified to the King , his promotion to the Papal

It is not ftrange, that to the great number of his ene-
mies, both at Home and Abroad, Henry was unwilling to
add likewife the Clergy ; who, as the Archbifhop had
threatned, would have had it in their Power to create him
great trouble. Though all was feemingly quiet in the
Kingdom, he difcovered about the beginning of the year
140;, that fome ill defign was contriving againft him ;
but however, could not find out the Authors.

The Earl of March had very well concealed his dif-
guft, when Henry was placed on the Throne ; but his
League afterwards with Glendaur, and the Earl of Nor-
thumberland, was fufficient to open the King's Eyes, though
he had fuffered himfelf to be deceived by this diffimulation.
He was too jealous of his Crown, to believe the Earl was
unmindful of his juft Rights. For this reafon, he had al-
ways refufed to promote the recovery of his Liberty.
Upon the fame account, he kept his Children in fafe
Cuftody at IVindfor, as Pledges of their Father's Allegi-
ance. Nothwithrtanding all his care, means were found
to convey away the Prifoners, and keep them concealed
for fome time. But the King caufed fuch diligent fearch
to be made, that they were at length found, and brought
back to their confinement at Jl'indjor. He would have fe-
verely punifhed this attempt, if he could have difcover-
ed the Authors, but all his endeavours were fruitlefs.
There was only a poor Lock-Smith hanged for being con-
cerned in it ; but he would not diicover by whom he was
employed. The Duke of York being fufpedted, was
taken up, and fent to the Caftle of Pcvenfey, where he
remained a Prifoner above three Months. But at laft
he was releafed, for want of fufficient Evidence againft

This attempt made the King apprehenfive, his Ene-
mies would form fome new Plot in favour of the Earl of
Marc]> \ and he imagined, before it broke out, they would
fecure thefe young Princes. As Glendour was always rea-
dy to countenance the Male-contents, Henry refolved to
free himfelf from thefe Fears, by exerting his utmoft to

deftroy that Rebel. To that end, lie gave the Command ilfdsj,
of an Army to Henry his eldeft Son ; who, in the begin- ft p"
ning of the Campaign, came to an engagement with the MaJhi
Weljh, and put their Army to Flight. Two months af- Ma, 14.
ter, this Vidtory was followed bv another ftill more im- ?• i9»-
portant, wherein Glendour's Son was made Prifoner. t011 ""
Thefe two Defeats were not, however, capable of dif-
heartening the Weljh. On the contrary, they made frefh
efforts in defence of their Liberty. The fituation of their jj, wd/h
Country, the allurances given them by France of a power- ftrfifl .»
ful diverfion, and probably, Glendour's Knowledge of ^tbeir&nobi
Confpiracy forming in England, put them in hopss of
better fuccefs for the future.

It was not without ground, that the Weljh relied upon Trwctdmti
the afliftance of France. That Crown, or rather the./"*' '«•"'"*
Duke Of Orleans, who then gov.erned the Kingdom, '^'"'
made no account of the Truce, whenever he thought he
could break it with advantage. Though it was confirmed
in 1403, Mezerai owns, the Conftable Z)' Albret, and the
Earl of Armagnac, had .taken from England above fixty
Places in Guienne. This Very year, the Duke of Or-
leans openly befieged Bourg and Blaye, though in vain,
and the Duke of Burgundy was preparing to lay Siege
to Calais. To facilitate this undertaking, the Earl of A & p ; , b
St. Pol attempted to feize the Caftk of Merck ; but the Vill ;. •
Garrifon of Calais, porting to its relief forced him to
retreat in diforder, though he Was now mafter of the
Inner- Court.

Thefe continual breaches of the Truce, taught Henry 7 *' &"g "
what he was to expect, from France, iu cafe his affairs 1,™^ mS,
were not profperous in England. For this reafon, he and Chrgji
was defirous to end the Weljh War, before he fhewed wolfing. .
his refentment to the French, chufing rather to let them
atft privately, than give occafion for an open Rupture.
With this view, he had fent againft the Weljh the Prince
his Son, who was crowned with the fore-mentioned fuc-
cefs. Before he entered upon this Expedition, he affem-
bled the Lords (3), to defire an aid of Moneys being
afhamed to ask the Parliament, who had lately granted
him a confiderable Subfidy. But the Lords flatly refufed
to comply with the King's requeft, without the Autho-
rity of the Parliament. The Clergy, whom the King
likewife founded, anfwered with the fame refolution, not
being willing to eftablifh a Precedent of that nature, left
it mould be drawn into Cuftom. Henry extremely mor-
tified with thefe Denials, difmifTed both the Nobles and
Clergy, with figns of difpleafure; which fhewed, he
would not mifs an opportunity of making them feel the
Effects of his Indignation. He furnifhed thereby certain
Lords with an occafion and pretence to haften the Exe-
cution of a defign, which, probably, had fome time been

Richard Scrope, Archbifhop of York, being diffatisfied, Cmfpiraef
and wanting to revenge Richard, by whom he was pro- , b r ™j rc l_
moted to that Dignity, ingaged feveral Lords in a Confe- tiihop of
deracy to dethrone Henry. The Earl of Northumberland York>
entered into the Plot, though the King had already for- Wair,n 5'
given him the like fault, and by his intereft in the North,
drew the People of thofe Parts into the fame Confederacy.
Thomas Mowbray Earl-Marfhal, the Lords Bardolf, Hajl-
ings, Fakonbridge, and feveral other Lords and Gentle-
men came into the Plot, and levied a great number of
Troops, which they led to York, where the Rendezvous
was. When thefe Forces, which made a confiderable
Army, were drawn together, the Leaders publifhed a Ma-
nifefto againft the King, and caufed it to be fixed upon
the Doors of the Churches in York, for publick view.
The fubftance of the Articles, contained in the Manifefto,
was as follows :

I. That Henry, at his return into England, had pro- 7it RrllIl
tefted and fworn, that he was only come to recover his Mamf,p.
private Inheritance, without any defisn upon the Crown, Y?' ,!i "Z-

1 11 r 1 1 • r if 1 1 • J V Comp- Hl!t.

and yet, had caufed himfelf to be proclaimed King. p 2g2t

II. That as an Arch-Traitor, he had imprifoned his So-
vereign, and forced him to refign his Crown, and then
barbaroufly murdered him.

III. That ever fince the death of Richard, he had un-
juftly detained the Crown from Edmund Mortimer. Earl
of March, to whom it lawfully belonged.

IV. That he had unjuftly put to death feveral Perfons
of Quality, who were guilty of no other crime, than
endeavouring to redreli the abufes of the Government,
and, contrary to Law, imprifoned the Bifhops by his fole

V. That he had oppreffed the People with needlefs

(1) Adding, he would foon« lofc his head, than (hat the Church fhould be deprived of the lead of her Rights. Waif. p. 371.

(2) The Lords and Commons granted the King two Tenths, and two Fifteenths; befides the Sublidy 'of Wool, Wool-tells, and Skins, wte, of Denirers,
tor every Suck of Wool, tort, three Shillings and Four-pence ; or every two hundred and forty Wool-fells, the lame Sum ; and for every Lalt of Skins, live
Pounds: And of Aliens, Wn Shillings more in every particular, lor two years ; three Shillings on every Tun of Wine, and one Shilling on every P«ur d
worth of Merchandize ; but the, recalled the Pctliens and Annuities granted by the two late Kings. The Clergy granted a Tenth and a half. Walj. f. 372.

Citton's Abrldg. p, 438.

',3! At LtrMi, about the beginnirg ot Ithuirj, Jt-'alJ- p. 373.


Book XI.



Taxes, and by hrs Threats, hindered them from com-

VI. That he had violated the Privileges of the Nation 1 ,
and his Oath to maintain them, by hindering the free

Election of Parliaments

r -;„.-.',

which he was Governor. Some time after, (he Ki.ic;
being come to Pont/rail, the Earl of Wejlmoreland
brought his two Prifoners to him, who were both con-
demned to lofc their Heads. The Archbifhop fuftered
Death with great conftancy, and was honoured by the

VII. That in a Parliament held at U'lnchc/lcr, he had People for a Martyr, till the King, by his Authorit

The -7t,
' ■ - •' J.
Act- Pub.

given his Aflent to a very pernicious Statute againft the
Church of Rome, and the Authority conferred upon St.
Peter and his Succefiors ; and thereby, been the Caufe of
the Simony, Perjury, and other di (orders among the Clergy
and Gentry, who fold the vacant Benefices to Perfons
unqualified to fcrve the Cure.

put a flop to their Superftition. " From PontfraCi the
King went to Tori, and feverely punifhed the Inhabi-
tants (1). Then advancing towards the North, in order
to befiege the Caflle of Berwick, he took in his way the
Lords Ha/lings and Fakonbridgt, who met with the fame
fate as the Archbifhop and Earl-Marfhal. Upon the

Other La


VIII. That notwithftanJing the frequent Inftances of King's Approach, the Earl of Northumberland and the
feveral Lords of his Council, he had refilled to ranfom the Lord Bardolf, defpairihg of being able to defend them-
Earl of March, and evaded his juft Petition, by falfely felves, and dreading to fall into the hands of ajuftly in-
charging that Prince with voluntarily making himfelf a cenfed Prince, withdrew into Scotland at the Lord Flem-
Prifoner to the Weljh. ming's, by whorti they were received. Mean while, Hen-

IX. That, for all thefe Reafons, they had taken Arms, ry became mailer of Berwick, and feveral Callles belong-
with defign to free the Nation from the Opprcffions ing to the Earl of Northumberland, after which, he re

Fercy and
Bardolf re*
lire to Scot-

of this Tyrant)

and place tiie lawful Heir on the

racy by


Tit tart of Some time before the King had Intelligence of this Re-
Vveftmnre- bcllion, he ordered a Body of Troops to march into the
1'nifi'y North, under the Command of Ralph Nevil Earl of
the cliff i Wejlmoreland, to make head againft the Scots, who feem-
ed inclined to renew the War. The Earl was near York,
when he heard the News of the Infurrection. The
Superiority of the Rebels Troops, not permitting him
to advance any farther, for fear of being ingaged in an
unequal Fight, he thought it more advifeable to ufe Po-
licy. To that end, he difpatched a trufty MelTenger to
the Archbifhop of York, and the Earl-Marfhal, to tell
them front him, that, confidering their great Prudence
and Zeal for the publick Good, he did not queftion but
weighty Reafons had induced them to take Arms, and de-
fired them to acquaint him with the fame. The Confe-
derates thinking him already fhaken, fent him word, they
had no other Intention, than to procure the Good of the
Kingdorrt, and intreated him to come and join with them
in defence of the Publick. This anfwer made him
judge, it would not be impoflible to over-reach Perfons,
who thought him capable of fo readily taking their Part.
To keep them in this Belief, he told them by the fame
Mefienger, he was not fo blind but he could fee the In-
juries done to the Nation : However, he was afraid,
they had been too hafty in their Proceedings : That, be-
fore all things, care fhould have been taken to fecure the
Concurrence of all the principal Lords, or at leaft the
Majority : That as for himfelf, he could not communi-
cate all his thoughts by a third Perfon ; but, if they
would agree to an Interview, would more freely open his
mind. The Archbifhop of York no longer doubting, that
the Earl was privately of the fame Sentiments with the
Confederates, prefled the Earl-Marfhal to go with him
to the Interview, and, notwithftanding his unwillingnefs,
prevailed with him at lafl. The Place affigned for the
Conference being in an open Plain, and the Guards ad-
vancing at an equal diftance on both fides, the three
Lords began to confer together. The Earl of Wejlmore-
land protefted, he had no lefs at heart than themfelves,

turned to London.

Though moll Hiftorlans afcribe the rife of this Confpi-
racy to the King's threatning the Clergy and Nobility,
upon their refufal of the Aid he demanded, it appears
however to have been formed before. For, whilft Henry
was Hill in the North, the Marfhal de Montmorency arrived
in Wales, with a Fleet of a hundred and forty Sail, and
twelve thoufand Men. As foon as he was landed he join-
ed Glendour, and they marched together, and took Car-
marthen, Worcejler, and feveral other Places of the neigh-
bourhood, where they met with a great Booty (2). Me-
zerai, who places this Event in the lafl year, fays, the
Earl of Marche, of the Houfe of Bourbon, caufed the
Undertaking to mifcarry by his too long delay. This
fhows, the Court of France thought their Army would
land irt Wales, juft at the time the Archbifhop of York's
Plot broke out. It may be, the Preparations Were begun
the lafl year, and that might Occafion Mezerah miftake.
It is much more probable, he fhould be miftaken in the
Date of this Event, than the Englifl) Hiftorians, who re-
fer to this year, the taking of their Towns, and the
great Booty made by their Enemies on that occafion. Be-
fides, we find in the Colletlion of the Publick Afls, an
Order from the King, dated at Pohtfraft (3), mentioning
the Defcent of the French. It is true, in this Order, their
Leader is called Hugevyle, and not Montmorency. But as
there were not two Defcents the fame year, and in the
fame Country, it may be prefumed, that Hugevyle made
the Defcent under the Marfhal's direction.

Henry had no fooner finifhed his Affairs in the North,
but he marched towards Wales, to defend the Borders
againft the French. But he was fo retarded by the Wea-
ther, that they had fufficient time to re-imbark, leaving
Glendour to fliift for himfelf. However, the King could
do nothing againft the Weljh, though deprived of the

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 209 of 360)