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(2) Who lay at the Thames Mouth. They carried away Sir Thomas Ramfione, the Vice Chamberlain, with all the King's Furniture and Apparel that VHI p.541.
was in thofe four Ships. Ibid. Slew's Aon. p. 334.

(3) He died about Auguji 5, at his Manor of Scene-Thorp in Norfolk, and was buried with his Lady in the R dy of the Church rf the White Friers
in London, which he had newly built. He likewife built the (lately Stone-Bridge at Rocbefier ; and founded a College for iicular Canons at Pontfra.1. Dug-
dale's Bartni Vol. 2. p. 412. JValf. p. 376.

(4) This year a Parliament was holden at Clecejler, on OSloher 20, and removed in November to WtJIminficr. It granted the King one Tenth and a
halt, and the like Subfidy for Staple, and other Merchandize, for two years, as in the laft Parli.ment. Cottons Abridg. p. 464, 465. Waif, p. 3 - .

(5) N;ar HorfelwooJ, on Feb,-. 19. IValf. p. 377. For this good l'ervice, King Henry granted Sir Thomas Roieby the Manor of Spofford, with its Appur-
tenances, for life Rymtr's Faed. Tom. 8. p. 530. *

(6) The Abbot of Hales being taken fighting on the Earl's fide, was hanged. Waif. p. 377.



The H I S T R r of ENGLAND. Vol. I.

14C/S. Eari of Kent, who commanded the Fleet, was long in
ft : pyriitt q U cft of thefe Rovers to no purpofe. At length, hear-
.'. '■' ",' " be ing they were retired on the Coaft of Bretagne, to the
little rfle of Brehac, which was exprefsly excepted in the
Truce with the Brehns, he went and attacked them in
the Town of the fame Name, where they had (hut them-
felves up. In the firft aiTault, he received a Wound, of
which he died in five days. This prevented not his
Troops from continuing the Siege, and taking the Town,
where they put all to the Sword.
T-rvafor The frequent Ratifications of the Truce, not hinder-

PoitfouW j n _ t | ie p renc b f r om making continual attempts upon
Aft! Tub. England, Henry was forced at laft to be content to con-
vnip.516, elude a new feparate Truce for Picardy and Guienne,
5 2I > 53°. from the 30th of September 1408 (1), to the ift of May
1410 (2). Poiclou was exprefsly included, becaufe the
French denied that Province to be held of Guienne.
Akritjac The Schifm, which commenced in 1378, by the double
SM/m' ^ Election of Urban VI, and Clement VII, ftill continued,
Platira. to the great fcandal of Chrijlendom. Urban dying in
Willing. 1390, the Cardinals of his Party chofe in his room Bo-
rn face IX, who at firft feemed very much inclined to
put an end to the Schifm. Whereupon the Court of
France, laboured heartily to infpire Clement with the
fame refolution. But as he proved inflexible, the Uni-
verfity of Paris was ordered to meet, where it was deci-
ded, that, to put an end to the Schifm, one of thefe
three ways was abfolutely neceffary. The firft was,
That the two Popes fhould refign. The fecond, That
they fliould agree upon Umpires to decide their diffe-
rence. The third, That the determination fliould be re-
ferred to a General Council. This refolution being
communicated to Clement, troubled him fo, that he died
quickly after in 1394. When the King of France had
notice of his death, he wrote to the Cardinals, defiring
Aft. Pub. them not to proceed to a new Election. But as they
vni.p.604. fufpedled the contents of his Letter, they chofe, before
they opened it, the Cardinal of Luna, an Arragonian,
Who took the Name of Benediil XIII. Before the Elec-
tion, they all took a folemn Oath, that whoever was
chofen, fhould renounce the Papacy, in cafe it was deem-
ed neceflary for the good of Chrijlendom. But Benediil
being elected, difpenfed with the Oath he had taken,
when Cardinal. On the other hand, Boniface IX dying
1404, his Cardinals chofe Innocent VII, and he likewife
dying the next year, they elected Angela Corario a Venetian,
who affirmed the name of Gregory XII.

It would be tedious to relate all the Evafions ufed by
Benediil XIII, and Gregory XII, to decline the refigna-
tion fworn by each. They were both willing to be thought
well-affected, and yet continually ftarted frefh Obftacles
to the agreement defired by all Chrijlendom. In fhort,
the Chrijlian Princes, tired with the delays of the two
Popes, found means to gain the Cardinals of both fides,
who, in their own name, fummoned a General Council
at Pi/a, for the 2^th of March 1409.
1400. The Council being aflembled, the two Popes were

Council >J cited, and as they did not think fit to appear, were de-
Piia. clared perjured Hereticks, and deprived of their Digni-

Waifing* 7 ' ty. At the fame time, the Cardinals were impowered to
Alexander elect a new Pope. They chofe Peter de Candia, who
V, tUacd. ft ji ed hjfnfeif Alexander V. Before the meeting of the
Council, Henry writ to Gregory, to admonifh him to com-
Tbc fcig'i ply with the method of Refignation. But his Letter be-
PncUma- ; n g fmitlefs, when he heard of Alexander's Election, he
fmcZ. " iflued a Proclamation, enjoining all his Subjects to ac-
knowledge the new Pope. It was believed, the fcanda-
lous Schifm, which had now laftcd thirty years, was at
length clofed, but by Benedict's obftinacy, it was fome
years farther prolonged.
Tie Pre- How fcandalous foever this Schifm might be, it did not

grtft of tbi create j n the Clergy of England fo great uneafinefs, as
tow **«" WhWff's Dodrine. Though, during this Reign, the
CUtiy. Lollards were ufed with great feverity, their Number con-
tinually increafed. There were even at Oxford, Doc-
tors, that publickly defended the novel Opinions, as well
Wieklifl'i in their Difputations, as Writings. The Bifhops being
B'h ion- extremely alarmed at it, obtained of the King an Order
Oxford. to tne Univerfity to meet in Convocation, and examine
Aa. Pub. the Books of IVickliJJ. As the Majority were ftill at-
Vl11- tached to the old Doctrine, his Books were condemned,

and the Univerfity publifhed a Decree, forbidding all her
Members, upon pain of Degradation, to preach, or teach,
the Doctrine therein contained.
?rua with This year the Truce with Bretagne, was prolonged to
Brtugne. the 1 ft of July 1 4 1 1 .

Henry could not be fecure of ?.ny Tranquillity, fo 1410.
long as France was undifturbed. From thence proceed- ,rt "' i '" '"
cd the rife of all the motions, as well of his own Subjects, France J ■
as of the IVclJh and Scots. The War, which was kindled to Henry.
in that Kingdom between the Houfes of Orleans and
Burgundy, was very beneficial to England. In the firft Aft. Put.
Place, Cajlde and Scotland were more readv to conclude vui.p.609,
a Truce with Henry. In the next place, the Weljh, re- 7 "
ceiving no further affiftance from thence, found at length,
their pretended Prince was very far from being able to
perform what he had promifed, and began by degrees to
defert him. Laftly, Henry reaped moreover this private Henry
Advantage, that he became more abfolute at home, fince * r ?'"« »
lie had nothing to fear from his Enemies abroad. Though ,'b? p'arlla-
he had cauftd Richard to be depofed, for ufurping an mnt'i p n -
arbitrary Power contrary to the Laws, yet he himfelf «"'<£«•
plainly fhowed by certain proceedings, he would have
been glad to govern with an abfolute authority. This
chiefly appeared in the Elections of Members of Parlia-
ment. By the directions of the Court, certain Artifices
were practifed, to render the Freedom of voting of no
ufe, fince the Sheriffs took the liberty to return fuch Re-
prelentatives as had not a Majority of V«otes. This is a
thing of fo fatal a confequence, that it may be affirm-
ed, the liberty of the Englijh will no longer fubfift,
than whilft the Privilege of freely electing their Repre-
fentatives in Parliament ftands inviolated. If once the
Sovereign comes to chufe what Reprefentatives he pleafes,
the bounds of the Royal Authority will be in the end
fo enlarged, that nothing but the mere Shadow of Liber-
ty will remain. Of this, we have feen a remarkable
inftance in the Reign of Richard II. But it may farther
be added, that all the Kings of England, who have enjoy-
ed a more abfolute power than the reft, acquired it by
this way, I mean, by procuring their Creatures to be elec-
ted. When a Parliament confifts of fuch Members, it is
no longer the King that is charged with Incroachments
upon the People's Liberty, but it is the Nation itfelf, that
voluntarily runs into Slavery. And if, afterwards, they
refolve to throw off* their chains, they can only fucceed
by violent means ; and this, by the way, is the Spring
of moft of the Civil Wars, fo often kindled in England.
The Parliament which met in January (3) 1410, con-
fidering the confequences of the King's proceedings to
over-rule the Elections, believed the redrefs of that abufe,
was the moft prefling affair. Accordingly, in the be- A g tztinfi
ginning of the Seflion, they prefented a Bill to the King,/i// f iu-
by which, the Sheriff's, who fhould be guilty of making """"■
falfe returns, were to be fined a hundred Pounds Sterling, ec a
for every offence. The King would have been glad to
evade this Act, but as he could not do it, without laying
himfelf too open, and befides intended to demand a Sub-
fidy, he gave it the Royal Aflent.

Upon palling this Act, the King demanded an Aid of rte King
Money of the Commons, who took occafion from thence *«m* *
to renew their former Inftances, with regard to the Cler- Sk V J J-
gy. JVickliff's Doctrine had gained fo much ground,
that the Majority of the Houfe of Commons leaned that
way. Thus biafled, the Commons prefented to the p elililsn „t
King two Petitions, one againft the Clergy, the other in tbc Commons
behalf of the Lollards. In the firft , they fet forth, gfj'ij ,b <
" That the Clergy made an ill ufe of their Riches, and y/^at,
" confumed their Incomes, in a very different manner
" from the Donors intent : That their Revenues were
" exceflive, and confequently it was neceffary to leflen
" them : That fo many Eftates might eafily be feized,
" as would ferve to provide for a hundred and fifty
" Earls (4), at the rate of three thoufand Marks a year
" each ; fifteen hundred Barons, at a hundred Marks
" each ; fix thousand two hundred Knights, at forty
" Marks ; and a hundred Hofpitals, at a hundred^Marks :
" That by this means the Kingdom's fafety would be
" better provided for, the Poor better maintained, and
" the Clergy more attached to their Duty. "

In the fecond Petition the Commons prayed, that the Amlitr a
Statute paffed againft the Lollards in the fecond (5) y tax favour of
of this Reign, might either be repealed, or at leaft qua- w ' al g°" ar(f£ '
lified with fome Reftrictions. a n| '

If the Parliament, that firft moved the leffening of
the Clergy's Revenues, was ftiled the Unlearned, it may
well be fuppofed, this met with no better Treatment.
The Name of Lollard and Heretical was plentifully be-
llowed, and the Clergy confidered the Petition, as tending
to undermine all Religion. This was induftrioufly infinuated
to the King, with all the aggravations, which Parties con-
cerned are capable of difplaying on fuch an occafion. It

(1) There had been a True: concluded, from January 15, till April 15. 1408, which was prolonged till StfUmbcr 30. Sec Rymtr's Ftcd. Tom. 8.

t 5°7, 5'5. 5-°-

(z) Fr.>m the 1 5ih of June, till that time three years. Ibid, p. 541, 54S-.-560.

(3) January 17. Citrr.nl Ahridg. p. 470. (4) fftl/ingbam fays, only fifteen Earls, p. 379,

(5J Safin fay?, in the fevesth. bee above, p. 491.

Book XL



1410. is hard to know, whether the King himfelf was of this
Mind ; but however, he declared, he had the Intereft of
the Church no lefs at heart, than the Clergy themfelves.
After the Death of the Earl of Northumberland, there
was never a Lord in the Kingdom, that could give him
any Uneafinefs; and though the People were difTatisfied,
Henry was very fenfible, that of themfelves, they would
never be induced to rebel, unlefs incouraged thereto. So,
it was his Intereft to pleafe the Clergy, who alone were
able to ftir up the People, if they had fo plaufible a Pre-

"Iht Ki*gri-t eace as the lofs of their Revenues. For this reafon, he
1 'r,r:tkn"''° anfwered the Commons very fharply, that he neither could,
wiling. nor would confent to their Petitions, and exprefly forbad
them to meddle any more with the Church's Concerns.
As for the Lollards, he replied, that far from permitting
the Statute againft them to be repealed, he wifhed it more
rigorous, for the utter Extirpation of Herefy out of the
jmtbcrPeti- The Commons miffing their Aim, were contented with
'the ' cft%f movin g> that at leaft Clerks con vidted mould not be de-
rtjcch-J. livered to the BifhopsPrifons(i), alledging for reafon, that
Walling. daily Experience fbewed, Clerks by that means always
efcaped the Punifhment they deferved. What the Com-
mons demanded was no lefs reafonable now, than in the
Reign of Henry II, when that Prince, and all the Peers of
the Realm maintained that Point fo ftoutly againft Becket,
and Pope Alexander III. Put Henry fearing to be expofed
to the like Troubles as Henry II was liable to, refufed
alfo to give his Affent to this Bill. On the contrary, he
affected to fliew an extraordinary Zeal for the Interefts of
the Church, and to take fuch Steps as he thought moft
Tfc Km* 0,. agreeable to the Clergy. Though it cannot be doubted,
hrd "t^U that Wuk W* Dodtrine was the real Caufe of the Motions
/;„„„, made by the Houfe of Commons, the King was pleafed

waning. to let them fee, how far he was from giving them any
Act P b. Countenance, by iigning a Warrant for burning one Thomas
V\.ii.^.6i-].Badby. The Prince of IVales had a mind to be ptefent
at the Execution, and, as the poor Wretch gave fenfible
Signs of the Torture he endured, ordered the Fire to be
removed, and promifed him a Penfion for Life, provided
he would recant. But Badby recovering his Spirits, re-
fufed to comply with the Offer, and fuffered Death with
heroick Courage.
The datum The Commons confidered this Execution as an Infult,
aml'fcfap' an< * § reat Aggravation of the Refufal they had lately en-
ttt-K2iig'"i dured. Accordingly, when the King demanded a Power
Demand. to levy every Year a certain Subfidy (2), though the Par-
Walfing. ri amen t fhould not lit, the Demand was boldly rejected.
The Commons would have even refufed a Supply for his
neceffary Occafions, if, to force them to it, the fame me-
thod, that had formerly fucceedtd, had not been employed :
He obtain* That is, he prolonged the Scilions till he obtained his
' S xffi P defire ( 3 ). It plainly appeared, that the Earl of Northum-
Fme. " berland was dead ; that the Troubles in IVales were almoft
at an end ; and that France was no longer formidable ;
otherwife he would never have ventured to treat the Com-
mons fo haughtily.
TbcDuhof Notwithftanding the ill Pofture of Affairs in France, the
Burgundy Duke of Burgundy relumed his Deiign of befieging Calais,
jZTtt be'- but with his former Succefs. All his Preparations at St.
/rjf Cihis. Omer for the carrying on the Siege, being burnt to Afhes,
Walimg. either by Accident, or by means of an Incendiary, lent on
purpofe by the Governor of Calais, this Project, like the
foregoing, vanifhed into Air. The French Hiftorians make
Aa. Pub. no mention of this Attempt. However it feems, by the
vill. P .6i 7 , King's Precaution, in fending the Prince of IVales to Calais
Z9, b31- at that very time, he had received fome private Intelli-
Ttitcc of gence thereof. Be this as it will, the Truce with France,
France for Guienne and Picardy t was again prolonged for fome
fnhtgti. Months.

lit Englilh This Year Robert de Humphrcville, Vice-Admiral of
ravage England, enter'd the Gulf of Edinburgh, and daily landing
IbTaViq. n ' s Men, now in one place, then in another, carried away
a great Booty (4).

141 1. The whole Year 1411, was fpent in feveral Negotia-
Tnct tions, which ended at length in prolonging the Truce with
Aft^Pub F rance f° r five Years, with Cajlile, till February 141 3,
vin. p. 641, and w 'th Brctagne for ten Years.

C6S, 680


Thefe Negotiations require no farther Explication,

7' 694' *" lnce we nave a l reaci y feen the Occafion of them. But

1, 710,' tlle Negotiation this Year with the Duke of Burgundy,

merits a more particular notice. To that, end, it will

be neceffary to explain, as briefly as poffible, the prefent

Situation ot Affairs in France, on which depends a good

Part of the Occurrences of this, and the two following 1411.

We have feen how John Duke of Burgundy affaffinat- 4ff"ln of
ed the Duke of Orleans, Brother of King Charles VI, 'V"".
and avowing the Faft, had Credit enough to procure a pTS.
Pardon. He, afterwards, went into his Dominions in
Flanders, with defign to reftore to the Bifhoprick of
Liege, his Duchefs's Brother, expelled by his People.
Whilft he was preparing for this War, the Duchefs of
Orleans, in Company with her three Sons, of whom
Charles the eldeft was but fifteen Years old, came, and
cafting herfelf at the Feet of the King her Brother-in-
law, demanded Juftice for the Death of her Husband.
Though the Duke of Burgundy had obtained a Pardon,
his Adverfaries taking advantage of his Abfence, had In-
tereft enough to have it revoked, and to caufe him to be
pronounced Enemy of the State. He was then march-
ing to the Relief of Maejlricht, where the Men of Liege
held their Bilhop befieged. At his Approach, they railed
the Siege; but, being afterwards informed, the Duke
had only fixtecn thoufand Men, refolved to attack him.
Though their Army was three times as ftrong as the
Duke's, they were routed with the lofs of thirty thou-
fand Men. The Duke's Victory fo alarmed his Enemies
in France, that not thinking themfelves fafe at Paris,
where the Duke had many Adherents, they retired to
Tours, and took the King along with them. The victo-
rious Duke, preferring his Affairs in France, to the War
againft the Men of Liege, who were fufficiently humbled,
put himfelf immediately at the head of four thoufand Horfe,
and came to Paris, where he was received in Triumph.
At his Arrival he fo managed, that the Parifians fent De-
puties to the King, praying him to return to their City.
Charles, who was then in one of his Intervals, thought
it not advifeable in the prefent Juncture, to protect the
Enemies of the Duke of Burgundy. He repaired to Paris
as delired, and immediately appointed confiderable Perfona
to mediate an Agreement between the Duke of Burgundy
and the Sons of the Duke of Orleans, which was ac-
complifhed, though with great difficulty. The Duchefs
of Orleans died with Grief, to fee her Husband's Mur-
derer triumphant ; and the young Duke of Orleans, then
but in his fixteenth Year, found himfelf obliged to be re-
conciled to his mortal Enemy. From thenceforward, the
Duke of Burgundy feized the Government, the King, who
frequently relapfed, being too weak to hold the Reins him-

Mean while, Henry, who had always an eye to a Aft. Pub.
Peace with France, formed a Deiign to marry the Prince VII1 -P- 6 9*»
of IVales, with one of the Daughters of the Duke of willing.
Burgundy, whom he faw fo firmly eftablifhed. But
whilft he was carefully thinking how to accomplifh his
Project, fuch Alterations happened in France, as made him
fenfible, this Alliance was not fo certain a means, as he
had imagined, to attain his Ends. The Dukes of Bern,
Orleans, Alenfon, Brctagne, and the Earls of Clermont and
Armagnac, meeting at Gicn in Augujl 1410, entered into
a League againft the Duke of Burgundy, and fhortly af-
ter approached Paris. The Duke, having the King in
his Power, oppofed them with equal Forces; which con-
vinced them, that the Execution of their Defigns depended
on a Battle, the Succefs whereof could not but be doubt-
ful. In all appearance, France itfelf would be ruined by
a Battle, which would have been deftructive to the King-
dom, on which fide foever Victory inclined, had not
means been found to make an Agreement between thefe
Princes. It was agreed, that the Duke of Burgundy fhould
depart from Paris, the confederate Princes fhould not
enter there, and none of the Heads of the two Parties ever
come to Court, unlefs lent for by Letters under the Great-

The Duke of Burgundy punctually obferving this Agree-
ment, retired into the Low-Countries ; but the Duke of
Orleans, and the reft of his Party, were not fo fcrupulous.
After disbanding their Troops, they levied others, and
approached Paris, in expectation of inriching themfelves
with the Plunder of the Metropolis, which remained firm
to the Burgundian Party. The Duke finding himfelf ffeory aidi
thus deceived, made an Alliance with the King of Eng- g^ "^ °^
land, who believing it his Intereft to fupport him, fent willing. '
him a confiderable Body of Troops (5). With this A f-
fiftance, the Duke marching into France, and paffing
through the Enemies Quarters, who were blocking up
Paris, entered the City, amidft the Acclamations of the

(1) Rapm fajs here, by millake, that Clerks fhould not be tried in the Eccltfiaftical Courts. fyaljinrbam's Words are, Ut darici convicti de cetera

nun tradut-mur er^aflulis Epifcoporum, fed carceribus regis, & temporalium duminorum, p. 379.

(2) A Tenth on the Clergy, and a Fifteenth on the Laity. IValjir.g. p. 379.

(3) 1 ill the middle ot May : And then the Commons granted him a Fifteenth ; and continued the Duties on Wool, Leather, and Wool-fells, and Tunnaet
and Poundage ; but with this condition, that exprefs mention fhould be made, 1/ was done of their trjin good -with : Out of thefe Duties, they gave the King
twenty thoufand Maries, to difpofe of at his plcafure. ti'alfing. p. 379. Cotton's Abridg. p. 474.

(4) He brought away fo much Corn, &c. that he brought down the Prices of things, and thence was called Mend- Market,

(5) Under the Command of John Fitz-A.'an, Earl of Anmel; Jcbn Unfile, Lord Cobbam, &c ff-'alfing. p. 380.

No. XXVI. Vol. L

6 L




Vol. I.



in England.

A { In-


Glendour is
Aft. Pub.
II11 Affairs
go to dccjy.

Aft. Pub.
Turn. IX.
P. 2S3, 330.


of the Trou-
bles in

advantage cf

People on the 30th of Oclober 141 1. From this time be-
gan the two powerful Factions of Orleans and Burgundy,
the firft of which received afterwards the Name of the
Armagnacs, from the Earl oi Armagnac, who became their

Whilft France was in Trouble and Confufion, the
Parliament of England meeting about the end of this
Year(i), petitioned the King for a general Pardon for
his Subjects. Henry readily complied with their Requeft,
excepting only Glendour and his Adherents (2). This
fhews Glendour was ftill living, though mod Hiftorians
fay, he died in 1409. It is true, after the Earl of
Northumberland's Death, his Affairs were gone to de-
cay. The Welf/i, feeing he was unable to perform his
Promifes, had deferted him by degrees. He was even
apprehenfive, they would make fome attempt upon his
Life, or deliver him up to the King. His fears inducing
him to conceal himfelf, he paffed the refidue of his Days
in fome unknown Place. So, it is no wonder the time
of his Death is unknown. However, that he lived till
the Year 1417, is certain.

The Affairs of France were embroiled more and more,
by the mutual Hatred of the two Factions, who made no
fcruple of facrificing the Good of the Publick to their
Animofity. Hitherto Henry had juftly dreaded fome
Mifchief from that quarter. If the Diflenfions of the
Princes of the Blood had not hindered thofe that were
at the Helm, during the King's Illnefs, from effectually
fupporting the Male-contents in England, he would very
Henry thinks probably have been greatly diftreifed. But when he faw
the Animofity of the two Factions carried to the higheft
decree, his Fears entirely vanifhed. He even began to
think of means, to reap fome Benefit from the Troubles
in France, as the French had frequently attempted to take
advantage of the Infurrections in England. Herein, the
Obfervation of the Truce was no more regarded on one
fide than the other.

Henry foon found as favourable an Opportunity, offer-
ed by the French themfelves, as he could defire. The
Dukes of Berry, Orleans, Bourbon, Alenjon, the Earl of
Armagnac and the Lord d'Albret, Heads of one of the
Factions, feeing themfelves unable to withftand the Duke
of Burgundy, who had the King and all the Royal Fa-
mily in his Power, came to a Refolution, to ftrengthen

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 211 of 360)