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themfelves with the Amftance of the King of England.
But as they were not ignorant, that the Duke of Bur-
gundy had prevented them, by making an Alliance with
Henry, they thought it neceffary to break that Union, by
offering fuch Terms, as were capable of taking off Henry
from his Ingagements with their Enemy. To that end
they met at Bourges, where they agreed upon the Condi-
tions to be offered him, and then fent Deputies to treat
with him.
The Dull if Hitherto, the Duke of Burgundy had evaded Henry's
MeTntLk Pro P ofal > of marrying the Prince oi Wales with one of his
the Meafum Daughters. Probably, he had entertained other Views.
But, upon Information of what was contriving in England,
he thought proper to prefs, in his turn, the concluiion of
the Marriage. Henry pretended to hear with Pleafure the
Propofition, but it was only to procure better Terms from
the Orleans Faction, with whom he defigned to make an
Alliance. And indeed, the Deputies of the Princes hear-
ing of this Negotiation, infifted no farther upon any Ar-
ticle, but concluded the Treaty, juft as Henry defired, on
the i 8th of May 1412.



The FaSlhr,
of Orleans
Jut to him

for Aid.

lb. p. 716,

718, 726.

Walling.



of bis
Enemies.
Aft. Pub.
VIII. P . 7 2
737-



Treat f be ■
tivten Henry
end the
Orleans
Fafihn.
p. 73S.
Wolfing.



By this Treaty the Confederate Princes were bound,

I. To give up to the King of England about fifteen hun-
dred Towns, Caftles, and Bayliwicks, which they held
in Guhnne, or in Poiclou.

II. To conquer for him what remained of thefe two
Provinces in the hands of the French, and reftore to him
Guienne, with all its Dependencies, in the fame State and
Extent, as enjoyed by his Predeceifors.

III. The King allowed, that the Duke of Berry fhould
hold Pcicfou for Life, on condition he did him Homage
and delivered up Poicliers, Niort, and Lufignan : As for
the reft of the fortified Towns in that Province, he fhould
place fuch Governors in them, as would bind themfelves
by Oath to refign them after his Death to the King of
England. T he Duke of Orleans was to have the Duchy
olAngouleme, upon the fame Terms, and the Earl of Ar-
magnac certain Caftlewards in Guienne.

IV. The King was bound on his 'part, to lend the
i nnces an Aid oi a thoufand Men at Arms, and three
thoufand Archers, who were to go to Blois, where they



fhould be received by the Princes, and paid before-hand
according to the ftipulated pay.



141 z.



The Treaty being ratified, Henry gave the Command J"'*"
of this Aid to Thomas his fecond Son, created, a few Thomas
days after, Duke of Clarence. He fent with him in this
Expedition the Duke of York, and Thomas Beaufort Hiih- r- 7«-
Admiral oi England. Thefe Troops departed in July, h ( mji '- D ' jh:
and it appears by feveral Pieces in the Colletlion of thef 7 l™rfq
Publick Ails, that the King was preparing to go in Perfon ■ 7— - 5 7-'
to Guienne, to take Poifeflion of what had been promifed Wal1 n -
him.

But whilft thefe Forces had been bufily raifing in Eng- We arrives,



land, the face of Affairs was altered in France. The ""tfi***
Duke of Burgundy improving his Advantages over hi
Enemies, clofely befieged them in Bourges, and had
brought the King with him. Though the Befieged made
a vigorous Defence, in hopes of the Supplies that were
coming from England, they would have found it perhaps
very difficult to hold out, if the Duke of Burgundy had
not thought proper to offer them Peace. He was afraid
of the Arrival of the Englijh Troops, and the Confede-
rates had reafon to apprehend, they would not come timely
enough. Thefe different Fears rendering both Sides more
tractable, the Peace offered by the Dukeof Burgundy was
accepted without hefitation, and at the fame time pro-
claimed.

Mean time, the Duke of Clarence landing in Normandy,
advanced towards Blois with all poffible diligence, without
committing Hoftilities by the way. But when he was
informed, that the Confederates had accepted a Peace(j ),
he confidered France as an Enemy's Country, and made
great Ravages in his march. It was the Duke of Orleans's
bufinefs, head of the Faction, who had drawn him into
France, to content him. But as he had no Money to pa)' Walfmg,
what was already due to the Englijh (4), he was forced to
give him the Earl of Angoulemt his Brother in Hoftage.
On the other hand, the Duke of Clarence finding him-
felf in the Heart of an Enemy's Country, with a few
Troops, and not without apprehenfion, that the two Parties
would join againit him, did not think fit to ftand upon
Terms. He only ftipulated for leave to lead his Troops Be mires
into Guienne, where they ferved to recover fome Places '
by the help of the Earl of Armagnac, and the Lord d'Al- V
bret, who were not pleafed with the Peace.

This Affair being ended, Henry enjoyed a profound Tran- Henry ,„; 5JI
quillity. He had nothing more to fear from France, which, " f ' "" J
by inteftine Divifions, was become unable to hurt him. '''""'
The IVclJh fought only to make their Peace, and the Re-
gent of Scotland, content to fee the King his Nephew in
the hands of the Englijh, minded only his private Con-
cerns. In fine, the Male-contents in England, being no
longer fupported by foreign Princes, remained quiet. Henry
made ufe of this Calm to efface the ill Impreflions, his
Severity and Proceedings with refpect to the Parliament,
had made in the Minds of his Subjects. He affected Po-
pularity, and endeavoured by all forts of means to fhew,
he thought of nothing lefs than ftretching the Prerogative
Royal. His Endeavours were crowned with fuch Suc-
cefs, that, notwithftanding his Severity to his Enemies,
and Refufals to the Houfe of Commons, he was deemed a
generous, mild, and moderate Prince. What was before
confidered, as an effect of his cruel and revengeful Temper,
was now readily afcribed to pure Neceffity, and the Cir-
cumftances of his Affairs. It was, doubtlefs, the latter
Behaviour of this Prince, which led Hiftorians to give him
fuch Commendations, as his former Actions no way de-
ferve. This Example fhews, how eafy it is for a Sove-
reign to efface the difadvantagious Impreffions entertained
of him by his Subjects, provided he is fo wife and fortu-
nate, as to perfuade the World, he fincerely intends to re-
form his Conduct.

Whilft Henry was endeavouring to recover his Reputa- EmJ/is of
tion, which had fuffered a little fince his Acceffion to '** Pr ' H " °f
the Throne, the Prince of Wales was entirely deftroying ^alu '
his own, by his daily Exceffes. Though he had naturally
a great and generous Heart, he fuffered himfelf to be
corrupted by Perfons, who, to ferve their own Ends, flat-
tered his vicious Pafiions, and diverted him from the Paths
of Virtue. His Court was the receptacle of Libertine?,
Debauchees, Buffoons, Parafites, and the like. Nothing
was talked qf, but the riotous and extravagant Pranks of
the Prince, or his Companions. Such a Conduct in a
Prince, who was one day to fit on the Throne, was verv
amazing to the confiderate, who could not help dreading
the Confequences. However, amidft thefe Apprehenlions,









(1) OniV„

age am
i'ounds



'mbtr '.



. The Lo,d s and Commons continued for one Year Ion e er (he Duties on Wool, Wool-f.
nd Poundage ; lo as it was always confeiT.-d to proceed from their
Vir in Land, above all Charges, OiouM pay fix Shillim

<l\ Whfck »r T "T 1 ^! " ?""*"' ?"* '5. and ''rum thence called the Peace of Bourges.

TO Ore* «„ three hundred and twenty thoufand Crowns of Gold. P. Danie! Wft. Franc. Tom. V. p. 505



' own Good Will, and not of Duty-
ngs and Ei^ht-pence. Cut-in's Abnjj;.



and Leather ; and alio the Subli
They alfo granted, that every Perfon, h.
p. 47S, 4-9.



fTun-
. ..- twenty



Rav



Book xr.



13; HENRY IV.



503



1412.

T. Eliot.

Stow.



1 the F.,
Hall,



<Th- King
grows ffpi

Cl'Jlli of the

Prince.

T. Oiu-
boinc.



He vhtti



a Ray of Hope was feen f o fliii le, in a very unexpected
mark of Moderation given by the Prince. One of his
Favorites (1) being arraigned for Felony before the Chief
Juftice (2), he refolved to be prefent at the Trial, with
He gives a defign to over-awe the Judge. Hut his Prefence not pre-
leaBloiu vent j n g th e Criminal's Condemnation, he was fo trans-
ported with Paffion, that lie (truck the Judge on the Face.
The Chief Juftice thus aftronteii, conftdering the Confe-
rences of fuch an Action, without regarding the Quality
of the Offender, commanded him to be arretted on the
fpot, and committed to Prifonfj). Then was feen what
would never have been expected, the Prince, quiet as a
Lamb, fubmitting without murmuring, to the Judge's
Orders, and fuffering himfelf to be led to Prifon without
R.efiftance, like a private Perfoia.

The Judge's Courage, and the Prince's Moderation,
were equally pleafing to the King. Neverthelefs, Henry,
who was excfcflively jealous of his Crown, could not help
giving Ear to fome People's Infmuations, that his Son
had ill Defigns againft him. This Belief troubling him
extremely, he would, perhaps, have proceeded to Extre-
mities, in order to prevent the imagined danger, had not
the Prince taken timely care to remove his Sufpicions. As
foon as he was informed of the King his Father's Thoughts
taia bimfJJ of him, he defired a private Audience, and obtaining it,
i, 1/ cart himfelf at his Feet, and faid, " Sir, I am told you
" have entertained a Sufpicion of me, injurious to my
" Honour, and to the Reverence and Veneration I have
" for your Perfon. It is true, I freely confefs, I have
" been guilty of fume intemperate Sallies, which deferve
" your Indignation. But I never had the leaft thought
" of any Attempt upon your Perfon or Government.
" They that dare charge me with fo monftrous a Crime,
" fcek only to diftuib your Quiet and mine. To clear
" my fell' of this Imputation, I have taken the Liberty
" to come and throw my fclf at your Feet, humbly in-
" treating you, to caufe all my Actions to be as rigoroufly
" examined, as thofe of your meaneft Subjects. I am
" ready to undergo this ftrici Scrutiny, knowing you will
" be fully convinced of my Innocence." The King
feeing with what Franknefs the Prince offered to vin-
dicate himfelf, grew perfectly eafy, and reflored him to
Favour.
141 3. I n tne beginning of the Year 141 3, Henry was feized

Tie Km S is with a Diftemper, which, in three Months, laid him in
fenced with hjj G rave . Mcxcrai fays, it was the Leprofy. Others
affirm, it was a fort of Apoplexy, which had frequent Re-
turns, and threw him into Fits that took away his Senfes.
However this be, his Diftemper, which feized him at Se-
veral times, lafied near three Months, and then brought
him to his end (4). A certain Perfon having formerly
told him, he fhould die at Jerufalem, he remembred the
Prediction, and verily believed, God would make him his
Inftrument to refcue that City out of the hands of the
Infidels. Thus perfuaded, he fancied his Death was not fo
near, and thought it his Duty to dedicate the Remainder
lie taies the of his Days to that glorious Expedition. Accordingly he
Cnfs toga "took the Crofs, and calling a great Council, communicated
J eru ' his Defign, and ordered all thing to be fpeedily prepared
for his Voyage. But prefently after, the Returns of his
Diftemper being more frequent than ufual, he found, in-
Head of undertaking fuch an Expedition, he ought to
employ all his thoughts in Preparations for Death. His
continual Fear of lofing his Crown, by reafon of the many
Attempts to wreft it from him, increafed with his Years.
Every time he went to Bed, he ordered it to be laid on
his Pillow, left it fhould be feized before he was dead.
One day being fallen into fo flrong a Fit, that he was
thought to leiign his laft Breath, the Prince of Wales
took up the Crown and carried it away. Soon after, the
King recovering his Senfes, and miffing the Crown, asked
what was become of it. Being told the Prince had taken
it, he fent for him, and asked him, whether he would
rob him of his Royalty even before his Death. The
Piince replied, He never had any fuch Thoughts, but be-
lieving him dead, he had taken the Crown as his lawful
Heir, and the onh Perfon that had a Right to pretend to it.
Neverthelefs, he thanked God he Jaiv him again recovered,
and heartily wijhed he might long live to wear it himfelf. At



'Difiemper

Walling.



He always

kept bit
Crown en
bis Pillow.
Hollinglh.
Hall.



the fame time he went fcr the Crown, and laid it in its 1411
Place.

Henry'? laft Fit fei/.ed him in St. Edward's Chapel, a .
he was worshipping at that Saint's Shrine. He was carried h -" F "-
to the Abbot of Weflminfl,r\ Lodgings, which were near-
er than his own. Some time after, recovering his Speech, u < •'• ">"!ei
and finding himfelf in a ftrange Place, he asked where T f'.
he was : He was told, at the Abbot of We/bmnjler's, in clam™
a Chamber called Jerufalem. Thefe Words putting him Stow,
in mind of the fore-mentioned Prediction, lie thought
only of dying. Before he expired, he fent for the Prince Wh left fe-
tus eldeft Son, and gave him many excellent Inftiudlionv
among which he could not forbear fhewing fome doubts
concerning his Right to the Crown. He told him alfo,
he was afraid his Brother, the Duke of Clarence, would
diftuib hifa in the pofieflion of the Throne. It is not
known, whether thefe Fears were occafioneJ by his fc-
cond Son's rcftlefs Temper, or by fome Engagement with
him, when he conceived a Sufpicion of his eldeft. Be this
as it will, the Prince anfwered, that being his lawful Heir,
he would endeavour to keep the Crown by the fame Me-
thods he had himfelf preferved it during his Life. As for
the Duke of Clarence, if he behaved as he ought, he fhould
always find him a kind Brother j but if he pretended to
do otherwife, he knew how to make him return to his
Duty. The King faid nothing more, except that he
recommended him to the Protection of Heaven. A few He diet.
Moments after, he refigned his laft Breath, on the 20th of Wdlf ' ng '
March 1 4 1 3, in the forty-fixth Year of his Age, having
reigned thirteen Years, five Months, and one and twenty
Days(j).

Moft of the Hiftorians have endeavoured to give, in CbaraSer »J
my opinion, a very unfuitable Idea of this Prince. They He " ,y >x '
fpeak with Praife of his Mildncfs, Clemency, Generofitr,
Valour, and many other Virtues, which appear more in
their Writings than in his Actions. If he had fome Re-
putation, whilft a private Perfon, he does not feem to
have increafed or maintained it, after his Acceiliun to
the Throne. Hisdiftinguifhing Character was an extreme
Jealoufy of a Crown, acquired by Ways not univeifally
approved, and preferved by fhedding a Torrent of noble
Blood. The Death of Richard II will be an indelible
Stain to his Memory, tho' his Ufurpation of the Throne
could be juftificd. In fhort, he performed nothing- re-
markable to afford matter for Panegyrick. His Expedi-
tions into Scotla?td and Wales have nothing to diitino-uifh
him with Honour. If he happily freed himfelf from all
the Confpiracies againft him, he was chiefly indebted to
the Mayor of CirenceJIer, the Sheriff of Torkjhirc, and
the Earl of TVejlmor eland. The Battle of Shrewsbury,
wherein he vanquifhed young Percy, is the only notable
Action in his whole Reign. His continual Fear of In-
furrections, caufed him to neglect feveral Opportunities of
humbling France, and recovering the Provinces loft by
his Predeceflbrs. He even fuffered many Infults from the
French, Scots, Welft) and Bretons, without fhewing much
Refentment. In fine, he employed all his thoughts in
preferving his Crown, and avoiding all Occafions by which
it might be endangered. This prudent Policy ought to be
the chief, if not the fole fubject of his Encomium, as it
was the fole Motive of his Actions, wherein nothing ap-
pears to render him eminent. Though he had caufed Ri-
chard II to be depofed, for ufurping an abfolute Power,
he did not feem, by his Conduct, to have fo great a:i
Averlion for that Crime, as he pretended when it was his
Intereft to expofe it. It is true, towards the end of his
Life, he feemed to have formed a Defign, to follow Max-
ims more conformable to the Nation's Liberties. But God
was not pleafed to allow him time to fhew the Effects of
this Refolution (6).

When I confider the exceffive Commendations beftowed
on this Prince, I cannot help fufpecting, that the Glory
of being the firft Burner of Hereticks, and of protecting
the Clergy againft the Attempts of the Houfe of Commons,
were the main Springs of all thefe Encomiums. It is well
known, the Ecclefiaflicks are as zealous in praifmg their
Benefactors, as in blackening their Oppofers.

During this Reign, the famous Robert Knolles, William " " */
Wickhamfy) Bifhop of Wmchejler, and Richard Whit- v/ .. ^

tington p/.iTf'



(1) S ; r T. Eliot fays, it was one of his Servants. Stew's. Ar.r.. p. 341.

(2) fyiil'jn Gajcoigne. Slow, i'aid.

(3) To the King '1 Bench. Ibid.

(4) He hid called a Parliament, to meet it lyejlminjler, en Feb. z. but being ill, nothing conld be dene. JVa'.f. p. -,?,;.

(5j Hii Body was conveyed, by Water, to Fcverjham ; and frum thence, by Land, to Canterbury, and there folemnly interred. H's Tomb is of Ala-
barter, I'.ircel gilt, and feenrs to have been erected Ly Queen Joan of Navarre, his fecond Wife, whole Effigies lies upon his Right-hand, and is placed
betwixt two Pillars o>i the North-fide the Chapel of St. nomas Becket, oppofite to the Monument of Edward the Black Prime. Ha-:.!f. Cental, p. 27 c,.

(6) There is no mention of any Works either of Magnificence or Charity done by this King, except his contributing towards the Foundation of Fotberingay
College in Nortbcmptonjbire, which was begun in 14.12, by Edward Plantagem: Duke of York. Stew's Ann. p. 339.
William of (7) So tilled tioni U'ickbam in Hamp/hire, where he was burn, in 1324. His Father's Name was John Perrot. After he had been bred at
Wickham. rVincbefter and Oxford, he returned to his Catron Nicholas IVedal, who had been at the Charge of his Education. He afterwards became know,-,
to Edward 111, and having a Genius for Architecture, was made Surveyor of the King's Buildings. His Directiofl for rebuilding #7ffi^»r-C*ftte gave
great Satisfaction, and occalioned his Promotion at Court, where he paffed through the Offices of Secretary of State, Privy Sea], &?c. He was pre-
ferred to the See of Wimbejler in 1367, and foon after made Lord Chancellor of England. It is faid, -ted to the King as a Man of



5°4-



1413.



Stow.
Henry IV'l



l%e HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



tington Mayor (1 ) of London, were eminent for works of
Charity and ufeful Foundations.

Geoffrey Chaucer, and John Gower, two famous Poets
that flourifhed in this Reign, are generally reckoned the
firft Reformers of the Englijh Tongue (2).

Henry had by Mary Bohun ( 3 ), Daughter of the Earl of
Hereford, four Sons and two Daughters, namely, Henry



his Succeffor, Thomas Duke of Clarence, John Duke of
Bedford, and Humphrey, created Duke of Glocefler by
Henry V, his Brother. Blanch, the eldeft of the Daugh-
ters, was married to Lewis Barbatus Elector Palatine, and
Philippa his fecond, was Wife of Eric King of Denmark
and Norway.



1413.



14. HE NRT V. Sirnamd of Monmouth.




ENRTIV not having the Happinefs to be
beloved by the Englijh, his Death was not much
regarded. The Clergy alone lamented his Lofs,
becaufe in his Reign they had met with great
Favour and Protection. But the reft of the People eafily
forgot a Prince, who, after his Acceflion to the Crown,
had performed nothing memorable, and fhed more of his
Subjects Blood than of the Enemies of the State. The
very Peace enjoyed by the Englijh during his whole Reign,
was not grateful to them. War would have been thought
more beneficial, fince a fairer Opportunity to recover what
was loft in France had never offered. So, in expectation
that the Prince his Son would revive the Glory of the
Englijh Name, which feemed buried in Oblivion, fince the
Reign of EdwardlU, they joyfully beheld him fucceeding
a Father, from whom nothing very advantagious to the
Kingdom could be expected, though his Reign had been
longer. In the prefent Juncture, England wanted an active
and warlike King, who knew how to take advantage of
the Commotions in France. On the other hand, War was
become neceffary, to difpel the ill Humours fpread over the
Kingdom in the late Reign.
Education cf Henry of Monmouth, fo called from the Place of his
Henry v. Birth (4) was exactly of the Temper defired by the En-
glijh. He was naturally of an elevated and enterprifing
Genius. For this reafon the King his Father had always
kept him at a diftance from Affairs ; this elevated Spirit
being too apt to breed Sufpicion in fo miftruftful a Prince.
He had been a Student in Queen's-College in Oxford, un-
der the Tuition of the Biftiop of JVinchefter his Uncle (5),
Chancellor of that Univerfity. Here, in his tender Years,
the Principles of Honour and Virtue were fo carefully im-
printed in his Mind, that they could never after be effac-



ed. In his very Childhood, he fliewed a ftrong Inclina- His warlike
tion for War, which increafing with his Years, the King ^">«">->-
his Father thought proper to indulge it. At eighteen Years
of Age, he commanded an Army againft the IVelJlt, and
defeated them in two Battles. But his Victories did him
an unfpeakable Prejudice. The King his Father, exceflively Henry iv-i
jealous of his Authority, and dreading the Confequences oij'f^-/ °*
fo noble a beginning, confidered his Son's Reputation, as
likely one day to prove deftructive of his Quiet. Difturbed
at this Thought, he removed him from all Warlike, as he
had done from all Civil Offices, for fear it fhould be out of
his Power to check his Flight, when once he fhould take
Wing. Reduced to a State of Idlenefs, the Prince natu- Caufi ef the
rally active, fought Employment. Unhappily, by the In- f^'y^ww.
ftigation of fome about him, and perhaps by the Direc-
tion of the King his Father, he ran into difhonourable
Courfes, and abandoned himfelf to ExcefTes, unbecoming
his Birth, and injurious to his Reputation (6). Notwith-
standing all this, his good Difpofition failed not to fhew
itfelf upon certain Occafions. His Moderation, in fuffer-
ing himfelf to be led to Prifon, by order of the Judge he
had affronted, was a clear Evidence, that the Seeds of Vir-
tue were not entirely deftroyed in his mind by Senfuality.
Accordingly, the King his Father, who was not ignorant
of his Talents, was afraid of him, though a young Prince,
drowned as it were in Pleafures, did not feem likely to
give him Difturbance. The Englijh themfelves were not The People
prejudiced againft him. Indeed his wild Sallies might give ""/". " p»*
occafion to fear, they fhould one day be unhappy under 4^"''"
his Government. But, upon certain occafions, tfley ob-
ferved in him Tokens of Generofity, Virtue, and greatnefs
of Soul, which infpired them with hopes of a happy Change
in his Perfon.



no Learning, and not fit for a Bilhoprick j he told the King, That whit he wanted in Learning himfelf, he would fupply with being the Founder of Learn-

New-Cul- i n 8* Accordingly he began the Building of New-College in Oxford, and hid the rirtt Stone himfelf, Mircb I, 1379. It was finifhed in feven Years. In

lege founded. ] 3S7, on the 26th of March, he likewife laid in Perfon the firft Stone of his College at Wincbejler, which he defigned as a Nurfery for that at Oxford. Upon

this Foundation he fettled an Eftate for a Warden, ten Fellows, two Schoolmasters, and feventy Scholars. He died in the fourth Year of Henry IV, aged eighty

Years, and lies buried in St. Switbin's Cburch in IVmcbefter, in a ftately Monument of his own erecYmg in his Life -time.

(1) Among other things, he built Newgate in 1420, above half of St. Bartholomews Hofpital in JVefl-Smithfield, and the Library in Grey Friers, now called

CbriJVs Hofpital. King Henry IV inftituted the Ducby Court, in Honour of the Houfe of Laneafler, to the end the Lands belonging to the Duchy

might, in all following Times, be diftinguiihed from the Lands of the Crown. —In the Year 141 1, the Guild-ball 'in London began to be rebuilt, as it

now ftands. ofircc's Survey, B. III. p. 40.

(2) Geoffrey Cbaucer was a Man of Qiulity, Wit and Learning. He was in great Favour with King Edward III, and his Succeflbr Richard II, by whom
he was employed in fome important Negotiations, both at home and abroad. In 1374, King Edward III allowed him a Pitcher of Wine a Day, cut of his



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 212 of 360)